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Unslung-5.x Family Release README INSTALLATION You must follow the steps in this README *exactly*. Do not skip any steps, and do not skip ahead thinking you know what you are doing and don't need to follow instructions step by step. If at any time you have any questions concerning the installation or operation of Unslung firmware, your first port of call should be the NSLU2-Linux wiki at: http://www.nslu2-linux.org If you are looking for further Unslung notes - including ipkg usage, diversion script details, or ChangeLog information, please consult the associated NOTES file. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- There are three parts to completing the installation of the Unslung firmware: 1 - PRE-INSTALLATION CONSIDERATIONS 2 - FIRMWARE INSTALLATION DETAILS 3 - UNSLINGING DETAILS PRE-INSTALLATION CONSIDERATIONS 1) You *must* test telnet Redboot access first before you flash the Unslung firmware. Failure to do so will mean you get no sympathy at all if you can't access Redboot when you need to recover from a bad flash. See http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/HowTo/TelnetIntoRedBoot - Redboot is the bootloader that runs when the device is first started, loading things into memory and starting Linux. By testing your ability to telnet into Redboot, you are ensuring that if you injure your NSLU2 with a bad flash you should be able to follow the "How To Recover From A Bad Flash" instructions at http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/HowTo/RecoverFromABadFlash 2) If you want to install any packages, then you must have an external disk. It is possible to make changes to the root filesystem in the internal flash storage, but the space is very limited. In fact, just running "ipkg update" on an NSLU2 which does not have an external disk attached will most likely render the NSLU2 unusable due to filling up the flash (if this happens then you will need to follow the recovery instructions in the previous step). So unless you are an expert, then use an external disk. 3) The external disk that you use as the target for package installation must be (or have previously been) formatted by the NSLU2. It is possible to upgrade from all previous Unslung versions without reformatting your disk. The unsling script will not touch anything in /unslung or /opt on your disk, so make sure all your file modifications are in those directories, as you were warned in the README file in all previous Unslung versions :-) 4) If you want to use a flash disk as the target for package installation, ensure that it is at least 256MB, plugged into port 1, and formatted via the Linksys web interface. 5) Please verify that any disks you are going to connect to the NSLU2 are recognized and working properly *before* updating your firmware (including any shares and data you had previously stored.) If not, DO NOT CONTINUE. You may want to check out "How To Troubleshoot A Drive Missing Condition" at: http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/HowTo/TroubleshootADriveMissingCondition - The only exception to this, of course, are those enclosures that the stock firmware does not support, but the Unslung firmware does support. 6) If you are upgrading your firmware, you should make a configuration backup via the Linksys web interface. The configuration backup can be found under "Administration", "Advanced", and then "Backup." The top section of that webpage is titled "Config Backup" and "Download" should be used to save your NSLU2 Users, Groups and Shares setup to a disk file. FIRMWARE INSTALLATION DETAILS 1) Shutdown the NSLU2, and remove any disks that you may have plugged into the NSLU2. Power back up the NSLU2. - Firmware upgrades must always be performed with *no* hard disks or flash disks attached. This CANNOT be emphasized enough. Are you sure you unplugged the disks before powering up? If so, you may continue. 2) Access the Web interface. Note that you should use the username "admin" and password "admin" for the web interface at this point (as no disks are attached, the default username and password is the only way to access the Management web pages). 2-a) If you are installing Unslung 5.x onto an NSLU2 unit with Linksys standard firmware *or* Unslung version 1.x or version 2.x already installed, flash unslung-5.x.bin as you normally would flash new firmware (using the web interface "Upgrade Firmware" page). 2-b) If you are installing Unslung 5.x onto an NSLU2 unit with Unslung version 3.x already installed, you must put the NSLU2 into maintenance mode before you can use the web interface to flash a new version. Just click the "Enter Maintenance Mode" link on the web interface "Upgrade Firmware" page, wait for the NSLU2 to reboot, and then flash the new firmware in the normal manner (using the web interface "Upgrade Firmware" page). 2-c) If you are installing Unslung 5.x onto an NSLU2 unit with Unslung version 4.x already installed, you must put the NSLU2 into RedBoot Upgrade Mode before you can upload new firmware. Note that Unslung version 4.x has an "Enter Maintenance Mode" link on the web interface "Upgrade Firmware" page, but it does not work, so you will need to use the instructions at http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/HowTo/TelnetIntoRedBoot to access the RedBoot command line, and then type "upgrade" to put the NSLU2 into RedBoot Upgrade Mode. Then you will need to use the Linux UpSlug tool or the Windows SerComm Upgrade tool to upload the new firmware. 2-d) If you are installing Unslung 5.x onto an NSLU2 unit with version 5.x already installed, you must first put the NSLU2 into RedBoot Upgrade Mode. Just click the "Enter Upgrade Mode" link on the web interface "Upgrade Firmware" page, wait for the NSLU2 to reboot, and for the Ready/Status LED to begin flashing red and green, and then use either the Linux UpSlug tool or the Windows SerComm Upgrade tool to upload the new firmware. - During firmware flashing, the top LED - Ready/Status - flashes red and green (approximately 5 minutes, but can be much longer). - The NSLU2 will reboot after the flashing is complete. 3) Shutdown the NSLU2 (again), attach disk(s), and power it back up. 4) Verify your NSLU2 is working normally again at this point in the web interface. In particular, you should ensure that all your disks are still recognized as they were before you updated the firmware (including any shares and data you had previously stored.) If not, DO NOT CONTINUE. You may want to check out "How To Troubleshoot A Drive Missing Condition" at: http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/HowTo/TroubleshootADriveMissingCondition - If you are not "unslinging", you can stop at this point. *HOWEVER!*, the only reason for not unslinging would be in the case of a re-flash of the SAME firmware. Even if this is a point firmware upgrade, you will need to unsling. ***** If you do not choose to do the unslinging procedure described below, DO NOT install packages unless you are SURE you know what you are doing! "Bricking" your NSLU2 by not unslinging and then running ipkg is not just a possibility, it is a certainty. 5) Shutdown the NSLU2 and unplug *ALL* attached disks. - You must NOT have any disk plugged into the NSLU2 when you reboot to perform the next part of installation - the "Unslinging". 'UNSLINGING' DETAILS "Unslinging" is the process of copying the root filesystem of your NSLU2 onto an external disk, and configuring that external disk for installation of packages. Basically it's a script (stored in /sbin/unsling) which copies all the files from the internal jffs2 filesystem onto the external disk and tells the internal firmware to load the root filesystem from the external disk when booting in the future. To run the unsling-script you have to be logged in as root (with a telnet session). NOTE: There are two root-passwords. One is saved in a internal file called /usr/local/passwd (we know this one - it's "uNSLUng" and used when you boot without a attached harddisk) the other is stored in a external file called /share/hdd/conf/passwd (we don't know this one - it's used when you boot with a external harddisk attached). Later in the process you can change both of them. That means: Everytime you boot WITHOUT a attached harddisk you gain root-access with the "uNSLUng" password. If you boot WITH an attached harddisk, you won't have access until you change the file /share/hdd/conf/passwd. 1) Power up the NSLU2 without any disks connected. - This only has to be done when you update the firmware. ***** To reiterate, you should not have a disk plugged in at this stage. If you powered up your NSLU2 with a disk attached, shutdown the NSLU2, unplug the disks, and power up again. 2) Enable telnet by going to "http://192.168.1.77/Management/telnet.cgi", and press the enable button. - If you had previously changed the IP address of your NSLU2 from 192.168.1.77 to something else, then you should use that new IP address to enable telnet. Again note that you should use the username "admin" and password "admin" for the web interface at this point (as no disks are attached, the default username and password is the only way to access the Management web pages). - Make sure you have **** NO DISKS ATTACHED AT THIS TIME **** - If you plug a disk in before you complete the telnet connection, then the NSLU2 will pick up the Linksys password from the disk, and you will not be able to telnet into it. So don't have any disks attached at this point. - Make sure you have **** NO DISKS ATTACHED AT THIS TIME **** 3) OK, now that you don't have any disks attached, you can proceed and telnet into the NSLU2 using the username root and password uNSLUng. 4) Identify which drive you wish you "unsling", and plug it in. Wait a minute or two while the disk is mounted. Check the web interface to make sure that the disk has been recognised by the Linksys software. - If the disk has not been previously formatted on the NSLU2, then now is the time to do that. Make sure that the drive is recognized in the web interface. 5) In the telnet session, run "/sbin/unsling disk1" or "/sbin/unsling disk2" (depending upon whether you want to unsling to a disk connected to the Disk1 port or the Disk2 port). - Once you "unsling" to an external disk on a particular port (Disk 1 or Disk 2), it is important that you keep that disk continually plugged into that same port whenever the NSLU2 is turned on. ***** Unsling will not change the password on your disk, so if you had previously changed the password on a disk, then your password will not be changed. Also note that simply editing the /etc/passwd file is not enough to permanently change a password. See: http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/HowTo/ChangePasswordsFromTheCommandLine NOTE: There are two root-passwords. One is saved in a internal file called /usr/local/passwd (we know this one - it's "uNSLUng" and used when you boot without a attached harddisk) the other is stored in a external file called /share/hdd/conf/passwd (we don't know this one - it's used when you boot with a external harddisk attached). That means: Everytime you boot WITHOUT a attached harddisk you gain root-access with the "uNSLUng" password. If you boot WITH an attached harddisk, you won't have access until you change the file /share/hdd/conf/passwd. So you should change this file as soon as you unsling to an external disk, before you exit the telnet session that you are using to unsling to the disk. 6) If you wish to migrate your packages from the old Unslung 3.x location in the /share/hdd/conf (disk1) or /share/flash/conf (disk2) partitions to the new Unslung 4.x and 5.x location on the data partition, then run: "/sbin/slingover disk1" (if your packages were previously on disk1 and you ran "/sbin/unsling disk1" in step 5) or "/sbin/slingover disk2" (if your packages were previously on disk2 and you ran "/sbin/unsling disk2" in step 5). - If your packages were not stored in /share/hdd/conf or /share/flash/conf (e.g. you had previously moved your packages from the conf partition to the data partition), then all bets are off and you will need to read the /sbin/slingover script and perform the appropriate steps manually. 7) Reboot. ***** DO NOT RUN ipkg BEFORE YOU REBOOT AND CONFIRM EXTERNAL ROOTFS ***** - If you were to run ipkg when the root filesystem is loaded from the internal jffs2 filesystem, then you would fill the flash and cause your NSLU2 to no longer boot and require reflashing to recover. 8) Wait for the NSLU2 to boot, telnet in, and confirm that the root filesystem is being loaded from the external disk. ***** Congratulations, you're now Unslung! ***** Make sure you add an entry to the "The Unslung 5.x" table in the Yahoo group. Just use the next free integer for your Unslung number. If you make no further changes, your NSLU2 will continue to operate normally. But to customize things, you'll be downloading packages and adding stuff to the /unslung directory using diversion scripts. Read the NOTES file to expand the capabilities of your Unslung NSLU2! Enjoy!
Source: Unslung-5.5-beta-README.txt, updated 2005-06-13

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