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PFUNIT VERSION 3.2.9 INSTALLATION AND BASIC USAGE GUIDE VERSION 2015-1210 M. Rilee TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. PREREQUISITES 2. OBTAINING PFUNIT 3. WHAT'S IN THE DIRECTORY? 4. CONFIGURATION 5. BUILDING PFUNIT 6. INSTALLATION 7. USAGE 8. DEVELOPMENT 9. FEEDBACK & SUPPORT 10. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 11. KNOWN INSTALLATIONS/VERSIONS 12. NOTES 13. TODO 1. PREREQUISITES The development work for pFUnit has mostly been carried out on a mixture of systems, including high-end computers, Apple Mac OSX, and linux-based systems. A preliminary Windows/CYGWIN port has been contributed by a user. Full use of the system depends on the following being available. Fortran 2003+ Tested with: Intel 14+, NAG 6.0, GFortran 4.8.3, 4.9.+, 5.0+ IBM's XLF PGI 15.7 The Message Passing Interface (MPI) OPENMP GNU Make Python 2.7+ A CMake build process is also available. Doxygen is used to generate documentation (see The system is routinely undergoes regression testing, including with GNU, Intel, and NAG fortran compilers and OpenMPI. pFUnit makes extensive use of leading edge Fortran language features, which are generally best supported with by the latest compiler versions. The capacity to support older compilers is limited. 2. OBTAINING PFUNIT The best way to obtain pFUnit is to clone the git repository from SourceForge as follows. # Read Only Access git clone git:// pFUnit This will create the directory pFUnit in the current working directory. You may also visit the project page at SourceForge and download the source tarfile "pFUnit.tar.gz" there. or Extracting this tarfile via a command like $ tar zxf ./pFUnit.tar.gz will place the pFUnit files into the current working directory. For other ways to acquire the code visit or contact the pFUnit team. 3. WHAT'S IN THE DIRECTORY? In the top level of the pFUnit distribution you will see the following files. CMakeLists.txt - Initial support for cmake-based builds. COPYRIGHT - Contains information pertaining to the use and distribution of pFUnit. Examples - Contains examples of how to use pFUnit once it is installed. GNUmakefile - The top level makefile for building and installing pFUnit. bin - Executables used to construct and perform unit tests. documentation - Provides information about the pFUnit. include - Files to be included into makefiles or source, including use code. LICENSE - The NASA Open Source Agreement for GSC-15,137-1 F-UNIT, also known as pFUnit. README-INSTALL - This file. source - Source code and scripts of the pFUnit library and framework. tests - Source code for unit testing pFUnit itself. tools - Tools used to help develop, build, and install pFUnit. VERSION - Contains a string describing the current version of the framework. 4. CONFIGURATION Little needs to be done to configure pFUnit for the build, however there are several environment variables on which the package depends. F90_VENDOR - is set to include the correct makefile in $(TOP_DIR)/include, i.e. GNU, Intel, NAG, or PGI. Case insensitive file systems may cause some confusion from time-to-time. F90 - is set to the Fortran compiler being used: e.g. ifort for Intel, gfortran for GNU. COMPILER - is set according to F90_VENDOR and is automatically set in the top level makefile. For MPI-based unit testing, your setup may require the following as well. MPIF90 $ # e.g. $ export MPIF90=mpif90 As a convenience for working with multiple MPI configurations, you may also set the following. MPIRUN $ # e.g. $ export MPIRUN=/some.path/mpirun PFUNIT_MAX_ARRAY_RANK - controls the maximum number of (Fortran) dimensions of the arrays asserts are defined over. If PFUNIT_MAX_ARRAY_RANK is not set, the default is 5 and pFUnit's assertions will be able to handle arrays up to rank 5, i.e. A(:,:,:,:,:). PFUNIT_MAX_ARRAY_RANK and MAX_RANK do not refer to MPI ranks (process id within a group). Example: $ export PFUNIT_MAX_ARRAY_RANK=8 PFUNIT_MAX_RANK is a deprecated way to set maximum rank and is to be removed in version 4. DOXYGEN - To generate documentation, set DOXYGEN to the desired executable. NOTE: Doxygen Version 1.8.5 does not respect CamelCase names from Fortran source code by currently converting all to lowercase. It does this to get HTML links correct for references in the source code that also do not respect the CamelCase convention. The Fortran standard specifies case insensitivity. Doxygen 1.7.x seems to better respect CamelCase. $ #.e.g. $ export DOXYGEN=/opt/local/share/doxygen/doxygen-1.7.6/bin/doxygen 5.1 BUILDING PFUNIT FOR TESTING SERIAL CODES (Non-MPI) 1. Change to the directory into which pFUnit has been placed. 2. Set these environment variables (bash example): $ export F90=gfortran-mp-4.8 $ export F90_VENDOR=GNU 3. To build pFUnit for unit testing of serial codes, execute make. The unit tests for pFUnit itself will run automatically. $ make tests 3.1 Occasionally on the first run through, one will get a spurious (runtime) error, for example in the unix process component. Re-execute "make tests" to check again. 4. At this point the pFUnit object library is in the source directory, along with a large number of Fortran module files. 5.2 BUILDING PFUNIT FOR TESTING PARALLEL CODES (MPI) To build pFUnit for unit testing MPI-based codes, be sure that the environment is properly set up for the MPI implementation you are using. Depending on your local environment, you may need execute the build within a batch or other job queing system, e.g. an interactive batch job under PBS. The steps for building pFUnit start out the same as for the serial case above, but add MPI=YES to the environment to switch on MPI support. The MPI-based unit tests for pFUnit itself will run automatically. Again, occasionally a spurious (runtime) error may appear on the first execution. 3. Execute make as follows. $ make tests MPI=YES 4. At this point an MPI-enabled pFUnit object library is in the source directory, along with a large number of Fortran module files. Also, one may get some harmless "no symbols" warnings when the pFUnit library is constructed. 5.3 BUILDING PFUNIT FOR TESTING PARALLEL CODES (OPENMP) Initial (limited) support for OPENMP has been implemented. At this writing, a basic functionality is available. The process for building pFUnit for testing OPENMP-based codes is similar to that for other paradigms. 3. To compile for OPENMP support execute make as follows. $ make tests OPENMP=YES 4. At this point the OPENMP-enabled pFUnit is ready to be installed. 5.4 CLEANING To clean the pFUnit build directory for the space or to rebuild there are two options. 1. Make clean to remove object files and other intermediate products. $ make clean 2. Make distclean to remove libraries and other more final products. $ make distclean 3. Some directories support a "make src_clean" to remove intermediate products in subdirectories. 5.5 BUILDING THE DOCUMENTATION A start at documentation for pFUnit is in the documentation directory. Doxygen is our primary documentation tool. To make the documentation, which will be generated in the documentation directory, please invoke the following from the top level of the PFUNIT distribution. $ make documentation Or to make a reference manual: $ make documentation/pFUnit2-ReferenceManual.pdf To select a specific version of Doxygen, please set the DOXYGEN environment variable as in the Configuration section above. You may wish to do this if your code uses CamelCase names as current versions of Doxygen (1.8.5) do not respect this convention for Fortran. 5.6 BUILDING PFUNIT USING CMAKE Initial support for CMAKE has been implemented. At this writing, a basic functionality is available. 3. The process for building pFUnit using cmake is as follows. In the top directory of the distribution make a new directory to support the build, then change to that directory and run cmake (pointing back to the source) to generate the required makefiles. $ mkdir build $ cd build $ # e.g. cmake -DMPI=YES -DOPENMP=NO <path to source> $ cmake -DMPI=NO .. $ make tests Don't forget you can use the standard -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX to define where the resulting tool will be installed. If your MPI installation does not provide mpirun, you may try to set -DMPI_USE_MPIEXEC=YES to tell CMake to use its FindMPI function to find out how to execute the tests. 4. If the build is successful, then at this point make install should work. 6. INSTALLATION Installations 6.1-6.5 are based on GNU make and the project makefiles. If you use CMake then "make install" will install to the expected place. That is, to /usr/local if you specify nothing, otherwise to wherever CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX points. 6.1 INSTALLATION - SERIAL To install pFUnit for regular use, set INSTALL_DIR to the location in which to place pFUnit. This can be done on the make command line. For example, after compiling pFUnit for serial use (MPI absent or MPI=NO), please try. $ # In the top of the pFUnit build directory. $ make install INSTALL_DIR=/opt/pfunit/pfunit-serial Note: you may need special priveleges to install in some locations, e.g. via sudo. To test the installation set PFUNIT to INSTALL_DIR, then change the working directory to Examples in pFUnit distribution and execute "make," which will run a number of examples. These include some expected (intentional) failures. $ # In the top pFUnit build directory... $ export PFUNIT=/opt/pfunit/pfunit-serial $ cd Examples $ make 6.2 INSTALLATION - MPI For installing an MPI-enabled pFUnit library, change to the top of the distribution and execute make with MPI=YES. You may need to "make distclean" first. After compilation and pFUnit passes its self-tests, then installation proceeds as for the serial case above. $ make install INSTALL_DIR=/opt/pfunit/pfunit-parallel To test, set PFUNIT and go into Examples/MPI_Halo directory. $ # In the top pFUnit build directory... $ export PFUNIT=/opt/pfunit/pfunit-parallel $ # The variable MPIF90 must be set to the appropriate build script. $ export MPIF90=mpif90 $ cd Examples/MPI_Halo/ $ make This will compile and run a set of parallel examples that includes intentional failures. To run all of the examples try executing "make MPI=YES" in the Examples directory. 6.3 INSTALLATION - OPENMP At this time the OPENMP version of pFUnit can be installed in the same way as for the serial or MPI-parallel codes. OPENMP support, tests, and examples are limited as of this writing. 6.4 INSTALLATION - DEFAULT DIRECTORY If INSTALL_DIR is not set, "make install" will attempt to install pFUnit into the top build directory. This will create directories such as lib and mod in the top level of the build directory and will overwrite the include/ with include/ If this is not desired, then "make develop" will put back the original, which is the file to be used for development and building pFUnit. In general, we recommend installing to a directory that is not also the build directory. 7.1 USAGE - CONFIGURATION For regular use, after installation, the same compiler/MPI development configuration that was used to build pFUnit should be used. Once the environment variables and paths associated with the environment are set, to configure pFUnit, please set the following. PFUNIT - set to the directory into which pFUnit was installed. F90_VENDOR - set to Intel, GNU, NAG, or PGI accordingly. 7.2 USAGE - PREPROCESSOR - HELLO WORLD An example of how to use the preprocessor can be found in Examples/Simple. The GNU makefile shows how to construct an F90 file from a preprocessor input file. For example, the GNU make rule can be: # GNU makefile rule %.F90: $(PFUNIT)/bin/ $< $@ The file is included in the include/driver.F90 file during the build process. To include tests, one must add the test suite module to, as follows. ! Add a test suite to the build. ADD_TESTS_SUITE(helloWorld_suite) A preprocessor input file contains tests and is a Fortran free-format file with directives, for example: ! - with a successful test... @test subroutine testHelloWorld() use pfunit_mod implicit none @assertEqual("Hello World!","Hello World!") end subroutine testHelloWorld 7.3 USAGE - Compiling and Executing the Tests (SERIAL) An example of a GNU make rule for for the final step of compiling a test follows. # This step presumes "include $(PFUNIT)/include/" earlier in the makefile. tests.x: $(F90) -o $@ -I$(PFUNIT)/mod -I$(PFUNIT)/include \ $(PFUNIT)/include/driver.F90 \ ./*$(OBJ_EXT) $(LIBS) $(FFLAGS) To execute the tests, one invokes "./tests.x" with the appropriate command line options (see below). In some cases, since include/driver.F90 is "implicit none," it may be necessary to insert a "use" clause to identify external suite-wide fixture code to the compiler. As a convenience, the CPP macro PFUNIT_EXTRA_USAGE can be set to a module of fixture code via a compiler command line argument turning on a "use PFUNIT_EXTRA_USAGE" line at the beginning of include/driver.F90. 7.3.1 USAGE - Compiling and Executing the Tests (MPI PARALLEL) One invokes MPI-based parallel tests according to the MPI framework being used. For example: $ mpirun -np 4 tests.x 7.4 USAGE - Command Line Options The executable test program provides several command line options, when "include/driver.F90" is used, as it is automatically when using the PFUNIT preprocessor. -v or -verbose Verbose execution. -d or -debug Provide debugging information. -h Print help message. -o <outputfile> Direct pFUnit messages to a file. -robust Use the robust runner. Runs tests as processes so failures do not halt testing. -max-timeout-duration <duration> Limit detection time for robust runner. -max-launch-duration <duration> Limit detection time for robust runner. -skip <number of tests to skip> Use the subset runner, which runs a subset of the tests in a suite. An example from Examples/Robust: $ ./tests.x -robust 8. DEVELOPMENT Generally pFUnit development is performed in the build directory structure. Care should be taken to make clean or distclean in between configuration changes. As stated above, it is best to set INSTALL_DIR and "make install" pFUnit to another directory that can be placed in a user's paths. 9.1 FEEDBACK AND BUGS 9.2 SUPPORT 9.3 TIPS 1. Environment Modules - Though not strictly required, the Environment Modules package can be a convenient way to package, maintain, and switch between environments. This can be particularly important for pFUnit, which must be built using the same tool suite being used for development, e.g. compilers, linkers, etc. [To do: A sample pFUnit modulefile is provided in the OTHER directory.] Environment Modules 2. Compile time errors like '"include [...]include/.mk" not found' likely signify that you not executing make in the top level directory during a build. Alternatively, during regular usage after installation, PFUNIT has not been set. During building, if you wish to compile in a subdirectory of within the pFUnit heriarchy, please try setting the COMPILER environment variable on the make command line. For example: $ make all COMPILER=Intel 3. If you wish to see the intermediate files, use the target .PRECIOUS in the makefile to keep them from being deleted. For example: # In GNUmakefile .PRECIOUS: %_cpp.F90 9.4 PLATFORM SPECIFIC NOTES 9.4.1 Mac OSX The MacPorts package management system is a convenient way to install and maintain many packages, including gcc which includes gfortran. 9.4.2 Windows/CYGWIN User contributed code for Windows/CYGWIN has been added, but is currently not tested and supported by the pFUnit team. At this writing, 2013-1031, serial Examples and MPI are not known to be supported. Please contact us if you wish to either contribute or otherwise discuss this port. 9.4.3 Intel Fortran Version 13: -DINTEL_13 Using version 13 is deprecated. We have encountered problems using version 13, which we believe may be due to subtle compiler bugs. We strongly recommend upgrading to the latest version possible. To make pFUnit work with Intel Fortran Version 13, please ensure that "-DINTEL_13" is passed to the compiler when building or using pFUnit. In the build process for pFUnit, this is added to the make variables CPPFLAGS and FPPFLAGS. 10. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thanks to the follwing for their review and comments: B. Van Aartsen, T. Clune. Windows/CYGWIN contributions from E. Lezar. PGI port contributions from M. Leair (PG Group). Other acknowledgments: S.P. Santos (NCAR), M. Hambley (UK Met Office), J. Krishna (ANL), J. Ebo David. 11. KNOWN INSTALLATIONS/VERSIONS (git cognizant from "") master - The current release. development - The cutting edge of pFUnit development. mock_services - Experimental support for mocking. pfunit_2.1.0 - A feature freeze prior to a major upgrade of the preprocessor. cray - An intermediate port to Cray CCE. 12. NOTES * For modifications and feature requests please see "". TBD 13. --TODO-- - Make other directory. - Make Environment Modules example in other directory. - Other build systems, e.g. CMake. 14. REVISIONS TO THIS DOCUMENT f2015-1210 Minor changes to documentation. MLR 2015-0608 Added note about PFUNIT_EXTRA_USAGE (from MH). MLR 2015-0508 Some PGI workarounds removed for PGI 15.4. MLR 2015-0420 Clarified PFUNIT_MAX_ARRAY_RANK note. MLR 2015-0320 PGI port workarounds, including examples. 3.1. MLR 2014-1211 Minor updates for 3.0.2. MLR 2014-1110, 2014-1031 Minor edits. MLR 2014-0915 Minor updates for 3.0.1. MLR 2014-0404 Updated for release of 3.0. TLC 2014-0131, 2014-0205. Updated. MLR 2013-1107. Minor edits. MLR 2013-1031. Added user contributed code for Windows/CYGWIN & IBM's XLF. MLR 2013-0830-1359. Minor corrections and added MPIF90 to 6.2. MLR 2013-0806-1345. Corrected git reference. Was using old URL. MLR 2013-0805. Initial draft. MLR
Source: README-INSTALL, updated 2017-10-29