GSDJVU contains two specialized drivers for the program GHOSTSCRIPT.
These drivers process the PS or PDF file and produce an output that
separates the foreground objects from the background objects.
This separation can be used to generate DJVU documents.
The separation algorithm is described in the following paper:
* Leon Bottou, Patrick Haffner and Yann LeCun: "Conversion of
Digital Documents to Multilayer Raster Formats", Proceedings
of the Sixth International Conference on Document Analysis
and Recognition, IEEE, September 2001.
An electronic version of this paper can be found at
Things are not as simple as they should be.
Please read attentively the contents of file COPYING.
Make sure you understand it before building GSDJVU.
The following instructions have been tested on Linux machines,
and should work reliably on most Unix based operating systems,
including MacOS X and Cygwin.
1) Download all necessary source files.
- Create a directory 'BUILD'
- Download the following files into this directory:
These files can be found under
If you do not provide the fonts file, ghostscript
tries to find the fonts in standard places on your system.
Of course things will break badly if it does not find them.
If you do not provide any of the last three files,
jpegsrc, libpng , openjpeg, and zlib, the building script will
attempt to use the system wide libraries.
This only works if the corresponding development files
are installed on your system. This usually is better
because the resulting program benefits from the latest
installed versions (including bug fix and security patches.)
The ghostscript versions suggested above were current at
the time gsdjvu was released. You can try to build gsdjvu
using newer versions, but do not take it for granted.
Note that the file "ghostscript-fonts-std-8.11.tar.gz"
is needed for versions of ghostscript earlier than 8.57.
2) Run the shell script 'build-gsdjvu'.
Use the full pathname.
The script unpacks the source files, patches ghostscript
with the gdevdjvu driver, compiles ghostscript, and
selects which files should be kept around.
Please consult the script itself for more details.
The script install the final gsdjvu files in
a directory named 'BUILD/INST/gsdjvu'.
You can copy this directory wherever you want.
This directory contains an executable command
named 'gsdjvu'. The simplest way to use it
is to create a symbolic link named 'gsdjvu'
in a directory included in your PATH...
- To install gsdjvu in /usr/local/lib/gsdjvu as root.
# cp -r BUILD/INST/gsdjvu /usr/local/lib
# cd /usr/local/bin
# ln -s ../lib/gsdjvu/gsdjvu gsdjvu
- To install gsdjvu in your home directory, assuming
that your command search path contains "$HOME/bin".
# cp -r BUILD/INST/gsdjvu $HOME/gsdjvu
# cd $HOME/bin
# ln -s ../gsdjvu/gsdjvu gsdjvu
The simplest way to use gsdjvu is the
script 'djvudigital' that comes with djvulibre.
This script provides for directly converting
a PS or PDF file into a DJVU file.
See the man page djvudigital(1).
It is also possible to directly use gsdjvu directly.
The gsdjvu executable is simply an instance of ghostscript
with two additional drivers named 'djvumask' and 'djvusep'.
* Driver 'djvumask' outputs the djvu segmentation mask as
one or several bitonal image in PBM format. Black pixels
in the bitonal image indicate the foreground.
The following gsdjvu command processes the pages
of 'myfile.ps' and stores the segmentation mask image(s)
as PBM files named 'myfile001.pbm', 'myfile002.pbm', etc.
Option '-r300' specify a resolution of 300 dots per inche.
$ gsdjvu -sDEVICE=djvumask -sOutputFile='myfile%03d.pbm' \
-r300 -dNOPAUSE -dBATCH -f myfile.ps -c quit
* Driver 'djvusep' generates a "separated image file".
This file describes each page using two images:
- a high resolution foreground image with a small color
palette and a transparent color.
- a low resolution background image.
This "separated image file" format is described in the
djvulibre man page csepdjvu(1).
$ gsdjvu -sDEVICE=djvusep -sOutputFile='myfile.sep' \
-r300 -dNOPAUSE -dBATCH -f myfile.ps -c quit
Besides all ghostscrip options,
program 'gsdjvu' recignizes specific options
when using the 'djvumask' and 'djvusep' drivers.
The following documentation is copied from the
comments in the driver source code "gdevdjvu.c":
This driver implements two devices:
* Device "djvumask" outputs the foreground mask as PBM files.
* Device "djvusep" outputs separation files containing one or several
pages. Each page contains the foreground encoded as a CRLE image
(cf. comments on Color RLE image below), possibly followed by a
subsampled PPM image representing the background, possibly followed by an
arbitrary number of comment lines starting with character '#'.
These files should be piped through the back-end encoder "csepdjvu".
The following ghostscript command line options are supported:
* "-sOutputFile=<string>" Selects the name of the output file.
The usual Ghostscript conventions apply.
* "-dThreshold=<0..100>" Selects the separation threshold. Larger
values put more things into the foreground
layer. Default value is 80
* "-dBgSubsample=<1-12>" Selects the background subsampling factor.
Default value is 3.
* "-dFgColors=<1-4000>" Selects the maximal number of colors in the
foreground layer. Default value is 256.
* "-dFgImgColors=<0-4000>" Images with less than the specified number of
colors might be moved into the foreground.
Default value is 256.
* "-dMaxBitmap=<num>" Specifies the maximal amount of memory used
by the banding code when rendering the background
layer. Default is 10000000.
* "-dAutoHires" This option enables an algorithm that lets
device "djvusep" ignore -dBgSubsample and
generate a full resolution background layer
when the foreground is empty.
* "-dExtractText" This option causes the generation of sep file
comments describing the textual information.
* "-dReopenPerPage" Specifies that the output file must be reopened
for each page. Default is to reopen if the
filename contains a "%d" specification for
the page number.