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What is the VM Bridge? ---------------------- The VM Bridge is a network protocol which can be used to connect a native script engine, for example PHP, with a Java or ECMA 335 VM. Please read the http://php-java-bridge.sf.net for more information. Overview -------- The generic VM Bridge implementation is distributed as an example web archive called "JavaBridge.war". It is a zip archive which contains the libraries "JavaBridge.jar", "php-script.jar" and "script-api.jar". Furthermore it contains some PHP examples which can be run in any pure Java J2EE server or servlet engine. The VM Bridge web application contains two servlets. The "PhpJavaServlet" handles requests from remote PHP clients running in Apache/IIS or from the command line: Apache/IIS/console::PHP <--> PhpJavaServlet The second servlet, PhpCGIServlet, can handle requests from internet clients directly. It can start PHP as a FastCGI or CGI sub component: internet browser <--> PhpCGIServlet <--> php-cgi <--> PhpJavaServlet Furthermore the bridge supports standalone Java applications through the JSR223 script API. Build and execution instructions: --------------------------------- Type java -classpath JavaBridge.war TestInstallation to extract the JavaBridge.jar from the web archive. The command extracts ext/JavaBridge.jar and java/Java.inc from the web archive. Double-click on JavaBridge.jar and select SERVLET_LOCAL:8080 to start a local HTTP server. Type java -jar ext/JavaBridge.jar --help to see the list of available options. Use the following code to access Java from your PHP scripts: <?php require_once("http://localhost:8080/JavaBridge/java/Java.inc"); $s = new Java("java.lang.String", "hello"); ... ?> ------------------------------------ Permanently activate the module ------------------------------- Installation for the web: ------------------------- Install a local J2EE server or servlet engine. For example Tomcat version 6. Copy the JavaBridge.war file into the autodeploy folder of the J2EE server or servlet engine. Example for Apache/Tomcat on Linux: cp JavaBridge.war /usr/share/tomcat5/webapps/ Restart tomcat and wait until the directory webapps/JavaBridge appears. Then copy or symlink the JavaBridge folder to the document root of your HTTP server. Example for Linux: cp -r /usr/share/tomcat5/webapps/JavaBridge/ $HOME/public_html Installation for standalone Java J2SE applications: --------------------------------------------------- Copy the JavaBridge.jar, php-script.jar and script-api.jar to the java.ext.dirs. Example for JDK1.6 on Linux: cp ext/*.jar /usr/java/packages/lib/ext/ Type /usr/java/default/bin/jrunscript -l php-interactive to start an interactive PHP session. --------------------------------------------- Starting the VM Bridge automatically ------------------------------------------ For the web: ------------ Install the J2EE server or servlet engine as a service. The Apache/Tomcat servlet engine automatically installs as a service on Windows and Linux. For standalone J2SE applications: ---------------------------------- No installation necessary; the bridge starts automatically when the JSR 223 context is accessed. Example: jrunscript -classpath JavaBridge.jar -l php-interactive automatically starts a "php-cgi" executable from the path. Please see the INSTALL.J2SE document for details how to access persistent script engines from a HTTP or FastCGI pool using the JSR 223 interface. --------------------------------------------- AS/Servlet with PHP CGI/FastCGI ------------------------------- Read the following instructions only if you don't want to use Apache or IIS. Deploy the JavaBridge.war into the Tomcat or J2EE server (please see our FAQ section on http://php-java-bridge.sf.net), then visit http://localhost:8080/JavaBridge and run the supplied JSP and PHP examples. If the parameter name "use_fast_cgi" is set to "Autostart" in the web.xml, and a fcgi server does not listen on port 9667, and a fcgi binary can be found as either /usr/bin/php-cgi or c:/Program Files/PHP/php-cgi.exe, then the back end automatically starts the Fast-CGI server on this computer. With the command: cd $HOME export REDIRECT_STATUS="200" export X_JAVABRIDGE_OVERRIDE_HOSTS="/" export PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN="5" export PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS="5000" /usr/bin/php-cgi -d allow_url_include=On -b On Windows the command is: set REDIRECT_STATUS "200" set X_JAVABRIDGE_OVERRIDE_HOSTS "/" set PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN "5" set PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS "5000" launcher.exe php-cgi \\.\pipe\JavaBridge@9667 -d allow_url_include=On The PHP FastCGI server starts when the VM or the web context starts, it stops when the VM or web context terminates. If that failed, the bridge searches for a CGI binary called: php-cgi-<architecture>-<os>.exe or php-cgi-<architecture>-<os>.sh or php-cgi-<architecture>-<os> in the directory WEB-INF/cgi/. On Unix the binary must be executable. It is therefore recommended to always use a wrapper .sh script, for example: #!/bin/sh # This wrapper script reconstructs the executable permissions # which some zip or .war implementations do not preserve chmod +x ./php-cgi-i386-linux exec ./php-cgi-i386-linux Please see the README located in the directory WEB-INF/cgi/ for details. The <architecture> and <os> values are calculated as follows: System.getProperty("os.arch").toLowerCase(); System.getProperty("os.name").toLowerCase(); Please see the output of test.php for details. It is also possible to adjust the php_exec setting (see WEB-INF/web.xml), for example: <param-name>php_exec</param-name> <param-value>/usr/local/bin/php-cgi</param-value> or <param-name>php_exec</param-name> <param-value>c:/PHP/php-cgi.exe</param-value> In case your application server denies calling the CGI binary, either start apache or IIS or start a fast CGI server on port 9667 as a separate process, for example from a service script. If the directory "/dev/shm" exists, or if the Java.inc option JAVA_PIPE_DIR points to an existing directory, the bridge uses named pipes. On Windows, where standard named pipes are not available, the bridge uses TCP sockets. If your application server denies socket accept/resolve, please either run the AS on a Unix operating system or add the following lines to your AS policy file (for example ...\domains\domain1\config\server.policy): grant { permission java.net.SocketPermission "*", "accept,resolve"; }; ------------------------------------ Log level --------- You can set the java.log_level to 7 values: 0: Log nothing, not even fatal errors. 1: Log fatal system errors such as "out of memory error". 2: Log java exceptions. 3: Log verbose, e.g.: "JavaBridge version x.y.z started" 4: Log debug messages, including the c/s communication protocol. 5: Log method invocations, including method selection. 6: Reserved for internal use. Log messages which may be useful to debug certain parts of the bridge. The default log level is 2. If java.log_level is missing, the back end uses the "default" log level supplied when the back end was started (the second argument after java -jar JavaBridge.jar ...). The log4j viewer "Chainsaw" can be used to automatically capture the log from the bridge, regardless in which environment it is running. log4j.jar must be in the Java VM's java.ext.dirs (usually jre/lib/ext), Chainsaw must be running and the back end must have been started without a log file argument or with the .ini option java.log_file="@". Chainsaw can be started with e.g.: /opt/jdk1.5/bin/java -cp /opt/jdk1.5/jre/lib/ext/log4j.jar \ org.apache.log4j.chainsaw.Main Example which starts tomcat with a full debug log: JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/default \ JAVA_OPTS="-Dphp.java.bridge.default_log_level=6" \ /opt/tomcat/bin/catalina.sh run ------------------------------------ Security Enhanced Linux ----------------------- SELinux is an implementation of a flexible and fine-grained mandatory access control architecture implemented in the Linux kernel. A system component running on a SELinux kernel must declare exactly a) which resources of the operating system it needs in order to function properly and b) what it provides to other components. The VM Bridge distribution contains two policy files, "php-java-bridge.te" and "php-java-bridge.fc". The "php-java-bridge.te" declares the javabridge_t domain and the resources it requires. httpd and user domains are granted connect, read and write to the VM Bridge server socket, which is "@var/run/.php-java-bridge_socket" in the Linux abstract name-space, and file create/read/write in the tmp_t. Everything else (connections to other servers, file access, ...) is currently denied. The "php-java-bridge.fc" contains the file contexts for the PHP/Java Bridge and the log. Installation instructions for RHEL 4 and Fedora Core 4: ------------------------------------------------------- 1. Install selinux-policy-targeted-sources-*.rpm, for example with the command: rpm -i selinux-policy-targeted-sources-1.17.30-2.19.noarch.rpm 2. Update the policy files with the VM Bridge policy: su -c "sh security/update_policy.sh /etc/selinux/targeted/src/policy" Installation instructions for RHEL 5, Fedora Core 5 or above: ------------------------------------------------------------- 1. Create the binary policy with the command: cd security/module; make 2. Inject the rules into the kernel, either the php-java-bridge-tomcat.pp or the php-java-bridge.pp. For example: semodule -i php-java-bridge.pp 3. The rules apply to the javabridge_t domain. Another rule specifies that when an executable is called from the httpd_t domain and the executable is tagged as javabridge_exec_t, a domain transition to javabridge_t occurs. It is therefore important that RunJavaBridge is tagged with javabridge_exec_t and that it is called from the httpd_t domain. Furthermore the java executable must be a binary: chcon -t javabridge_exec_t /usr/lib/php/modules/RunJavaBridge chcon -t bin_t /usr/lib/php/modules/java 4. The policy module can be removed with the command: semodule -r javabridge If the default policy is too restrictive and e.g. you want to use the VM Bridge to connect to your J2EE server, you can temporarily set the policy to "permissive", for example with the command "setenforce Permissive". Connect to the server, then extract the permissions from the audit log, for example with the command "audit2allow -l -i /var/log/audit/audit.log", then append them at the end of the "php-java-bridge.te" file and load the updated policy into the kernel. Don't forget to switch back, for example with "setenforce Enforcing". Please note that SEL security is orthogonal to the standard Unix security. For example you could also put the java process into a "jail"; set up a user account with restricted rights, change the owner of RunJavaBridge and set the SUID bit: chown apache:apache /usr/lib/php/modules/RunJavaBridge chmod 6111 /usr/lib/php/modules/RunJavaBridge The java process would run with the limited rights of apache *and* be protected by the SEL policy. ------------------------------------ Security Issues --------------- If the JEE or servlet back end is used, the bridge opens a local TCP port on 9167 (MonoBridge.exe) or 9267 (JavaBridge.jar), 9567 (JavaBridge.war) or 9667 (FastCGI). Please make sure that the ports in the range [9167, ..., 9667] cannot be accessed from the internet. If your application server denies socket listen/accept, add the following line to your AS policy file (for example ...\domains\domain1\config\server.policy or tomcat/conf/catalina.policy): grant {permission java.net.SocketPermission "localhost:9267-","listen,accept";}; ------------------------------------ Loading user classes and libraries ---------------------------------- Java libraries should be installed in one of the following directories: java.ext.dirs or, for the J2EE/servlet back end, WEB-INF/lib. Libraries in these directories are automatically loaded by a static loader whenever the JVM starts. Java libraries can be created with: javac -Djava.ext.dirs=. my/package/*.java jar cvf myLibrary-0.1.jar my/package/*.class ------------------------------------ Sun java platform issues ------------------------ The sun java platform does not support java "modules". This causes certain problems when running java programs. When you compile a class foo which references a class bar and ship the class foo without providing bar, the sun java platform will not complain unless the user accidentally calls a method which references the non-existing class. If this happens, a "NoClassDefFound" error is thrown. This error may not(!) indicate which class is missing and it certainly does not indicate which external library is missing. The tests.php4 folder contains two tests, noClassDefFound.php and noClassDefFound2.php, which demonstrate this. To avoid this problem please document *exactly* (including the version number) which external libraries (.jar files) your software needs. If you have written software where certain methods require an optional library, please document this in the method header. If you receive this error when using a Java library, this may mean the following: * a jar file is stored at more than one location or the same location is accessed by more than one class loader. * an old or different JDK than expected by the library is used, for example GNU Java instead of SUN or IBM Java. * the library is simply broken or it expects certain parameters in its environment (applet parameter or system property or property file). * the library may only work within a J2EE environment from a certain vendor, for example the WebSphere Application server or the Sun Java Application server. --------------------------------------------- FreeBSD issues -------------- FreeBSD is not directly supported. Please use the FreeBSD PHP/Java Bridge port instead. In order to use unix domain sockets on FreeBSD, compile java.so, libnatcJavaBridge.so and start JavaBridge.jar with the argument LOCAL:/path/to/your/socket/file. ------------------------------------ UTF-8 ----- Since PHP does not support unicode, the VM Bridge uses UTF-8 to convert characters into the host representation. All strings are created with new String(..., "UTF-8") and all internal String->byte[] conversions use getBytes("UTF-8"). If you have old PHP files which are not UTF-8 encoded, you can change the default encoding with java_set_file_encoding(). For example: java_set_file_encoding("ISO-8859-1"); For a list of available encodings please see the documentation of the JVM's file.encoding system property. The java_set_file_encoding() primitive only affects java.lang.String creation and internal conversions, it does not alter the JVM's file.encoding system property nor does it change the behaviour of methods which use the file.encoding property, getBytes() for example. If you use: $str=new Java ("java.lang.String", "Cze????! -- ???????? -- Gr"); echo $str->getBytes(); the output conversion depends on the file.encoding system property which in turn depends on the process' LANG environment variable. You can check the file.encoding with the test.php script, see above. To be portable please do not use conversions which depend on the JVM's file.encoding. They are easy to avoid, the above example should be written as: $str=new Java ("java.lang.String", "Cze????! -- ???????? -- Gr"); echo (string)$str; // in PHP5 or higher echo $str->toString(); // in PHP4 ------------------------------------ Creating thread dumps in Java 6 ------------------------------- * Become "super user" or "admin user" and start the program jconsole located in the JDK 1.6 bin directory, for example with the following command: su -c "/opt/jdk1.6/bin/jconsole" On Windows make sure you have admin privileges before starting jconsole. * In the "Create new connection" dialog select "local process" and click on the "JavaBridge" entry. -- If the JavaBridge doesn't appear there, check if the JavaBridge is running within a Java 1.6 VM and if the jconsole has been started with sufficient permissions. * Click "connect". * Open the "Threads" tab and click on the thread you're interested in. ------------------------------------ Performance tuning ------------------ The VM Bridge protocol is very sensitive to network latency. If the Java server and PHP client do not run on the same computer, the objective is to minimize the number of network round-trips; java_values() can be used to obtain a Java array, Map or Collection in one round-trip. The call java_values($obj) evaluates $obj on the server-side and, if it is a Java array, Map or Collection, retrieves its values in one call. Example: $iter = $hits->iterator(); // 1 round trip $resultList = new Java("java.util.LinkedList"); // 1 round trip $n = $hits->length() // 1 round trip while($n--) { $next = $iter->next(); $resultList->add($next->get("name")); } $ar = java_values($resultList); // 1 round trip Assuming that a ping to the back-end reveals an average round-trip time of 6ms, the above code costs 6*6ms = 36ms (ignoring CPU and network bandwidth contraints). The more intuitive approach: $n = $hits->length(); // $n = 30000 while($iter->hasNext()) { // $n * 6ms $next = $iter->next(); // $n * 6ms $a[$i++]=$next->get("name"); // $n * 6ms } costs 30000*18ms + 6 ms = 9 min. It is 15000 times slower, assuming that the client CPU can generate and send the XML document within 6ms and that the server CPU can generate/send the values of the resultList within 6ms, which usually isn't the case. ------------------------------------ Mailing List ------------ Please report bugs/problems to the mailing list: php-java-bridge-users@lists.sourceforge.net
Source: README, updated 2010-04-22