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Read Me


  Nagiosgraph is an add-on to Nagios. Nagios monitors one or more services
  on each host. nagiosgraph extracts information from the Nagios output,
  processes it, then inserts it into one or more round-robin database (RRD)
  files. CGI scripts display data from the RRD files as web pages. The CGI
  output can be embedded directly into Nagios so that graphs show up like
  other trend reports.

  Installation is a three-step process. First install the nagiosgraph files,
  then configure Nagios for data collection, and finally customize the
  graphs and links as needed. Installation can be done manually by copying
  files and modifying configuration files, or automatically using the script.

  The INSTALL file contains basic installation instructions.

  This README file contains detailed instructions for installing, upgrading,
  customizing, troubleshooting, and managing performance data.

  Answers to frequently asked questions are at:


  For help, visit the forum at:


Copyright and License

   License: OSI Artistic License 2.0

   Author: (c) 2005 Soren Dossing
   Author: (c) 2008 Alan Brenner, Ithaka Harbors
   Author: (c) 2010 Matthew Wall

   Nagios is a registered trademark of Ethan Galstad.


   Principles of Operation
   Installation Preliminaries
      Layout and Location
      Installation Methods
         Manual Installation
         Install Script
         Installation Using Packages
   Installing nagiosgraph Files
   Upgrade Notes
   Configuring Data Processing
      Batch Processing
      Immediate Processing
   Configuring Graphing and Display
      Graph Icons and Links in Nagios
         For Nagios 2.6 and Earlier
         For Nagios 2.9 and Nagios 3
      Graphs in Nagios Mouseovers
      Graphs in Nagios Frames
   Customizing the Graphs
   Adding Service Types
   Managing Data and RRD Files
   Managing RRD Parameters
   Configuring Access Controls
   Enumeration of Files
   Sample Installation Layouts
   Sample Web Server Configuration
   Platform Specific Notes
      Nagios Embedded PERL (ePN)
      CentOS 5 and Nagiosgraph 0.9
      MacOSX 10.5 and Nagios 2.12
      Fedora Core 6 and HTTP output parsing
   Notes For Developers
   Project Testing/Code Summary

Principles of Operation

  nagiosgraph is a simple interface between Nagios and RRD files.

  nagiosgraph operates in two modes. One is to collect performance data from
  Nagios servicechecks, and the other is to display graphs of the
  performance data collected.

  All the data collected are stored in RRD files using rrdtool. A file
  called 'map' defines how to identify the data from Nagios and how to store
  them in the RRD files. Nagios passes all the service data to a nagiosgraph
  script called ''. This script uses the file 'map' to determine
  how to name the data and into which RRD files to insert the data. The map
  file also processes the data, for example by changing units or applying
  scaling factors.

  The 'map' file is actually perl code, that is eval'ed by ''. The
  map file contains a general rule that will capture the performance data
  from most plugins. However, it may be necessary to add entries to match
  the output of some Nagios plugins. Several examples of servicechecks are
  included in the distributed map file. Knowing perl regular expression is
  helpful, but the examples supplied should cover most types of performance

  For graphing, nagiosgraph includes cgi scripts. 'show.cgi' looks up
  performance data for a single host and service, and generates line charts
  accordingly. Other scripts display all hosts for a specific service, all
  services for a specific host, or arbitrary groups of hosts and services.
  These run out-of-the-box with minimal configuration, or they can be
  customized, using a configuration file or interactively.

  Graphs can be integrated into Nagios using Nagios' extended information
  for services and hosts. By specifying nagiosgraph cgi scripts in the
  Nagios configuration, individual graphs and collections of graphs can be
  linked directly to hosts and services in Nagios web pages.

  By default, all available data for a servicecheck will be displayed in the
  same graph. With extra configuration, either embedded in the url,
  specified in a configuration file, or using controls in a web page, it is
  possible to display less data or to split values into multiple graphs.
  There is also a general method for specifying arbitrary RRD graph options
  such as line style, color, and scaling for individual hosts or services.

Installation Preliminaries

  Before installing, ensure that the prerequisite software has been
  installed then decide upon a layout and location.


  Nagiosgraph will not function without a working Nagios installation, so
  first ensure that Nagios works. Version 3.2 or later is recommended, but
  older versions will also work.

  Nagiosgraph requires rrdtool. Version 1.4 or later is recommended, but
  older versions will also work.

  Nagiosgraph requires the CGI and RRDs perl modules. The RRDs perl module
  is part of rrdtool but is often distributed as a separate package. The GD
  perl module is optional, but recommended. The Nagios::Object perl module
  is optional, but useful for automatic configuration of showgroup.cgi.


      apt-get install libcgi-pm-perl librrds-perl
      apt-get install libgd-gd2-perl libnagios-object-perl


      yum install perl-rrdtool perl-GD


      rrdtool, perl-GD


      rrdtool, gd


      rrdtool, gd


      p5-RRD, p5-GD

  The script includes an option to check for pre-requisites: --check-prereq

 Layout and Location

  There are two standard layouts: separate or overlay. The separated layout
  has nagiosgraph and Nagios in separate directories. The overlay places
  nagiosgraph components with Nagios components.

  Nagios and nagiosgraph can be installed in just about any location, for
  example /opt or /usr/local.

  Redhat (Fedora, CentOS), SUSE, and Debian (Ubuntu) systems have their own
  layouts. If you installed Nagios from a package, you can overlay
  nagiosgraph or you can install nagiosgraph to its own standalone location.

  When installing from source, the standalone layout is highly recommended
  since it makes updates much easier.

  Decide upon a location and layout before you start the installation.
  Examples are in the Sample Installation Layouts section.

 Installation Methods

  There are a few ways to install nagiosgraph: manual, script, and package.
  On most systems the installation requires root permissions, so either do
  the installation as root or preface commands with sudo.

 Manual Installation

  Copy and edit files directly. Follow the recipe in the INSTALL file, or
  the instructions in these sections of this file:

  *   "Installing nagiosgraph Files" - nagiosgraph installation

  *   "Configuring Data Processing" - Nagios configuration

  *   "Configuring Graphing and Display" - Apache and Nagios configuration

 Install Script

  Run the script. It will prompt you for the parameters it needs,
  then it will copy and configure nagiosgraph files. It will also prompt you
  to modify apache and Nagios configuration files. --prefix=/usr/local/nagiosgraph --help

 Installation Using Packages

  The nagiosgraph packages assume that Nagios and apache were installed from
  packages. Do not use a nagiosgraph package if you installed Nagios or
  apache from source!

  Debian, Ubuntu

      dpkg -i nagiosgraph-x.y.z.deb

  Redhat, Fedora, CentOS, SUSE

      rpm -i nagiosgraph-x.y.z.rpm

Installing nagiosgraph Files

  These instructions assume a standalone layout, with Nagios at
  /usr/local/nagios and nagiosgraph at /usr/local/nagiosgraph

  1.  Create destination directories:

          mkdir /usr/local/nagiosgraph
          mkdir /usr/local/nagiosgraph/bin
          mkdir /usr/local/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin
          mkdir /usr/local/nagiosgraph/etc
          mkdir /usr/local/nagiosgraph/share

  2.  Extract nagiosgraph into a temporary location:

          cd /tmp
          tar xzvf nagiosgraph-x.y.z.tgz

  3.  Copy the contents of etc into your preferred configuration location:

          cp etc/* /usr/local/nagiosgraph/etc

  4.  Edit the perl scripts in the cgi and lib directories, modifying the
      "use lib" line to point to the directory from the previous step.

          vi cgi/*.cgi lib/

  5.  Copy to a location from which it can be executed:

          cp lib/ /usr/local/nagiosgraph/bin

  6.  Copy CGI scripts to a script directory served by the web server:

          cp cgi/*.cgi /usr/local/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin

  7.  Copy CSS and JavaScript files to a directory served by the web server:

          cp share/nagiosgraph.css /usr/local/nagiosgraph/share
          cp share/nagiosgraph.js /usr/local/nagiosgraph/share

  8.  Edit nagiosgraph.conf. Set at least the following:

          logfile           = /var/log/nagiosgraph.log
          cgilogfile        = /var/log/nagiosgraph-cgi.log
          perflog           = /var/nagios/perfdata.log
          rrddir            = /var/nagios/rrd
          mapfile           = /usr/local/nagiosgraph/etc/map
          nagiosgraphcgiurl = /nagiosgraph/cgi-bin
          javascript        = /nagiosgraph/nagiosgraph.js
          stylesheet        = /nagiosgraph/nagiosgraph.css

  9.  Set permissions of "rrddir" (as defined in nagiosgraph.conf) so that
      the *nagios* user can write to it and the *www* user can read it:

          mkdir /var/nagios/rrd
          chown nagios /var/nagios/rrd
          chmod 755 /var/nagios/rrd

  10. Set permissions of "logfile" so that the *nagios* user can write to

          touch /var/log/nagiosgraph.log
          chown nagios /var/log/nagiosgraph.log
          chmod 644 /var/log/nagiosgraph.log

  11. Set permissions of "cgilogfile" so that the *www* user can write to

          touch /var/log/nagiosgraph-cgi.log
          chown www /var/log/nagiosgraph-cgi.log
          chmod 644 /var/log/nagiosgraph-cgi.log

  12. Ensure that the *nagios* user can create and delete perfdata files:

          chown nagios /var/nagios
          chmod 755 /var/nagios

Upgrade Notes

  *   Follow the steps for a new installation, but keep your customizations.
      Your changes should be limited to the map file (map), configuration
      files (nagiosgraph.conf and other .conf files), and the stylesheet

  *   Use diff, or a similar tool, to update your nagiosgraph.conf with any
      new fields from etc/nagiosgraph.conf

  *   Use diff, or a similar tool, to update your nagiosgraph.css with
      changes from share/nagiosgraph.css.

  *   You may want to look at etc/map or the files in the examples directory
      to see if there are any map rules or CSS useful to your configuration.

  *   If you change from immediate processing to batch processing, be sure
      to comment out service_perfdata_command in the Nagios configuration.

  *   Be sure to install the nagiosgraph.js and nagiosgraph.css files,
      especially if you are upgrading from nagiosgraph older than 1.2.

  *   If you are upgrading from nagiosgraph 1.4.1 or earlier, move your
      service and database/datasource labels from nagiosgraph.conf to

  *   If you are upgrading from nagiosgraph 1.4.3 or earlier and you were
      using nagios3 for the authzmethod, you must replace authz_nagios_cfg
      and authz_cgi_cfg with authzfile. All of the Nagios authorization
      parameters should be in the Nagios CGI configuration file (typically

  *   If you are upgrading from nagiosgraph 1.4.3 or earlier, you might want
      to add the generic map rule to the end of your map file. This rule
      will catch performance data from any additional plugins you add. Using
      the generic rule results in RRD files with the following structure,
      one file per named performance data element, with one or more data

          host0/service___label (data[,warn][,crit][,min][,max])

  *   If you are upgrading from nagiosgraph 1.4.3 or earlier, you should
      make any ignore map rules explicit. For example, in the map file
      change this:

          /output:CHECK_NRPE: Socket timeout/
          and return;

      to this:

          /output:CHECK_NRPE: Socket timeout/
          and return ('ignore');

Configuring Data Processing

  Before nagiosgraph can graph anything it must first collect data. There
  are two ways to process data - batch and immediate. Batch processing is
  usually appropriate for most Nagios deployments. Immediate processing
  typically requires more CPU and I/O.

  In batch processing, performance data are appended to a file, then Nagios
  invokes at a regular interval to update the RRD files.

  In immediate processing, Nagios invokes immediately after each
  service check, thus updating the corresponding RRD files.

 Batch Processing

  1.  In the Nagios configuration file (nagios.cfg) set:


      Make sure that service_perfdata_command is either commented out or not

      Make sure that location of service_perfdata_file matches that of
      perflog defined in nagiosgraph.conf.

  2.  In the Nagios commands file (commands.cfg) define the
      process-service-perfdata command:

          define command {
            command_name  process-service-perfdata
            command_line  /usr/local/nagiosgraph/bin/

      Make sure there is only one definition for process-service-perfdata.

      Older versions of Nagios used checkcommands.cfg or misccommands.cfg.

  3.  Check the Nagios configuration

          /usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

  4.  Restart Nagios

          /etc/init.d/nagios restart

 Immediate Processing

  1.  In nagios.cfg:


      Make sure that service_perfdata_file_processing_command is either
      commented out or not defined.

  2.  In commands.cfg:

          define command{
            command_name  process-service-perfdata
            command_line  /usr/local/nagiosgraph/bin/ "$LASTSERVICECHECK$||$HOSTNAME$||$SERVICEDESC$||$SERVICEOUTPUT$||$SERVICEPERFDATA$"

  3.  Check the Nagios configuration

          /usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

  4.  Restart Nagios

          /etc/init.d/nagios restart

Configuring Graphing and Display

  First configure the web server to run the nagiosgraph CGI scripts. For
  example, with Apache do something like this in the Apache configuration:

      ScriptAlias /nagiosgraph/cgi-bin /usr/local/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin
      <Directory "/usr/local/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin">
         Options ExecCGI
         AllowOverride None
         Order allow,deny
         Allow from all
      Alias /nagiosgraph "/usr/local/nagiosgraph/share"
      <Directory "/usr/local/nagiosgraph/share">
         Options None
         AllowOverride None
         Order allow,deny
         Allow from all

  Restart the web server:

      /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

  Verify that nagiosgraph is working by running showconfig.cgi


  Try graphing some data by running show.cgi


  This should display a web page with a list of your hosts and services.
  Note that it might take a few minutes for data to collect, so at first the
  list of hosts and services might be sparse and the graphs might be empty.

  There are a few ways to embed graphs into Nagios. In the service and host
  listings, Nagios will display graph icons that, when clicked, will open a
  new web page with graphs. These icons are typically per-host (linked to
  the showhost.cgi script) or per-host-service (linked to the show.cgi
  script). Nagios will display graph data when the mouse is moved over the
  graph icon for each host/service. Finally, graphs can be displayed
  directly in the Nagios frames. The following sections explain how to do
  each of these.

 Graph Icons and Links in Nagios

  Links to graphs can be embedded in Nagios status pages using the notes or
  actions fields. The specifics depend on the Nagios version as well as how
  you have configured your host and service definitions. Nagios 2 uses the
  serviceextinfo and hostextinfo construct. In Nagios 3 the nagiosgraph
  additions go directly in the host and service definitions.

  To display a graph icon instead of the Nagios action icon, replace
  nagios/images/action.gif with graph.gif from the nagiosgraph distribution.

  In its default configuration, Nagios will create a new window for each
  action or notes link. To display graphs in the Nagios frame instead of a
  new window, set action_url_target=main in the Nagios cgi.cfg file.

 For Nagios 2.6 and Earlier

  If you have these lines in nagios.cfg, un-comment the 2 cfg_file= lines:

      # Extended host/service info definitions are now stored along with
      # other object definitions:
      # cfg_file=/etc/nagios/hostextinfo.cfg
      # cfg_file=/etc/nagios/serviceextinfo.cfg

  Otherwise, define in cgi.cfg the following:


  Edit/Create hostextinfo.cfg

      define hostextinfo {
        host_name  your-host
        action_url /nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/showhost.cgi?host=$HOSTNAME$

  This must be the host you will use in serviceextinfo.cfg

  Edit/Create serviceextinfo.cfg

      define serviceextinfo {
        service_description  DNS
        hostgroup       servers
        notes_url       /nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/show.cgi?host=$HOSTNAME$&service=$SERVICEDESC$
        icon_image      graph.gif
        icon_image_alt  View graphs

 For Nagios 2.9 and Nagios 3

  Use the action_url for any existing host or service definition. For

      define service {
        name NTP
        use local-service
        action_url /nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/show.cgi?host=$HOSTNAME$&service=$SERVICEDESC$

      define host {
        host_name web-server
        action_url /nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/showhost.cgi?host=$HOSTNAME$

  To apply graph links to multiple services, define a template such as this:

      define service {
        name graphed-service
        action_url /nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/show.cgi?host=$HOSTNAME$&service=$SERVICEDESC$
        register 0

  Then use it in services like this:

      define service {
        name NTP
        use local-service,graphed-service

 Graphs in Nagios Mouseovers

  To display graphs as mouseovers for each host and/or service, do the

  1.  Edit the file share/nagiosgraph.ssi to contain the URL to the
      nagiosgraph javascript file (e.g. /nagiosgraph/nagiosgraph.js)

  2.  If you have not customized the Nagios SSI, copy share/nagiosgraph.ssi
      to the Nagios ssi directory, and rename it so that Nagios will insert
      it into each page. For example:

          cp share/nagiosgraph.ssi /usr/local/nagios/share/ssi/common-header.ssi

      If you have customized Nagios SSI, add the contents of
      share/nagiosgraph.ssi to your customized SSI header file.

  3.  Configure services to display graphs on mouseovers by adding some
      JavaScript to action_url or notes_url. For example:

          define service {
            name NTP
            use local-service
            action_url /nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/show.cgi?host=$HOSTNAME$&service=$SERVICEDESC$' onMouseOver='showGraphPopup(this)' onMouseOut='hideGraphPopup()' rel='/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/showgraph.cgi?host=$HOSTNAME$&service=$SERVICEDESC$

      This example displays a week of data in a popup with no legend:

          define service {
            name NTP
            use local-service
            action_url /nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/show.cgi?host=$HOSTNAME$&service=$SERVICEDESC$' onMouseOver='showGraphPopup(this)' onMouseOut='hideGraphPopup()' rel='/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/showgraph.cgi?host=$HOSTNAME$&service=$SERVICEDESC$&period=week&rrdopts=-w+450+-j

  You must restart Nagios for changes to service/host defintions to take

  If a service includes multiple data sources, use the datasetdb file
  (specified in nagiosgraph.conf) to indicate which data sources should be
  displayed by default for each service, or specify the data source(s)
  explicity in each action_url.

 Graphs in Nagios Frames

  To embed nagiosgraph graphs directly into Nagios, do the following:

  Modify side.php (e.g. /usr/local/nagios/share/side.php) by inserting
  bullets under the 'Trends' heading:

      <li><a href="<?php echo $cfg["cgi_base_url"];?>/trends.cgi" target="<?php echo $link_target;?>">Trends</a>
      <li><a href="<?php echo $cfg["cgi_base_url"];?>/show.cgi" target="<?php echo $link_target;?>">Graphs</a></li>
      <li><a href="<?php echo $cfg["cgi_base_url"];?>/showhost.cgi" target="<?php echo $link_target;?>">Graphs by Host</a></li>
      <li><a href="<?php echo $cfg["cgi_base_url"];?>/showservice.cgi" target="<?php echo $link_target;?>">Graphs by Service</a></li>
      <li><a href="<?php echo $cfg["cgi_base_url"];?>/showgroup.cgi" target="<?php echo $link_target;?>">Graphs by Group</a></li>

  If you keep the nagiosgraph cgi scripts in a location different than the
  Nagios cgi scripts, then use 'ng_cgi_base_url' rather than 'cgi_base_url'
  and make an entry in such as this:


  Some Nagios installations have side.html instead of side.php:

      <li><a href="/nagios/cgi-bin/trends.cgi" target="main">Trends</a>
      <li><a href="/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/show.cgi" target="main">Graphs</a></li>
      <li><a href="/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/showhost.cgi" target="main">Graphs by Host</a></li>
      <li><a href="/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/showservice.cgi" target="main">Graphs by Service</a></li>
      <li><a href="/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/showgroup.cgi" target="main">Graphs by Group</a></li>

Customizing the Graphs

  The look and feel of nagiosgraph is controlled by the cascading style
  sheets defined in nagiosgraph.css. The examples directory contains a
  stylesheet file with sample style sheets for fixing the controls to the
  page, floating the controls above the graphs, or hiding the controls

  Graphs can be customized individually by specifying CGI arguments, or they
  can be customized overall by specifying values in the configuration files.
  Some parameters apply to each page, others apply to each service, and
  others apply to each data source.

  The following CGI arguments are recognized by show.cgi, showhost.cgi,
  showservice.cgi, and showgroup.cgi:

  hidengtitle     Do not display the nagiosgraph title in the page.

  geom=WxH        Set the dimensions of all graphs to W pixels wide and H
                  pixels tall.

  showtitle       Display a title next to each graph.

  showdesc        Display a description of data sources next to each graph.

  showgraphtitle  Display a title in each graph.

  graphonly       Display only graph data, not axes, grid, or legend.

  hidelegend      Do not display the legend in each graph.

  fixedscale      Set the Y-axis to be in the same scale as the performance
                  data. This is useful to prevent a variety of vertical
                  scales when autoscaling results in different vertical
                  scaling for each graph.

  The following options are available via configuration files:

  rrdopts         Use the rrdopts option to specify custom RRD graphing
                  options. These can be specified for all graphs using
                  rrdopts, or per-service using the rrdoptsfile.

  lineformat      Use lineformat to control the line thickness and line
                  color for individual data sources. The alpha channel is
                  respected if a recent version of rrdtool is installed.

  plotas, plotasLINE1, plotasLINE2, plotasLINE3, plotasAREA, plotasTICK
                  Use plotas to control the line thickness/style for
                  individual data sources.

  stack           Create stacked area graphs using the stack directive for
                  individual data sources, the STACK directive in
                  lineformat, or by adjusting the alpha channel in specified

  Some services emit multiple data sources with big differences in
  magnitude. Others emit data with different units. In such cases, split the
  data into seperate graphs by specifying one or more data sources. For
  example, for the NTP service, jitter and offset are typically in the same
  range, while stratum is orders of magnitude larger. So we specify two
  different graphs:


  This assumes that jitter, offset, and stratum are all stored in a single
  RRD file using a map entry such as:

      /output:NTP.*Offset ([-.0-9]+).*jitter ([-.0-9]+).*stratum (\d+)/
      and push @s, [ 'ntp',
                     [ 'offset',  GAUGE, $1      ],
                     [ 'jitter',  GAUGE, $2/1000 ],
                     [ 'stratum', GAUGE, $3+1    ] ];

  Data are identified by host, service, database, and data source. It is
  possible to graph all sources from a single database, a single source from
  a database, selected sources from a single database, or selected sources
  from multiple databases. In each case, the host and service must match.
  For example:


  These options apply to showgraph.cgi, show.cgi, and showservice.cgi and in
  the configuration files hostdb.conf, groupdb.conf, and datasetdb.conf.

  Use URLs as canned queries. For example, define a 'temperatures' group in
  the groupdb.conf file that combines temperature data from multiple hosts
  and service types, then create a link to that group:


  See the configuration files for more options and examples.

Adding Service Types

  Service types are added by creating rules in the 'map' file. The map file
  determines how data from Nagios will be stored. Each rule determines how
  output and performance data should be recorded.

  The map file contains regular expressions to identify service types and
  define content in RRD files. All entries are written in perl, so editing,
  adding or deleting entries requires some perl programming knowledge.
  Knowledge of RRD is also helpful.

  There has to be one entry for each type of service. The map file included
  with nagiosgraph has several examples for cpu, memory, disk, network etc.
  Most examples identify data from either Nagios output or Nagios perfdata
  then define a number of RRD data sources. There is also a generic rule
  that will capture output from any plugin that adheres to the Nagios
  standards for plugin performance data. receives data from Nagios. It formats data into a string
  consisting of four lines of text. This string might look like this:

      output:PING OK - Packet loss = 0%, RTA = 0.00 ms

  Or like this:

      servicedesc:CPU Load 
      output:OK - load average: 0.06, 0.12, 0.10
      perfdata:load1=0;15;30;0 load5=0;10;25;0 load15=0;5;20;0

  The official perfdata format is a space-delimited list of qualified
  name-value pairs with this format:


  where units is one of:

                       - unitless
               s,us,ms - time
                     % - percentage
      B,KB,MB,GB,TB,PB - bytes
                     c - counter

  However, the perfdata is not always set, and the format of perfdata varies
  a great deal from plugin to plugin. So depending on type of service, the
  most useful data can be in either the output or perfdata line.

  For the ping example above, data can be extracted from the output line
  with a regular expression like this:


  In this case, two values are extracted and available in $1 and $2. We can
  then create a data structure describing the content of the database. The
  general format is

      [ db-name,
        [ DS-name, TYPE, DS-value ],
        [ DS-name, TYPE, DS-value ],

  Where DS name is the name that will be assigned to a line showing on RRD
  graphs. Each DS name must be no longer than 19 characters and must contain
  only the characters A-Z, a-z, 0-9, or underscore. TYPE is either GAUGE or
  DERIVE. the DS value is the data extracted in the regular expression. The
  DS value can be an expression, for example to normalize to SI units.

  Each database definition must be added to the @s array.

  So the complete code to define and insert into an RRD file for the PING
  example above, becomes:

      and push @s, [ ping,
                    [ losspct, GAUGE, $1      ],
                    [ rta,     GAUGE, $2/1000 ] ];

  In this case the database name is called 'ping' and the DS-names stored
  are losspct and rta. The Nagios output reports round trip time in
  milliseconds, so the value is divided by 1000 to convert to seconds. The
  type for each DS is GAUGE.

  Be careful about the database names and DS names. In the code example
  above the names are barewords, which only works as long as the don't
  conflict with perl functions or subroutines. For example the word 'sleep'
  will not work without quoting.

  A safer version of the above example is

      and push @s, [ 'ping',
                    [ 'losspct', 'GAUGE', $1      ],
                    [ 'rta',     'GAUGE', $2/1000 ] ];

  After editing the map file, the syntax can be checked with

      perl -c map

  Again a word of caution. If the map file has syntax errors, nothing will
  be inserted into RRD files until the file is fixed. So do not edit
  production map files. Instead do something like this:

      cp map map.edit
      vi map.edit
      perl -c map.edit
      mv map.edit map

  Use to test a rule before putting it into production. First
  run the Nagios check command from the command line to see what is
  returned. Copy this output and paste it into Paste the rule
  into Run to see how the output will be handled.

  Changes to the map file generally do not require a restart of Nagios.

  It may take awhile for data from a map entry to show up in an RRD file.
  This is partly due to the service check scheduling in Nagios, and partly
  due to the perfdata buffering of service_perfdata_file_processing_interval

  Increase debug level in nagiosgraph.conf to see what is happening. The
  debug_insert parameter determines the log level for collecting data.
  Output will go to the nagiosgraph log file. Keep an eye on the log file;
  it can grow big. Perhaps rotate it, or decrease log level when everything

  Share your work. If you have a good map file entry for standard Nagios
  plugins, then please post it on the forum.

Managing Data and RRD Files

  nagiosgraph saves data in RRD files in the rrddir directory (specified in
  nagiosgraph.conf). By default, nagiosgraph uses a directory for each host,
  and the RRD files are named based on the service description (from Nagios)
  and the data names (from the map file). For example, the default
  configuration for the PING service results in RRD files like this:


  Older versions of nagiosgraph kept all RRD files in a single directory.
  This is controlled by the dbseparator variable in nagiosgraph.conf.

  Use the 'dump' and 'restore' options to rrdtool if you need to restructure
  RRD files. You might want to split data from a single RRD file into
  multiple files, or you might want to combine data from multiple RRD files
  into a single file. Or you might simply want to change the name of a data
  source. The dump option will emit data in XML format:

      rrdtool dump service___db.rrd > service_db.xml

  You can modify the XML with any text editor, then convert to RRD format:

      rrdtool restore service_db.xml service___db-new.rrd

  Unfortunately the RRD file schema is not dynamic. If an RRD file is
  created with 2 data sources, more data sources cannot be added
  automatically. For example, you start recording UPS temperature to an RRD
  file using the following map rule:

      and push @s, [ 'temp',
                     [ 'temperature', GAUGE, $1 ] ];

  Later you decide to include critical and warning temperatures using this
  map rule:

      and push @s, [ 'temp',
                     [ 'temperature', GAUGE, $1 ],
                     [ 'warn',  GAUGE, $2 ],
                     [ 'crit',  GAUGE, $3 ] ];

  The new rule will still record temperature, but critical and warning
  values will be discarded, because they are not defined in the RRD file.
  You must do a dump/edit/restore on the RRD file if you want to add
  critical/warning while maintaining existing temperature data.
  Alternatively you can simply delete the existing RRD file and let the new
  map rule create the new RRD file.

  What is the 'right' way to configure RRD files? Should all data from a
  single service go into a single RRD file? Should each RRD file contain a
  single set of data? Some best practices have evolved over the past 10
  years, but as of this writing (febrary 2010) there is no single 'right'

  Some people prefer to put all data from a single service into a single RRD
  file, even if the data have different units. For example, for the PING
  service their RRD files look something like this:

      PING___ping.rrd (losspct, losswarn, losscrit, rta, rtawarn, rtacrit)

  Others prefer a separate file for each data source:

      PING___losspct.rrd (losspct)
      PING___losswarn.rrd (losswarn)
      PING___losscrit.rrd (losscrit)
      PING___rta.rrd (rta)
      PING___rtawarn.rrd (rtawarn)
      PING___rtacrit.rrd (rtacrit)

  And others prefer something in between:

      PING___loss.rrd (losspct, losswarn, losscrit)
      PING___rta.rrd (rta, rtawarn, rtacrit)

  It is a good idea to plan your configuration before you start recording
  data. Although it is possible to reconfigure data after the RRD files are
  full, doing so is somewhat tedious, especially for large numbers of

  The 1.4.4 release of nagiosgraph added a generic map rule that matches any
  standard performance data. This rule puts the data into RRD files using
  this structure:

      host0/service___label.rrd     (data[,warn][,crit][,min][,max])

  For example, for service0 with 3 perfdata labels and service1 with 1
  perfdata labels, the rule generates the following RRD files:

      host0/service0___label0.rrd   (data[,warn][,crit][,min][,max])
      host0/service0___label1.rrd   (data[,warn][,crit][,min][,max])
      host0/service0___label2.rrd   (data[,warn][,crit][,min][,max])
      host0/service1___label0.rrd   (data[,warn][,crit][,min][,max])

  There are a few rrdtool parameters that affect size of the RRD files and
  the resolution of data:


  These parameters are used only when an RRD file is created. By default
  they are the same for all hosts and services, but they can be specified
  for individual hosts, services, and or databases in the nagiosgraph
  configuration file. To modify these values for an existing RRD file you
  must do a dump/edit/restore. See the rrdtool documentation for details.

Managing RRD Parameters

  The most important parameters are stepsize, heartbeat, and sampling
  interval. A typical sign that these parameters are not set correctly is
  values of NaN in the RRD files, which manifests as gaps in the graphs or
  empty graphs.

  A good rule of thumb is to use a heartbeat that is twice the sampling
  interval and a stepsize equal to the sampling interval.

  In a default nagiosgraph configuration, the same parameters are applied to
  all hosts and services. However, they can be specified for individual
  hosts and services if necessary.

  The stepsize, in seconds, defines the nominal amount of time between data
  points. The default value is 300 (5 minutes). The heartbeat, in seconds,
  defines the amount of time between updates before a data point should be
  considered unknown. The default value is 600 (10 minutes). The resolution
  defines how many data points should be kept. The step defines how data
  points are consolidated. The xfiles factor defines how unknown data points
  are considered when consolidating data. These parameters are specified in
  the nagiosgraph configuration file.

  The sampling interval is defined in Nagios (check_interval). This defines
  how often a service will be checked.

  These values are used only when an RRD file is created. To change the
  stepsize, heartbeat, or resolution of an existing RRD, one must dump the
  RRD file to XML, modify the data, then restore the RRD file. Or simply
  delete the RRD file and let nagiosgraph create a new one.

Configuring Access Controls

  nagiosgraph does authorization (authz), not authentication (authn). Access
  is granted or denied to users for specific services and hosts. There are
  two ways to configure authorization: using Nagios configuration files or
  using a standalone nagiosgraph configuration file.

  To use Nagios access controls, define the following in nagiosgraph.conf:


  nagiosgraph respects the following Nagios variables:


  To use nagiosgraph access controls, define the following in


  The nagiosgraph access control file uses the following syntax:


  Wildcards are permitted to match hosts, services, or users. The
  exclamation character negates permissions for a user. For example:

      *=                 # deny access to everyone for all hosts and services
      *=*                # grant access to everyone for all hosts and services
      host1=guest        # grant access to guest for all services on host1
      host1,ping=!guest  # deny access to guest for ping on host1
      *,ping=guest       # grant access to guest for ping on any host
      *    # grant access to guest for any host in

  Permissions are respected by all nagiosgraph CGI scripts, so you can
  safely distribute URLs for specific graphs or reports.


  First identify whether your problem is with data collection or data

  Are perfdata being collected by Nagios? Run a Nagios plugin directly and
  make sure that it is working properly. For example:

      check_ping -H host -w 100,10% -c 200,20%

  Are permissions set correctly? The nagios user must be able to write to
  the rrd directory. The nagios user must be able to write to the
  nagiosgraph log file. The web server user must be able to write to the
  nagiosgraph cgi log file (which might be the same as the nagiosgraph log
  file for older nagiosgraph installations). If the web server user does not
  have permission to modify the log file, nagiosgraph cgi logging will end
  up in the web server error log.

  Is nagiosgraph running? In nagiosgraph.conf, set debug_insert=5 then look
  at the nagiosgraph log file. You should see messages from
  Ensure that is being called as expected, either periodically by
  Nagios or in a loop.

  Are the RRD files being created? The nagios user must have write
  permission on the rrd directory.

  Are the RRD files being modified? Check the RRD file timestamp.

  Are data being saved into RRD files? With debug_insert=3, look in the
  nagiosgraph log file for errors or warnings from Problems with
  map rules should be reported in the log file. If necessary, increase the
  log level to debug_insert=5.

  Are the RRD file contents sane? Use 'rrdtool dump filename.rrd'. It is
  normal for a new RRD file to be full of NaN. As the file is updated those
  should be replaced with proper values. Ensure that the data source names
  in the RRD file correspond to the names in the map rule.

  Are there old or unused RRD files lying about? Older versions of
  nagiosgraph can be confused by multiple RRD files with the same data
  source for a single host. If you change the map rule for a service, you
  might want to move the old RRD files out of the rrd directory.

  If graphs are not being displayed, start by graphing a single host and
  service with showgraph.cgi, for example
  showgraph.cgi?host=HOST&service=SERVICE. Set debug_showgraph=3 in
  nagiosgraph.conf, then look for output in the nagiosgraph log file or the
  web server error log.

  Be aware of what you are asking nagiosgraph to display. Start with just a
  host and service, then get more specific. For example, each of these
  queries will result in a different graph:


  To isolate problems in individual CGI scripts, use debug_show (show.cgi),
  debug_showhost (showhost.cgi), debug_showservice (showservice.cgi), or
  debug_showgroup (showgroup.cgi) as appropriate.

  For installations with many hosts and services, use the host/service
  extensions when setting the log level (e.g. debug_showgraph_host = host)
  to make the log information easier to grok.


  Translations are in a single file, with one file per language. Strings for
  both the cgi and javascript are in the same file. The javascript
  translations and language detection are controlled by the cgi scripts.

  In order to minimize dependencies and overhead, nagiosgraph uses its own
  system for internationalization. It has a syntax similar to gettext.
  Strings are defined in english within the perl and javascript code. There
  is no support for complex lexical structures - only string literals. The
  user interface to nagiosgraph is (so far) simple enough that this

  To create a new translation, copy an existing translation file to a file
  with the appropriate extension. For example, nagiosgraph_es.conf is the
  file for generic spanish.

  Error messages are not translated.

  Language is detected from the HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGE environment variable.
  The first language in this list is the language used. If a language is
  specified in the nagiosgraph configuration file, that language overrides
  anything in the environment.

  The language can be specified as an argument to each cgi script, for


  Language specified in this manner overrides any environment or

Enumeration of Files

      History of changes

      Example recipe for installing nagiosgraph

      This file

      A list of potential improvements to nagiosgraph
      Installation script

      Reads Nagios perfdata log and insert into RRD files

      Generates an html page for the host/service specified

      Check the nagiosgraph configuration

      Generates the actual graph image used by other scripts

      Generates an html page for the group specified

      Generates an html page for the host specified, showing all available
      services on the host

      Generates an html page for the service specified, showing all hosts
      with that service

      Preview of colors for keywords in each color scheme

      Access control file

      Optional configuration for data sets

      Primary configuration file for nagiosgraph


      Configuration specific to showgroup.cgi

      Configuration specific to showhost.cgi

      Configuration specific to showservice.cgi

      Per-service options to rrdgraph

      Regular expression to identify services and specification for how to
      create RRD files

      Shared library of common perl subroutines

      Configuration examples

      An icon for use in Nagios

      CSS stylesheet

      All of the JavaScript used by nagiosgraph

      HTML for Nagios pages to enable graphs on mouseover

  t/* perl test scripts

      A script for testing new map file entries

      Script for converting RRD data from flat to hierarchy

Sample Installation Layouts

  Here are samples of nagiosgraph/nagios installation layouts.

  separate, installed to /opt:



  overlay, installed to /usr/local/nagios:






Sample Web Server Configuration

  Here are snippets from a typical (but basic) Apache server configuration.

      ScriptAlias /nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/ "/opt/nagiosgraph/cgi/"
      <Directory "/opt/nagiosgraph/cgi">
         Options ExecCGI
         AllowOverride None
         Order allow,deny
         Allow from all
      Alias /nagiosgraph "/opt/nagiosgraph/share"
      <Directory "/opt/nagiosgraph/share">
         Options None
         AllowOverride None
         Order allow,deny
         Allow from all
    ScriptAlias /nagios/cgi-bin "/opt/nagios/sbin"
      <Directory "/opt/nagios/sbin">
         Options ExecCGI
         AllowOverride None
         Order allow,deny
         Allow from all
      Alias /nagios "/opt/nagios/share"
      <Directory "/opt/nagios/share">
         Options None
         AllowOverride None
         Order allow,deny
         Allow from all

Platform Specific Notes

 Nagios Embedded PERL (ePN)

  The Nagios embedded PERL interpreter (ePN) does not understand every PERL
  idiom. In particular, it has problems with perldoc. If you get errors such

      ePN failed to compile /usr/lib/cgi-bin/nagios3/ "Missing right
      curly or square bracket at (eval 1) line 45, at end of line syntax error
      at (eval 1) line 52, at EOF" at /usr/lib/nagios3/ line 250

  then you must explicitly invoke PERL for For example, for batch
  processing use this:

      command_line /usr/bin/perl /usr/local/nagios/libexec/

  or for immediate processing use this:

      command_line /usr/bin/perl /usr/local/nagios/libexec/ "$LASTSERVICECHECK$||$HOSTNAME$||$SERVICEDESC$||$SERVICEOUTPUT$||$SERVICEPERFDATA$"

 CentOS 5 and Nagiosgraph 0.9

      wget ''
      wget ''
      wget ''
      wget ''
      yum install -y libart_lgpl.i386
      rpm -hiv *rrdtool*.rpm

      tar xzvf nagiosgraph-0.9.0.tgz
      cd nagiosgraph-0.9.0
      mkdir /usr/local/nagios/nagiosgraph
      cp -r . /usr/local/nagios/nagiosgraph/
      mkdir /usr/local/nagios/nagiosgraph/rrd
      chmod go+rX /usr/local/nagios/nagiosgraph
      chown nagios /usr/local/nagios/nagiosgraph/rrd
      mkdir -p /var/spool/nagios
      touch /var/log/nagiosgraph.log /var/spool/nagios/perfdata.log
      chown nagios.apache /var/log/nagiosgraph.log /var/spool/nagios/perfdata.log
      chmod 664 /var/log/nagiosgraph.log
      chmod 644 /var/spool/nagios/perfdata.log

      ln -s /usr/local/nagios/nagiosgraph/nagiosgraph.conf /usr/local/etc/nagiosgraph.conf

      cp nagiosgraph.css /usr/local/nagios/share/stylesheets

 MacOSX 10.5 and Nagios 2.12

  Use the lib/ wrapper to ensure that perl is invoked properly.

      define command {
          command_name    process-service-perfdata
          command_line    /usr/local/nagios/libexec/ "$LASTSERVICECHECK$||$HOSTNAME$||$SERVICEDESC$||$SERVICEOUTPUT$||$SERVICEPERFDATA$"

 Fedora Core 6 and HTTP output parsing

  The entry in the map file for HTTP does not work for Fedora core 6 with
  Nagios 2.6 and later. This is what did work.

      # Service type: unix-www
      #   ouput:OK - HTTP/1.1 302 Found - 0.002 second response time |time=0.001920s;;;0.000000 size=126B;;;0
      /output:.*?HTTP.*?([.0-9]+) sec/
      and push @s, [ http,
          [ rt, GAUGE, $1 ] ];

Notes For Developers

  The makefile rules control pretty much everything. To create the makefile,

      perl Makefile.PL

  Basic targets are the same as any MakeMaker perl module.

      make test
      make install
      make clean
      make realclean

  There are rules to build a source distribution, Debian, and Redhat

      make dist                  creates nagiosgraph-x.y.z.tar.gz
      make deb-package           creates nagsiograph-x.y.z.deb
      make rpm-package           creates nagiosgraph-x.y.z.rpm

  If you would like to contribute to nagiosgraph, there are a few things you
  should do to make your life and the lives of the other nagiosgraph
  developers easier.

  *   Please respect these design goals:

      1.  do not break existing installations

      2.  minimize dependencies

      3.  keep it simple

  *   perlcritic

      Run perlcritic and fix all warnings before you commit. Be brutal:

          perlcritic -1 cgi/*.cgi
          perlcritic -1 etc/*.pm

      or use the make rule to run them all:

          make critic

  *   unit tests

      Run the unit tests before modifying existing functionality. Write unit
      tests before you add code.

          make test

  *   test coverage

      To generate code coverage reports, install Devel::Cover then run

          make test-coverage

      This will generate a cover_db directory with code coverage metrics.

  *   profiling

      Use the perl profiler to see which parts of the code are taking most
      time. Run the cgi script with DProf enabled, specifying args on the
      command line.

          perl -d:DProf cgi/show.cgi
          perl -d:DProf cgi/showgraph.cgi host=HOST service=SERVICE

      Then view the profiling results.


      The bottlenecks are RRDs::graph (showgraph.cgi) and RRDs::info
      (show.cgi). RRDs::info is invoked on each file in the rrd directory
      tree. On a 1.4GHz G4 PPC, getting info on 500 files takes about 0.2

  *   internationalization (i18n)

      To get a list of all translated string constants, do the following:

          grep '_(' cgi/*.cgi etc/*.pm | sed -e 's/.*_(\([^)]*\).*/\1/' | sort -u
          grep '_(' share/*.js | sed -e 's/.*_(\([^)]*\).*/\1/' | sort -u

      nagiosgraph uses a bare bones, home-grown, standalone implementation
      of i18n. If you add strings to the user interface or error handling,
      please follow the pattern used for other strings in the code. All
      translations reside in a single file, with one file per language. Each
      file is used by the cgi (directly) and the javascript (via the cgi).

  *   configurations

      Be consistent in configuration files and documentation about where the
      nagiosgraph files are installed, regardless of what you use. Use the
      standalone layout, with Nagios installed at /usr/local/nagios and
      nagiosgraph installed at /usr/local/nagiosgraph

  *   perldoc

      You can preview the perldoc by doing the following:

          perldoc cgi/show.cgi
          perldoc etc/

Project Testing/Code Summary

  Here are some project statistics as of 14feb12:

  Number of unit tests: 1307

  Test coverage:

                             stmt   bran   cond    sub    pod   time  total
   etc/           82.5   77.3   67.4   91.6    0.0  100.0   77.0

  Platforms on which unit tests have been run:

   os             arch      perl
   debian 5       ppc       5.10.0
   debian 6       i386,x64  5.10.1

  Platforms on which installation has been tested:

   os             arch      method             nagios
   debian 5       ppc       manual             3.2.0, 3.2.1, 3.2.2, 3.2.3
   debian 5       i386      deb                3.0.6
   ubuntu 10.04   i386,x64  deb, installer     3.2.0
   fedora 14      i386,x64  rpm, installer     3.2.3
   centos 5.5     i386      rpm, installer     3.2.3
   opensuse 11.3  i386      rpm, installer     3.2.1
   redhat 6       i386,x64  rpm, installer     3.2.3

  The codebase looks like this:

    lines  words  bytes
      267    948   6974 cgi/export.cgi
      182    623   4987 cgi/show.cgi
      515   1447  12093 cgi/showconfig.cgi
      206    669   5245 cgi/showgraph.cgi
      194    709   5063 cgi/showgroup.cgi
      188    643   4986 cgi/showhost.cgi
      189    667   5021 cgi/showservice.cgi
      172    727   5344 cgi/testcolor.cgi
     3233  13606 113742 etc/
       72    329   2162 lib/
     5218  20368 165617 total
      177   353  2791 share/nagiosgraph.css
       1473  5251 42421 share/nagiosgraph.js
          1     3    75 share/nagiosgraph.ssi
       1651  5607 45287 total
     37    120   1087 t/01required_modules.t
     4139  11033 123394 t/02ngshared.t
      173    462   6351 t/03defaults.t
      161    509   4222 t/04show.t
      803   1983  25545 t/05permissions.t
     2270   3342  45556 t/06rules.t
     1529   2885  32559 t/07perfdata.t
     2111   4229  47498 t/09plugins.t
      232    620   7383 t/10backward.t
       31     84   1002 t/97pod.t
       20     73    608 t/98podcoverage.t
       18     71    591 t/99kwalitee.t
    11524  25411 295796 total
       32   163   879 etc/access.conf
         23    92   873 etc/datasetdb.conf
         63   249  2279 etc/groupdb.conf
         42   164  1446 etc/hostdb.conf
         92   255  1828 etc/labels.conf
        384  2291 15329 etc/nagiosgraph.conf
         52    81   793 etc/nagiosgraph_de.conf
         52    92   865 etc/nagiosgraph_es.conf
         52   102   935 etc/nagiosgraph_fr.conf
         20   119   660 etc/rrdopts.conf
         16    78   480 etc/servdb.conf
        256  1448  9863 etc/map
       1084  5134 36230 total