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1.0 INTRODUCTION ================ Deepend is a suite of dynamic storage pools with subpool capabilities for Ada 95, Ada 2005, and Ada 2012. The Deepend storage pools were designed to provide efficient concurrency for use in both single core and multicore environments. The Deepend pools also provide flexibility such that the storage for the pools may be placed entirely in static memory, on the stack, or on the heap, or in various combinations of the above (See the Bounded Pools below for more details on how this can be applied). Further, Deepend ensures that each pool and subpool is "owned" by a single Ada task, and thus only that task may allocate objects from a particular subpool, and only one task may allocate objects directly to the pool. Ownership of a pool and subpools may be relinquished and transferred to other tasks. This capability eliminates the need for expensive locking when allocating and deallocating objects. Attempts by other tasks to allocate from a pool or subpool owned by another task results in a Program_Error exception being raised. Storage pools with subpool capabilities allow all objects in a subpool to be reclaimed all at once, instead of requiring each object to be individually reclaimed one at a time. A Dynamic Pool may have any number of subpools. If subpools are not reclaimed prior to finalization of the pool, then they are reclaimed when the pool is finalized. Rather than deallocate items individually which is error prone and susceptible to memory leaks and other memory issues, a subpool can be freed all at once automatically when the pool object goes out of scope. Have you ever wondered why Deallocating in Ada is called Unchecked_Deallocation, or why Ada has a new operator, but not a delete operator? Part of the reason is that Ada was designed with safety in mind, and heap deallocations are viewed as being error prone as they are in many languages. With this Storage pool, Unchecked_Deallocation is implemented as a No-Op (null procedure), because it is not needed or intended to be used. If early finalization is needed, Unchecked_Deallocate_Subpool may be used instead, which has similar issues as Unchecked_Deallocation, but is safer, since it can be applied more globally to the whole subpool rather than a specific object, and thus would be applied less frequently. Even Unchecked_Deallocate_Subpool is unnecessary for reclaiming subpools in nested scopes with Deepend, as a scoped subpool facility is also provided, which automatically finalizes subpools, when leaving the scope of their declaration. Subpool based storage management provides a safer means of memory management, which can outperform other mechanisms for storage reclamation including garbage collection. Deepend is free software. See the file COPYING for copying permission. Most of the source code is released under the GMGPL (GNAT Modified GPL). See the individual source files for details. Any comments on the generics would be greatly appreciated. Requests for new features may be made at https://sourceforge.net/p/deepend/tickets/; General discussion and forum may be found at; https://sourceforge.net/p/deepend/discussion/ Otherwise, please send comments to brad.moore@shaw.ca 2.0 DOWNLOADING =============== The latest stable release and older releases may be downloaded from; https://sourceforge.net/projects/deepend/files/ For those who want the current development versions of the source they can download using git (http://git-scm.com/) by issuing the following commands mkdir sandbox cd sandbox git clone git://git.code.sf.net/p/deepend/code deepend-src The current development version typically will correspond to the latest stable release, but may at times be unstable when new features are being worked on. 3.0 DEEPEND Storage Pool Classes ================================ There are 4 Storage Pool packages to choose from in Deepend. 1) Dynamic_Pools 2) Bounded_Dynamic_Pools 3) Basic_Dynamic_Pools 4) Basic_Bounded_Dynamic_Pools The Dynamic_Pools package has subpool capabilities where the storage in each Subpool object is unbounded. If the current block of memory is fully allocated to objects and further objects are allocated, then another block of storage is allocated to the subpool, and further allocations to that subpool are carved out of that new storage block. The Bounded_Dynamic_Pools package has subpool capabilities where the storage in each Subpool object is bounded, and the number of subpools that may be allocated is also bounded. If the Subpool is fully allocated with objects and an attempt is made to allocate further objects from the same subpool, then a Storage_Error exception is raised. Similarly, if an attempt is made to allocate more subpools than the maximum number the pool was configured to manage, then a Storage_Error exception is raised. A Bounded_Dynamic_Pools pool does not utilize the heap for its management of subpools. Scoped_Subpool objects are provided that may be configured to allocate their storage from the heap, or declared on the stack, or statically at library level. In particular, Scoped_Subpool objects are included that have discriminants that provide this control. A scoped subpool automatically is finalized when execution leaves the scope of the declaration. For a scoped subpool declared at library level, the storage remains available while the partition is active. The Basic_Dynamic_Pool package does not have subpool capabilities, and each allocation is managed instead by the pool object. When the pool is finalized, all objects allocated from the pool that need finalization are also finalized. A Basic_Dynamic_Pool can be thought of as a Dynamic_Pool with a single subpool. A Basic_Dynamic_Pool is an unbounded pool such that if the current block of storage is fully allocated with objects, and further objects are allocated, then another block of memory is allocated to the pool, and further object allocations are carved out of that new block. The Basic_Bounded_Dynamic_Pool package does not have subpool capabilities, and each allocation is managed instead by the pool object. Like the Basic_Dynamic_Pool, when the pool is finalized, all objects allocated from the pool are also finalized. A Basic_Dynamic_Pool is a bounded pool such that if the pool's storage has been fully allocated with objects and an attempt is made to allocate further objects, then a Storage_Error exception is raised. A Basic_Bounded_Dynamic_Pool pool has discriminants that indicate whether the storage for the pool resides on the heap or on the stack, or statically at library level. In Ada 2012, the new subpool allocation syntax may also be used with Dynamic_Pools and Bounded_Dynamic_Pools in order to specify the subpool that will contain the allocated objects. e.g. Object := new (subpool_name) Object_Type'(Value); For Ada 95 and Ada 2005, a similar effect can be obtained by using the Allocate calls from the Subpool_Allocators nested package. However, these generics only allow allocating non-controlled objects of non-limited types to a particular subpool, whereas in Ada 2012, limited types and controlled types such as protected types may also be allocated to any subpool. Only task types or types that have tasks cannot be allocated to a subpool in Ada 2012. In addition, for Ada 95, Ada 2005, and Ada 2012, the "new" keyword may be used with all the subpool packages without specifying a subpool, which results in an object being allocated to the default subpool for the storage pool. Note: Using the "new" syntax allows one to allocate objects of limited types to the default subpool of the pool for Ada 95, and Ada 2005, as otherwise the Allocate generics would not allow this. In Ada 2012, one can not only allocate objects of limited types to the default subpool, but one also allocate objects of limited types to any subpool, using the Ada 2012 subpool allocator syntax. 4.0 BUILD INSTRUCTIONS ====================== ----------------------------------------------------------------- -- Irvine ICC Ada 2005 Compiler --------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------- - For the Irvine ICC Ada 2005 compiler on Windows, execute the following script to create the Ada 2005 versions of the executables; cd 2005 icm new icm scan -subdir "*.ad?" icm make test_dynamic_pools_ada2005 icm make test_bounded_dynamic_pools_ada2005 icm make binary_trees_without_subpools_ada2005 icm make bounded_binary_trees_without_subpools_ada2005 icm make binary_trees_with_subpools_ada2005 icm make bounded_binary_trees_with_subpools_ada2005 - For the Irvine ICC Ada 2005 compiler on Windows, execute the following script to create the Ada 95 versions of the executables; cd 95 icm new icm scan -subdir "*.ad?" icm make test_dynamic_pools_ada95 icm make test_bounded_dynamic_pools_ada95 icm make binary_trees_without_subpools_ada95 icm make bounded_binary_trees_without_subpools_ada95 icm make binary_trees_with_subpools_ada95 icm make bounded_binary_trees_wtih_subpools_ada95 You can add other compile flags as well, such as -compile_flags=\"-predef=(f32,lf64) -opt -debug -nochecks\" to turn on optimization, debug, and disable checks. To compile for Irvine ICC on Linux, the script is the same, except that if compile options are used then the options should be enclosed with single quotes, and \" should be replaced with '"'. i.e. -compile_flags='"-predef=(f32,lf64) -opt -debug -nochecks"' ----------------------------------------------------------------- -- ObjectAda Ada 2005 and Ada 95 -------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------- Load the appropriate .PRJ file from either the 95, or 2005 sub-folder into the ObjectAda IDE, and build the executable from within the IDE. ----------------------------------------------------------------- -- Janus Ada for Ada 95 ----------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------- - Execute the pathwin.bat file to setup the environment variables. - Execute make executable_name Then supply the full path to each unit when prompted, which will occur for any ada source files that cannot be found in the current directory. - Upon successful compilation and binding, then execute; lkc object where object is the name of the object file produced by the make, which is abbreviated to fit an 8-3 MS-DOS file name. The .OBJ extention is optional and need not be specified at the command line. The output of this command if successful is an executable. ----------------------------------------------------------------- -- GNAT GPL, FSF, or PRO ------- -------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------- - For GNAT Pro, GNAT GPL or GNAT AUX, load the appropriate .gpr file from either the 95, 2005, or 2012 sub-folder into the GPS ide, and build the executable from within the ide, or alternatively use gnatmake to perform the equivalent actions described in the .gpr file. You can also execute the master build for all projects by entering the following command from the command line from the root folder. gprbuild make_all.gpr 5.0 TESTED PLATFORMS ==================== Deepend has been ported to the following compilers and platforms. Irvine Ada 2005 (Windows) Ada95, Ada2005 ObjectAda64 v9.2 (Windows) Ada95, Ada2005 Janus Ada v312c (Windows) Ada95 GNAT GPL 2010-2016 (Windows, Linux, Mac OSX - El Capitan) Ada95, Ada2005, Ada2012 GNAT FSF 4.6.1-5.2.0 (Linux, Android, Rasperry Pi) Ada95, Ada2005, Ada2012 Note: For GNAT FSF, there are problems building some of the Ada 2012 libraries for versions of GCC up to 4.9.2 or thereabouts. Specifically, the Dynamic_Pools, and Bounded_Dynamic_Pools have compiler bugs and do not compile, however, the Basic_Bounded_Dynamic_Pool and Basic_Dynamic_Pool libraries to compile. These bugs appear to be fixed in FSF GCC 5.2.0, and all compiles. For the Raspberry pi, the latest NOOBs build is based on GCC 4.9.2, which present the same issues. It is similarly suspected that installing a later version of GCC on the Raspberry PI, such as FSF GCC 5.2.0, would correct these issues. Deepend is intended to be portable to any platform that supports Ada95, Ada 2005 or Ada 2012 compilation, and in theory, any Ada95, Ada 2005, or Ada 2012 compiler should be able to compile the code since there are no dependencies on vendor specific run-time libraries. It should also be possible to compile Deepend for any target system, since Deepend does not rely on any OS-specific support. 6.0 LIMITATIONS =============== For the Ada 95, and Ada 2005 versions of the packages, it is erroneous to allocate objects that need finalization (Tasks, protected objects, or objects of types inherited from types defined in Ada.Finalization) to a subpool and then Deallocate the subpool associated with those objects rather than wait for the pool finalization to occur. For the Ada 2012 version of the packages, it is only erroneous to allocate task objects, or objects that contain tasks to a subpool. Objects of unconstrained types, protected types, and controlled types may be allocated to a subpool, and will be properly deallocated if the containing subpool is deallocated. The main differences between the Ada 95 version and the Ada 2005 version is that the Ada 2005 version uses newer language features including overriding clauses, null procedures, private withs, not null access parameters, object prefix notation, default box initializers, and the Ada 2005 container libraries. The main differences between the Ada 2005 version and the Ada 2012 version of the Dynamic_Pools package is that the Ada 2012 version takes advantages of the new features of the language, including defaults for discriminated types, functions with in out parameters instead of access parameters, pre/post conditions, expression functions, subtype predicates, type invariants, simpler iterator syntax, Storage_Pool aspects instead of pragmas, and most importantly utilization of the new standard subpools storage package, Ada.Storage_Pools.Subpools. In Ada 2012, the Default_Storage_Pool pragma may be used to specify a Deepend pool as the default storage pool. See RM (13.11.3). 7.0 TEST EXECUTABLES ==================== A simple test executable test_dynamic_pools executable exercises the pool. There are Ada 95, Ada 2005, and Ada 2012 versions of this test driver. In addition, there are binary_trees test executables with two different implementations of a benchmark test, for Ada 95, Ada 2005 and Ada 2012. - the implementations (bounded and unbounded) under the folder; nosubpools performs all allocations using the new operator and relies on Ada's access type finalization to release all objects from the subpool. This test utilizes the Basic_Dynamic_Pools package, and has been found to give the best test results for this benchmark in Ada 95, Ada 2005 and Ada 2012 - the implementations (bounded and unbounded) under the folder; subpools performs all allocations using the Ada 2012 subpool allocator syntax, or Deepend's Allocate generic for Ada 2005, rather than using the traditional "new" operator with Ada 83 syntax. 8.0 WHY DEEPEND? ================ 1) Its the end of the pool you'd expect to go to, if the pool is to have subs floating in it. 2) Hopefully it can be used to write deependable software. 3) Hopefully it doesn't mean this is something the author has gone off of. Brad Moore
Source: README.txt, updated 2017-01-30

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