[37398b]: Misc / NEWS  Maximize  Restore  History

Repo status: analyzing...

Download this file

6338 lines (4595 with data), 252.8 kB

Python News

(editors: check NEWS.help for information about editing NEWS using ReST.)

What's New in Python 2.4.6?

*Release date: 19-Dec-2008*

What's New in Python 2.4.6c1?

*Release date: 13-Dec-2008*

Core and builtins

- Issue #4469: Prevent expandtabs() on string and unicode 
  objects from causing a segfault when a large width is passed 
  on 32-bit platforms. CVE-2008-5031.

- Issue #4317: Fixed a crash in the imageop.rgb2rgb8() function.

- Issue #4230: Fix a crash when a class has a custom __getattr__ and an
  __getattribute__ method that deletes the __getattr__ attribute.

- Apply security patches from Apple. CVE-2008-2315.

- Issue #2620: Overflow checking when allocating or reallocating memory
  was not always being done properly in some python types and extension
  modules.  PyMem_MALLOC, PyMem_REALLOC, PyMem_NEW and PyMem_RESIZE have
  all been updated to perform better checks and places in the code that
  would previously leak memory on the error path when such an allocation
  failed have been fixed.

- Issue #1179: Fix CVE-2007-4965 and CVE-2008-1679, multiple integer
  overflows in the imageop and rgbimgmodule modules.

- Issue #2586: Fix CVE-2008-1721, zlib crash from
  zlib.decompressobj().flush(val) when val is not positive.

- Issues #2588, #2589: Fix potential integer underflow and overflow
  conditions in the PyOS_vsnprintf C API function. CVE-2008-3144.

- Issue #2587: In the C API, PyString_FromStringAndSize() takes a signed size
  parameter but was not verifying that it was greater than zero.  Values
  less than zero will now raise a SystemError and return NULL to indicate a
  bug in the calling C code. CVE-2008-1887.

- Security Issue #2: imageop did not validate arguments correctly and could
  segfault as a result. CVE-2008-4864.

Extension Modules





- Tools/faqwiz/move-faqwiz.sh: Fix unsecure use of temporary files.

What's New in Python 2.4.5?

*Release date: 11-Mar-2008*

What's New in Python 2.4.5c1?

*Release date: 02-Mar-2008*

Core and builtins

- Added checks for integer overflows, contributed by Google. Some are
  only available if asserts are left in the code, in cases where they
  can't be triggered from Python code.

- patch #1630975: Fix crash when replacing sys.stdout in sitecustomize.py

Extension Modules


- HTML-escape the plain traceback in cgitb's HTML output, to prevent
  the traceback inadvertently or maliciously closing the comment and
  injecting HTML into the error page.



What's New in Python 2.4.4?

*Release date: 18-OCT-2006*


- Bug #1578513: Cross compilation was broken by a change to configure. 
Repair so that it's back to how it was in 2.4.3.

What's New in Python 2.4.4c1?

*Release date: 11-OCT-2006*

Core and builtins

- Bug #1456209: In some obscure cases it was possible for a class with a
  custom ``__eq__()`` method to confuse dict internals when class instances
  were used as a dict's keys and the ``__eq__()`` method mutated the dict.
  No, you don't have any code that did this ;-)

- A number of places, including integer negation and absolute value,
  were fixed to not rely on undefined behaviour of the C compiler

- Patch #1567691: super() and new.instancemethod() now don't accept
  keyword arguments any more (previously they accepted them, but didn't
  use them).

- staticmethod() and classmethod() also now complain about keyword args
  instead of silently ignoring them.

- Bug #1331062: Fix error in UTF-7 codec.

- Bug #1365916: Fix an int/long mismatch in the sorted() built-in.

- Fix memory leak of coding spec in Parser/tokenizer.c.

- Fix memory leak in file_init.

- Fix segfault when doing string formatting on subclasses of long.

- Overflow checking code in integer division ran afoul of new gcc
  optimizations.  Changed to be more standard-conforming.

- Fix some potential crashes found with failmalloc.

- Fix warnings reported by the Coverity and Klocwork static analysis tools.

- Patch #1541585: fix buffer overrun when performing repr() on
  a unicode string in a build with wide unicode (UCS-4) support.

- Bug #1536786: buffer comparison could emit a RuntimeWarning.

- Bug #1535165: fixed a segfault in input() and raw_input() when
  sys.stdin is closed.

- Bug #1524310: Properly report errors from FindNextFile in os.listdir.

- Bug #1232517: An overflow error was not detected properly when
  attempting to convert a large float to an int in os.utime().

- Bug #927248: Recursive method-wrapper objects can now safely
  be released.

- Bug #992017: A classic class that defined a __coerce__() method that returned
  its arguments swapped would infinitely recurse and segfault the interpreter.

- Bug #532646: The object set to the __call__ attribute has its own __call__
  attribute checked; this continues until the attribute can no longer be found
  or segfaulting.  Recursion limit is now followed.

- Bug #1454485: Don't crash on Unicode characters <0.

- Patch #1488312, Fix memory alignment problem on SPARC in unicode

- fixed a bug with bsddb.DB.stat: the flags and txn keyword arguments
  were transposed.

Extension Modules
- #1494314: Fix a regression with high-numbered sockets in 2.4.3. This
  means that select() on sockets > FD_SETSIZE (typically 1024) work again.
  The patch makes sockets use poll() internally where available.

- Fix buffer handling in posix.confstr.

- Bug #1572832: fix a bug in ISO-2022 codecs which may cause segfault
  when encoding non-BMP unicode characters.

- Fixed a few bugs in cjkcodecs:
  - gbk and gb18030 codec now handle U+30FB KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT correctly.
  - iso2022_jp_2 codec now encodes into G0 for KS X 1001, GB2312
    codepoints to conform the standard.
  - iso2022_jp_3 and iso2022_jp_2004 codec can encode JIS X 2013:2
    codepoints now.

- Bug #1556784: allow format strings longer than 127 characters in
  datetime's strftime function.

- gcmodule: add a missing incref.

- threadmodule: add a missing incref.

- Bug #1551427: fix a wrong NULL pointer check in the win32 version
  of os.urandom().

- Patch #1535500: fix segfault in BZ2File.writelines and make sure it
  raises the correct exceptions.

- Make regex engine raise MemoryError if allocating memory fails.

- Bug #1471938: Fix curses module build problem on Solaris 8; patch by
  Paul Eggert.

- Bug #1548092: fix curses.tparm() segfault on invalid input.

- cursesmodule: fix a number of reference leaks with 'python -v'; handle
  failure from PyModule_GetDict (Klocwork 208).

- Bug #1512695: cPickle.loads could crash if it was interrupted with
  a KeyboardInterrupt.

- Change binascii.hexlify() to accept any read-only buffer and not just a char

- Fixed a potentially invalid memory access of CJKCodecs' shift-jis decoder.

- Calling Tk_Init twice is refused if the first call failed as that
  may deadlock.

- Patch #1191065: Fix preprocessor problems on systems where recvfrom
  is a macro.

- Bug #1467952: os.listdir() now correctly raises an error if readdir()
  fails with an error condition.

- Fix bsddb.db.DBError derived exceptions so they can be unpickled.

- Bug #1117761: bsddb.*open() no longer raises an exception when using
  the cachesize parameter.

- Bug #1493322: bsddb: the __len__ method of a DB object has been fixed to
  return correct results.  It could previously incorrectly return 0 in some
  cases.  Fixes SF bug 1493322 (pybsddb bug 1184012).

- pybsddb Bug #1527939: bsddb module DBEnv dbremove and dbrename
  methods now allow their database parameter to be None as the
  sleepycat API allows.


- Bug #1545341: The 'classifier' keyword argument to the Distutils setup()
  function now accepts tuples as well as lists.

- Bug #1560617: in pyclbr, return full module name not only for classes,
  but also for functions.

- Bug #1566602: correct failure of posixpath unittest when $HOME ends
  with a slash.

- Reverted patch #1504333 because it introduced an infinite loop.

- Fix missing import of the types module in logging.config.

- Bug #1112549, DoS attack on cgi.FieldStorage.

- Bug #1257728: Complain about missing VS 2003 in the error message
  of msvccompiler, and mention Cygwin as an alternative.

- Bug #1002398: The documentation for os.path.sameopenfile now correctly
  refers to file descriptors, not file objects.

- Bug #1529297:  The rewrite of doctest for Python 2.4 unintentionally
  lost that tests are sorted by name before being run.  This rarely
  matters for well-written tests, but can create baffling symptoms if
  side effects from one test to the next affect outcomes.  ``DocTestFinder``
  has been changed to sort the list of tests it returns.

- The email package has improved RFC 2231 support, specifically for
  recognizing the difference between encoded (name*0*=<blah>) and non-encoded
  (name*0=<blah>) parameter continuations.  This may change the types of
  values returned from email.message.Message.get_param() and friends.
  Specifically in some cases where non-encoded continuations were used,
  get_param() used to return a 3-tuple of (None, None, string) whereas now it
  will just return the string (since non-encoded continuations don't have
  charset and language parts).

  Also, whereas % values were decoded in all parameter continuations, they are
  now only decoded in encoded parameter parts.

- Bug #822974: Honor timeout in telnetlib.{expect,read_until}
  even if some data are received.

- Bug #1267547: Put proper recursive setup.py call into the
  spec file generated by bdist_rpm.

- Bug #1504333: Make sgmllib support angle brackets in quoted attribute

- Bug #853506: Fix IPv6 address parsing in unquoted attributes in sgmllib
  ('[' and ']' were not accepted).

- Bug #1117556: SimpleHTTPServer now tries to find and use the system's
  mime.types file for determining MIME types.

- Bug #1339007: Shelf objects now don't raise an exception in their
  __del__ method when initialization failed.

- Bug #1501223: Possible overflow in _PySys_Init() when reading the code page
  under Windows.

- Patch #1478292. ``doctest.register_optionflag(name)`` shouldn't create a
  new flag when ``name`` is already the name of an option flag.

- Bug #1473760: ``tempfile.TemporaryFile()`` could hang on Windows, when
  called from a thread spawned as a side effect of importing a module.

- The ``__del__`` method of class ``local`` in module ``_threading_local``
  returned before accomplishing any of its intended cleanup.

- Patch #1191700: Adjust column alignment in bdb breakpoint lists.

- The email module's parsedate_tz function now sets the daylight savings
  flag to -1 (unknown) since it can't tell from the date whether it should
  be set.

- Bug #1460340: ``random.sample(dict)`` failed in various ways.  Dicts
  aren't officially supported here, and trying to use them will probably
  raise an exception some day.  But dicts have been allowed, and "mostly
  worked", so support for them won't go away without warning.

- Bug #1472827: correctly escape newlines and tabs in attribute values in
  the saxutils.XMLGenerator class.

- Patch #1110248: SYNC_FLUSH the zlib buffer for GZipFile.flush.



- The Windows binaries for the _ssl module are now linked with
  OpenSSL 0.9.7l.

- On Windows, there are no longer linker warnings when building the
  ``_bsddb`` project.

- Bug #1568842: Fix test for uintptr_t.

- Bug #1439538: Drop usage of test -e in configure as it is not portable.

- Bug #1502728: Correctly link against librt library on HP-UX.

- OpenBSD 3.9 and 4.0 are now supported.

- Test for sys/statvfs.h before including it, as statvfs is present
  on some OSX installation, but its header file is not.

- Fix test_long failure on Tru64 with gcc by using -mieee gcc option.


- Bug #1541682: Fix example in the "Refcount details" API docs.
  Additionally, remove a faulty example showing PySequence_SetItem applied
  to a newly created list object and add notes that this isn't a good idea.

- Clarified documentation for tp_as_buffer->bf_getcharbuffer.

- Bug #1337990: clarified that ``doctest`` does not support examples
  requiring both expected output and an exception.


- Bug #1535182: really test the xreadlines() method of bz2 objects.

- Patch #1529686: test_iterlen and test_email_codecs are now actually
  run by regrtest.py.

- Fix the socket tests so they can be run concurrently.

What's New in Python 2.4.3?

*Release date: 29-MAR-2006*

Core and builtins

- A few reference leaks were squished.

- A threading issue that caused random segfaults on some platforms from
  the testsuite was fixed in test_capi.

- Reverted fix for Bug #1379994: Builtin unicode_escape and
  raw_unicode_escape codec now encodes backslash correctly.
  This caused another issue for unicode repr strings being double-escaped
  (SF Bug #1459029). Correct fix will be in 2.5, but is too risky for 2.4.3.

Extension Modules

- Patch #1380952: fix SSL objects timing out on consecutive read()s

- Ubuntu bug #29289: Fixed a bug that the gb18030 codec raises
  RuntimeError on encoding surrogate pair area on UCS4 build.

What's New in Python 2.4.3c1?

*Release date: 23-MAR-2006*

Core and builtins

- Bug #1115379: Compiling a Unicode string with an encoding declaration
  now gives a SyntaxError.

- Fix missing check on whether the PendingDeprecationWarning for string
  exceptions was re-raised as an actual PendingDeprecationWarning when
  'warnings' is set to a filter action of "error"

- Bug #1378022, UTF-8 files with a leading BOM crashed the interpreter.

- Patch #1400181, fix unicode string formatting to not use the locale.
  This is how string objects work.  u'%f' could use , instead of .
  for the decimal point.  Now both strings and unicode always use periods.

- Bug #1244610, #1392915, fix build problem on OpenBSD 3.7 and 3.8.
  configure would break checking curses.h.

- Bug #959576: The pwd module is now builtin. This allows Python to be
  built on UNIX platforms without $HOME set.

- Bug #1379994: Builtin unicode_escape and raw_unicode_escape codec
  now encodes backslash correctly.

- Bug #1281408: Py_BuildValue now works correct even with unsigned longs
  and long longs.

- SF Bug #1350188, "setdlopenflags" leads to crash upon "import"
  It was possible dlerror() returns a NULL pointer, use a default error
  message in this case.

- SF bug #1167751: fix incorrect code being for generator expressions.
  The following code now raises a SyntaxError:  foo(a = i for i in range(10))

- SF Bug #976608: fix SystemError when mtime of an imported file is -1.

- SF Bug #887946: fix segfault when redirecting stdin from a directory.
  Provide a warning when a directory is passed on the command line.

- Fix segfault with invalid coding.

- Patch #1413181:  changed ``PyThreadState_Delete()`` to forget about the
  current thread state when the auto-GIL-state machinery knows about
  it (since the thread state is being deleted, continuing to remember it
  can't help, but can hurt if another thread happens to get created with
  the same thread id).

Extension Modules

- Bug #1448490: Fixed a bug that ISO-2022 codecs could not handle
  SS2 (single-shift 2) escape sequences correctly.

- Bug #854823: socketmodule now builds on Sun platforms even when
  INET_ADDRSTRLEN is not defined.

- Bug #876637, prevent stack corruption when socket descriptor
  is larger than FD_SETSIZE.

- Patch #1407135, bug #1424041: mmap.mmap(-1, size, ...) can return
  anonymous memory again on Unix.

- Bug #1215432: in bsddb DB.associate() would crash when a DBError
  was supposed to be raised.

- Fix 64-bit problems in bsddb.

- Bug #1290333: Added a workaround for cjkcodecs' _codecs_cn build
  problem on AIX.

- Bug #869197: os.setgroups rejects long integer arguments

- Bug #1344508, Fix UNIX mmap leaking file descriptors

- Patch #1338314, Bug #1336623: fix tarfile so it can extract
  REGTYPE directories from tarfiles written by old programs.

- Patch #1309009, Fix segfault in pyexpat when the XML document is in latin_1,
  but Python incorrectly assumes it is in UTF-8 format

- Fix parse errors in the readline module when compiling without threads.


- Patch #1462313, bug #1443328: the pickle modules now can handle classes
  that have __private names in their __slots__.

- A regrtest option -w was added to re-run failed tests in verbose mode.

- Patch #1337756: fileinput now handles Unicode filenames correctly.

- Patch #1373643: The chunk module can now read chunks larger than
  two gigabytes.

- Bug #1430298: It is now possible to send a mail with an empty
  return address using smtplib.

- Bug #1432260: The names of lambda functions are now properly displayed
  in pydoc.

- Bug #1371247: Update Windows locale identifiers in locale.py.

- Bug #1394565: SimpleHTTPServer now doesn't choke on query parameters
  any more.

- Bug #1403410: The warnings module now doesn't get confused
  when it can't find out the module name it generates a warning for.

- Patch #1117398: cookielib.LWPCookieJar and .MozillaCookieJar now raise
  LoadError as documented, instead of IOError.  For compatibility,
  LoadError subclasses IOError.

- Bug #1365984: urllib now opens "data:" URLs again.

- Patch #1314396: Prevent threading.Thread.join() from blocking if a previous
  call caused an exception to be raised (e.g., calling join() with an illegal

- urllib.unquote() now handles Unicode strings correctly.  Formerly, it would
  either ignore the substitution or raise UnicodeDecodeError.

- SF #1313496:  the bisect module now accepts named arguments.

- Bug #729103: pydoc.py: Fix docother() method to accept additional
  "parent" argument.

- Patch #1300515: xdrlib.py: Fix pack_fstring() to really use null bytes
  for padding.

- Bug #1296004: httplib.py: Limit maximal amount of data read from the
  socket to avoid a MemoryError on Windows.


- Fixed a display glitch in Pynche, which could cause the right arrow to
  wiggle over by a pixel.


- Patch #1432345: Make python compile on DragonFly.

- Patch #1428494: Prefer linking against ncursesw over ncurses library.

What's New in Python 2.4.2 final?

*Release date: 28-SEP-2005*

Extension Modules

- Patches #1298449 and #1298499: Add some missing checks for error
  returns in cStringIO.c.

- Patch #1297028: fix segfault if call type on MultibyteCodec,
  MultibyteStreamReader, or MultibyteStreamWriter.


- Fixed failure in test_macfs on Mac OS X 10.4 (Tiger), which
  apparently doesn't allow the creation time to be set later than the
  modification time.  Fixed by changing the test data.


- Patch #881820: look for openpty and forkpty also in libbsd.

- Use -xcode=pic32 for CCSHARED on Solaris with SunPro.

- The Windows .msi files are now compressed using lzx:21. This produces a
  significantly smaller installer.

What's New in Python 2.4.2c1?

*Release date: 21-SEP-2005*

Core and builtins

- SF bug #1163563: the original fix for bug #1010677 ("thread Module
  Breaks PyGILState_Ensure()") broke badly in the case of multiple
  interpreter states; back out that fix and do a better job (see
  for a longer write-up of the problem).

- On 64-bit platforms, when __len__() returns a value that cannot be
  represented as a C int, raise OverflowError.

- SF bug #893549: parsing keyword arguments was broken with a few format

- Changes donated by Elemental Security to make it work on AIX 5.3
  with IBM's 64-bit compiler (SF patch #1284289).  This also closes SF
  bug #105470: test_pwd fails on 64bit system (Opteron).

- Changes donated by Elemental Security to make it work on HP-UX 11 on
  Itanium2 with HP's 64-bit compiler (SF patch #1225212).

- Disallow keyword arguments for type constructors that don't use them
  (fixes bug #1119418).

- Forward UnicodeDecodeError into SyntaxError for source encoding errors.

- SF bug #900092: When tracing (e.g. for hotshot), restore 'return' events for
  exceptions that cause a function to exit.

- SF bug #1257731:  set.discard() and set.remove() did not correctly
  handle keys that both inherited from set and defined their own
  __hash__() function.  Also, changed set.__contains__() to have
  identical logic.

- The set() builtin can now properly compute s-=s as an empty set.

- SF bug #1238681:  freed pointer is used in longobject.c:long_pow().

- SF bug #1185883:  Python's small-object memory allocator took over
  a block managed by the platform C library whenever a realloc specified
  a small new size.  However, there's no portable way to know then how
  much of the address space following the pointer is valid, so no
  portable way to copy data from the C-managed block into Python's
  small-object space without risking a memory fault.  Python's small-object
  realloc now leaves such blocks under the control of the platform C

- Fix garbage collection for set and frozenset objects.  SF patch #1200018.

- It is now safe to call PyGILState_Release() before
  PyEval_InitThreads() (note that if there is reason to believe there
  are multiple threads around you still must call PyEval_InitThreads()
  before using the Python API; this fix is for extension modules that
  have no way of knowing if Python is multi-threaded yet).

- Typing Ctrl-C whilst raw_input() was waiting in a build with threads
  disabled caused a crash.

- Bug #1165306: instancemethod_new allowed the creation of a method
  with im_class == im_self == NULL, which caused a crash when called.

Extension Modules

- Bug #1413192, fix seg fault in bsddb if a transaction was deleted
  before the env.

- Bug #1402308, (possible) segfault when using mmap.mmap(-1, ...)

- Bug #1400822, _curses over{lay,write} doesn't work when passing 6 ints.
  Also fix ungetmouse() which did not accept arguments properly.
  The code now conforms to the documented signature.

- Bug #1400115, Fix segfault when calling curses.panel.userptr()
  without prior setting of the userptr.

- Bug #1346533, select.poll() doesn't raise an error if timeout > sys.maxint

- Fix memory leak in posix.access().

- Patch #1213831: Fix typo in unicodedata._getcode.

- Bug #1007046: os.startfile() did not accept unicode strings encoded in
  the file system encoding.

- Patch #756021: Special-case socket.inet_aton('') for
  platforms that don't have inet_aton().

- Bug #1215928: Fix bz2.BZ2File.seek() for 64-bit file offsets.

- Bug #1191043: Fix bz2.BZ2File.(x)readlines() for files containing one line
  without newlines.

- Bug #728515: mmap.resize() now resizes the file on Unix as it did
  on Windows.

- Bug #1234979: For the argument of thread.Lock.acquire, the Windows
  implemented treated all integer values except 1 as false.

- Bug #1194181: bz2.BZ2File didn't handle mode 'U' correctly.

- Bug #1166660: The readline module could segfault if hook functions
  were set in a different thread than that which called readline.

- weakref proxy has incorrect __nonzero__ behavior.  SF bug #1770766.


- Patch #1166948: locale.py: Prefer LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE and LANG over LANGUAGE
  to get the correct encoding.

- Patch #1166938: locale.py: Parse LANGUAGE as a colon separated list of

- Patch #1268314: Cache lines in StreamReader.readlines for performance.

- Bug #1290505: time.strptime() was not invalidating its regex cache when the
  locale changed.

- Fix a misuse of str.find() in detection of use of %U or %W in datetime

- Bug #1167128: Fix size of a symlink in a tarfile to be 0.

- Patch #810023: Fix off-by-one bug in urllib.urlretrieve reporthook

- Bug #1163178: Make IDNA return an empty string when the input is empty.

- Bug #1121494: distutils.dir_utils.mkpath now accepts Unicode strings.

- Bug #1178484: Return complete lines from codec stream readers
  even if there is an exception in later lines, resulting in
  correct line numbers for decoding errors in source code.

- Bug #1266283: "lexists" is now in os.path.__all__.

- The sets module can now properly compute s-=s and s^=s as an empty set.

- Bug #1192315: Disallow negative arguments to clear() in pdb.

- Patch #827386: Support absolute source paths in msvccompiler.py.

- Fix a problem in Tkinter introduced by SF patch #869468: delete bogus
  __hasattr__ and __delattr__ methods on class Tk that were breaking

- Bug #1015140: disambiguated the term "article id" in nntplib docs and
  docstrings to either "article number" or "message id".

- Bug #1177468: Don't cache the /dev/urandom file descriptor for os.urandom,
  as this can cause problems with apps closing all file descriptors.

- Bug #839151: Fix an attempt to access sys.argv in the warnings module
  though this can be missing in embedded interpreters

- Bug #1155638: Fix a bug which affected HTTP 0.9 responses in httplib.

- Bug #1100201: Cross-site scripting was possible on BaseHTTPServer via
  error messages.

- Bug #1224621: tokenize module does not detect inconsistent dedents

- Bug #1196315: fix weakref.WeakValueDictionary constructor.

- Bug #1213894: os.path.realpath didn't resolve symlinks that were the first
  component of the path.

- distutils.commands.register now encodes the data as UTF-8 before posting
  them to PyPI.

- Partial fixes for SF bugs #1163244 and #1175396: If a chunk read by
  ``codecs.StreamReader.readline()`` has a trailing "\r", read one more
  character even if the user has passed a size parameter to get a proper
  line ending. Remove the special handling of a "\r\n" that has been split
  between two lines.

- Bug #1251300: On UCS-4 builds the "unicode-internal" codec will now complain
  about illegal code points. The codec now supports PEP 293 style error

- Bug #1235646: ``codecs.StreamRecoder.next()`` now reencodes the data it reads
  from the input stream, so that the output is a byte string in the correct
  encoding instead of a unicode string.

- Bug #1202493: Fixing SRE parser to handle '{}' as perl does, rather than
  considering it exactly like a '*'.


- Patch #1160164: Build zlib.pyd for Itanium.

- Bug #1189330: configure did not correctly determine the necessary
  value of LINKCC if python was built with GCC 4.0.

- Upgrade Windows build to zlib 1.2.3 which eliminates a potential security
  vulnerability in zlib 1.2.1 and 1.2.2.


- Bug #1402224: Add warning to dl docs about crashes.

- Bug #1396471: Document that Windows' ftell() can return invalid
  values for text files with UNIX-style line endings.

- Bug #1274828: Document os.path.splitunc().

- Bug #1190204: Clarify which directories are searched by site.py.

- Bug #1193849: Clarify os.path.expanduser() documentation.

- Bug #1243192: re.UNICODE and re.LOCALE affect \d, \D, \s and \S.

- Bug #755617: Document the effects of os.chown() on Windows.

- Patch #1180012: The documentation for modulefinder is now in the library reference.

- Patch #1213031: Document that os.chown() accepts argument values of -1.

- Bug #1190563: Document os.waitpid() return value with WNOHANG flag.

- Bug #1175022: Correct the example code for property().


- Bug #1072853: pindent.py used an uninitialized variable.

What's New in Python 2.4.1 final?

*Release date: 30-MAR-2005*

Core and builtins

- Move exception finalisation later in the shutdown process - this
  fixes the crash seen in bug #1165761


- SF patch 1167316: doctest.py fails self-test if run directly.


- SF patch 1171767: Darwin 8's headers are anal about POSIX compliance,
  and linking has changed (prebinding is now deprecated, and libcc_dynamic
  no longer exists). This configure patch makes things right.

What's New in Python 2.4.1c2?

*Release date: 17-MAR-2005*


- Fixed decimal operator and comparison methods to return NotImplemented
  instead of raising a TypeError when interacting with other types.
  Allows other classes to successfully implement __radd__ style methods.

- Bug #1163325:  Decimal infinities failed to hash.  Attempting to
  hash a NaN raised an InvalidOperation instead of a TypeError.

- Bug #1160802: can't build Zope on Windows with 2.4.1c1.  The
  ``MSVCCompiler`` class in distutils forgot to record that it was
  initialized, and continued adding redundant entries to the system
  ``PATH`` environment variable until ``putenv()`` complained about the
  size.  This only affected building projects with many C extensions,
  and only on Windows using Microsoft's compiler.  This wasn't visible
  before because a bugfix first included in 2.4.1c1 provoked it (bug
  #1110478: revert os.environ.update to do putenv again).

- Bug #1156259: Seeking in codecs.reader was broken, now fixed.


- Fix the test for socket.getfqdn() in test_socket to also consider the host
  name returned by socket.gethostname() a valid return value for getfqdn().
  Also clarified the wording of docs and docstring that this is the case.

Extensions Modules

- os.access now supports Unicode path names on non-Win32 systems.

What's New in Python 2.4.1c1?

*Release date: 10-MAR-2005*

Core and builtins

- Bug #1155938: new style classes did not verify that __init__()
  returns None.

- Bug #723201: Raise a TypeError for passing bad objects to 'L' format.

- Bug #1124295: the __name__ attribute of file objects was
  inadvertently made inaccessible in restricted mode.

- Bug #1074011: closing sys.std{out,err} now causes a flush() and
  an ferror() call.

- Bug #1085744:  Add missing overflow check to PySequence_Tuple().
  Make resize schedule linear (amortized).

- marshal.dumps() no longer crashes when the optional argument ``version``
  is provided.

Extension Modules

- Patches #925152, #1118602: Avoid reading after the end of the buffer
  in pyexpat.GetInputContext.

- Patch #1093585: raise a ValueError for negative history items in readline.


- Patch #1075887: Don't require MSVC in distutils if there is nothing
  to build.

- Patch #1103407: Properly deal with tarfile iterators when untarring
  symbolic links on Windows.

- Patch #1117454: Remove code to special-case cookies without values
  in LWPCookieJar.

- Patch #1117339: Add cookielib special name tests.

- Patch #1112812: Make bsddb/__init__.py more friendly for modulefinder.

- Patch #1121234: Properly cleanup _exit and tkerror commands.

- Applied a security fix to SimpleXMLRPCserver (PSF-2005-001).  This
  disables recursive traversal through instance attributes, which can
  be exploited in various ways.

- Bug #1110478: Revert os.environ.update to do putenv again.

- Bug #1103844: fix distutils.install.dump_dirs() with negated options.

- Bug #1067732: wininst --install-script doesn't leave residual files anymore.

- StringIO.truncate() now correctly adjusts the size attribute.
  (Bug #951915).

- The decimal module wouldn't run on builds without threads (Bug #1083645).

- Bug #1086555:  Fix leak in syslog module.

- atexit.register no longer references the sys module before importing it.
  (Bug #1083202).

- unittest.TestCase.run() and unittest.TestSuite.run() can now be successfully
  extended or overridden by subclasses.  Formerly, the subclassed method would
  be ignored by the rest of the module.  (Bug #1078905).

- Bug #1076985: ``codecs.StreamReader.readline()`` now calls ``read()`` only
  once when a size argument is given. This prevents a buffer overflow in the
  tokenizer with very long source lines.

- Bug #1083110: ``zlib.decompress.flush()`` would segfault if called immediately
  after creating the object, without any intervening ``.decompress()`` calls.

- Bug #1149508: ``textwrap`` now handles hyphenated numbers (eg. "2004-03-05")


- Bug #1158607: Build with --disable-unicode again.

- term.h is now properly detected again.

- Check for tzset no longer dependent on tm->tm_zone to exist in the struct
  (not required by either ISO C nor the UNIX 2 spec).
  Tests for sanity in tzname when HAVE_TZNAME defined were also defined.
  Closes bug #1096244.  Thanks Gregory Bond.


- Bug #1076861: The IDLE shortcut is now correct even if the target
  directory contains a space.

- Bug #1085208 and similar: The installer does not fail anymore if
  VBScript is not available on the target machine, not installed
  properly, or outdated; the MSI package now does not rely on VB


- Bug #1091468: make frameworkinstall now works with DESTROOT builds

- On 10.3 and later extensions are built with -undefined dynamic_lookup.
  This ensures that extensions can be built in older versions of Python after
  a newer framework has been installed. In addition, an extension will not
  accidentally pull in another copy of the Python interpreter.

  On 10.2 and earlier (or if MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET is set to a value <= 10.2)
  extensions are linked directly to the dylib in the framework, in stead
  of against the framework itself. This ensures that extensions can be built
  in older versions of Python after a newer framework has been installed.

- PackageManager and the underlying pimp.py module have been updated to
  version 0.5, which greatly simplifies maintainance of the package


- Remove all latent references for "Macintosh" that referred to semantics for
  Mac OS 9 and change to reflect the state for OS X.
  Closes patch #1095802.  Thanks Jack Jansen.

What's New in Python 2.4 final?

*Release date: 30-NOV-2004*

Core and builtins

- Bug 875692: Improve signal handling, especially when using threads, by
  forcing an early re-execution of PyEval_EvalFrame() "periodic" code when
  things_to_do is not cleared by Py_MakePendingCalls().

What's New in Python 2.4 (release candidate 1)

*Release date: 18-NOV-2004*

Core and builtins

- Bug 1061968:  Fixes in 2.4a3 to address thread bug 1010677 reintroduced
  the years-old thread shutdown race bug 225673.  Numeric history lesson
  aside, all bugs in all three reports are fixed now.


- Bug 1052242: If exceptions are raised by an atexit handler function an
  attempt is made to execute the remaining handlers.  The last exception
  raised is re-raised.

- ``doctest``'s new support for adding ``pdb.set_trace()`` calls to
  doctests was broken in a dramatic but shallow way.  Fixed.

- Bug 1065388:  ``calendar``'s ``day_name``, ``day_abbr``, ``month_name``,
  and ``month_abbr`` attributes emulate sequences of locale-correct
  spellings of month and day names.  Because the locale can change at
  any time, the correct spelling is recomputed whenever one of these is
  indexed.  In the worst case, the index may be a slice object, so these
  recomputed every day or month name each time they were indexed.  This is
  much slower than necessary in the usual case, when the index is just an
  integer.  In that case, only the single spelling needed is recomputed
  now; and, when the index is a slice object, only the spellings needed
  by the slice are recomputed now.

- Patch 1061679: Added ``__all__`` to pickletools.py.


- Bug 1034277 / Patch 1035255: Remove compilation of core against CoreServices
  and CoreFoundation on OS X.  Involved removing PyMac_GetAppletScriptFile()
  which has no known users.  Thanks Bob Ippolito.


- The PyRange_New() function is deprecated.

What's New in Python 2.4 beta 2?

*Release date: 03-NOV-2004*


The Python Software Foundation changed the license under which Python
is released, to remove Python version numbers.  There were no other
changes to the license.  So, for example, wherever the license for
Python 2.3 said "Python 2.3", the new license says "Python".  The
intent is to make it possible to refer to the PSF license in a more
durable way.  For example, some people say they're confused by that
the Open Source Initiative's entry for the Python Software Foundation


says "Python 2.1.1" all over it, wondering whether it applies only
to Python 2.1.1.

The official name of the new license is the Python Software Foundation
License Version 2.

Core and builtins

- Bug #1055820 Cyclic garbage collection was not protecting against that
  calling a live weakref to a piece of cyclic trash could resurrect an
  insane mutation of the trash if any Python code ran during gc (via
  running a dead object's __del__ method, running another callback on a
  weakref to a dead object, or via any Python code run in any other thread
  that managed to obtain the GIL while a __del__ or callback was running
  in the thread doing gc).  The most likely symptom was "impossible"
  ``AttributeEror`` exceptions, appearing seemingly at random, on weakly
  referenced objects.  The cure was to clear all weakrefs to unreachable
  objects before allowing any callbacks to run.

- Bug #1054139 _PyString_Resize() now invalidates its cached hash value.

Extension Modules

- Bug #1048870:  the compiler now generates distinct code objects for
  functions with identical bodies.  This was producing confusing
  traceback messages which pointed to the function where the code
  object was first defined rather than the function being executed.


- Patch #1056967 changes the semantics of Template.safe_substitute() so that
  no ValueError is raised on an 'invalid' match group.  Now the delimiter is

- Bug #1052503 pdb.runcall() was not passing along keyword arguments.

- Bug #902037: XML.sax.saxutils.prepare_input_source() now combines relative
  paths with a base path before checking os.path.isfile().

- The whichdb module can now be run from the command line.

- Bug #1045381: time.strptime() can now infer the date using %U or %W (week of
  the year) when the day of the week and year are also specified.

- Bug #1048816: fix bug in Ctrl-K at start of line in curses.textpad.Textbox

- Bug #1017553: fix bug in tarfile.filemode()

- Patch #737473: fix bug that old source code is shown in tracebacks even if
  the source code is updated and reloaded.


- Patch #1044395: --enable-shared is allowed in FreeBSD also.

What's New in Python 2.4 beta 1?

*Release date: 15-OCT-2004*

Core and builtins

- Patch #975056: Restartable signals were not correctly disabled on
  BSD systems. Consistently use PyOS_setsig() instead of signal().

- The internal portable implementation of thread-local storage (TLS), used
  by the ``PyGILState_Ensure()``/``PyGILState_Release()`` API, was not
  thread-correct.  This could lead to a variety of problems, up to and
  including segfaults.  See bug 1041645 for an example.

- Added a command line option, -m module, which searches sys.path for the
  module and then runs it.  (Contributed by Nick Coghlan.)

- The bytecode optimizer now folds tuples of constants into a single

- SF bug #513866:  Float/long comparison anomaly.  Prior to 2.4b1, when
  an integer was compared to a float, the integer was coerced to a float.
  That could yield spurious overflow errors (if the integer was very
  large), and to anomalies such as
  ``long(1e200)+1 == 1e200 == long(1e200)-1``.  Coercion to float is no
  longer performed, and cases like ``long(1e200)-1 < 1e200``,
  ``long(1e200)+1 > 1e200`` and ``(1 << 20000) > 1e200`` are computed
  correctly now.

Extension modules

- ``collections.deque`` objects didn't play quite right with garbage
  collection, which could lead to a segfault in a release build, or
  an assert failure in a debug build.  Also, added overflow checks,
  better detection of mutation during iteration, and shielded deque
  comparisons from unusual subclass overrides of the __iter__() method.


- Patch 1046644: distutils build_ext grew two new options - --swig for
  specifying the swig executable to use, and --swig-opts to specify
  options to pass to swig. --swig-opts="-c++" is the new way to spell

- Patch 983206: distutils now obeys environment variable LDSHARED, if
  it is set.

- Added Peter Astrand's subprocess.py module.  See PEP 324 for details.

- time.strptime() now properly escapes timezones and all other locale-specific
  strings for regex-specific symbols.  Was breaking under Japanese Windows when
  the timezone was specified as "Tokyo (standard time)".
  Closes bug #1039270.

- Updates for the email package:

  + email.Utils.formatdate() grew a 'usegmt' argument for HTTP support.
  + All deprecated APIs that in email 2.x issued warnings have been removed:
    _encoder argument to the MIMEText constructor, Message.add_payload(),
    Utils.dump_address_pair(), Utils.decode(), Utils.encode()
  + New deprecations: Generator.__call__(), Message.get_type(),
    Message.get_main_type(), Message.get_subtype(), the 'strict' argument to
    the Parser constructor.  These will be removed in email 3.1.
  + Support for Python earlier than 2.3 has been removed (see PEP 291).
  + All defect classes have been renamed to end in 'Defect'.
  + Some FeedParser fixes; also a MultipartInvariantViolationDefect will be
    added to messages that claim to be multipart but really aren't.
  + Updates to documentation.

- re's findall() and finditer() functions now take an optional flags argument
  just like the compile(), search(), and match() functions.  Also, documented
  the previously existing start and stop parameters for the findall() and
  finditer() methods of regular expression objects.

- rfc822 Messages now support iterating over the headers.

- The (undocumented) tarfile.Tarfile.membernames has been removed;
  applications should use the getmember function.

- httplib now offers symbolic constants for the HTTP status codes.

- SF bug #1028306:  Trying to compare a ``datetime.date`` to a
  ``datetime.datetime`` mistakenly compared only the year, month and day.
  Now it acts like a mixed-type comparison:  ``False`` for ``==``,
  ``True`` for ``!=``, and raises ``TypeError`` for other comparison
  operators.  Because datetime is a subclass of date, comparing only the
  base class (date) members can still be done, if that's desired, by
  forcing using of the approprate date method; e.g.,
  ``a_date.__eq__(a_datetime)`` is true if and only if the year, month
  and day members of ``a_date`` and ``a_datetime`` are equal.

- bdist_rpm now supports command line options --force-arch,
  {pre,post}-install,  {pre,post}-uninstall, and

- SF patch #998993: The UTF-8 and the UTF-16 stateful decoders now support
  decoding incomplete input (when the input stream is temporarily exhausted).
  ``codecs.StreamReader`` now implements buffering, which enables proper
  readline support for the UTF-16 decoders. ``codecs.StreamReader.read()``
  has a new argument ``chars`` which specifies the number of characters to
  return. ``codecs.StreamReader.readline()`` and
  ``codecs.StreamReader.readlines()`` have a new argument ``keepends``.
  Trailing "\n"s will be stripped from the lines if ``keepends`` is false.

- The documentation for doctest is greatly expanded, and now covers all
  the new public features (of which there are many).

- ``doctest.master`` was put back in, and ``doctest.testmod()`` once again
  updates it.  This isn't good, because every ``testmod()`` call
  contributes to bloating the "hidden" state of ``doctest.master``, but
  some old code apparently relies on it.  For now, all we can do is
  encourage people to stitch doctests together via doctest's unittest
  integration features instead.

- httplib now handles ipv6 address/port pairs.

- SF bug #1017864: ConfigParser now correctly handles default keys,
  processing them with ``ConfigParser.optionxform`` when supplied,
  consistent with the handling of config file entries and runtime-set

- SF bug #997050: Document, test, & check for non-string values in
  ConfigParser.  Moved the new string-only restriction added in
  rev. 1.65 to the SafeConfigParser class, leaving existing
  ConfigParser & RawConfigParser behavior alone, and documented the
  conditions under which non-string values work.


- Building on darwin now includes /opt/local/include and /opt/local/lib for
  building extension modules.  This is so as to include software installed as
  a DarwinPorts port <http://darwinports.opendarwin.org/>

- pyport.h now defines a Py_IS_NAN macro.  It works as-is when the
  platform C computes true for ``x != x`` if and only if X is a NaN.
  Other platforms can override the default definition with a platform-
  specific spelling in that platform's pyconfig.h.  You can also override
  pyport.h's default Py_IS_INFINITY definition now.


- SF patch 1044089:  New function ``PyEval_ThreadsInitialized()`` returns
  non-zero if PyEval_InitThreads() has been called.

- The undocumented and unused extern int ``_PyThread_Started`` was removed.

- The C API calls ``PyInterpreterState_New()`` and ``PyThreadState_New()``
  are two of the very few advertised as being safe to call without holding
  the GIL.  However, this wasn't true in a debug build, as bug 1041645
  demonstrated.  In a debug build, Python redirects the ``PyMem`` family
  of calls to Python's small-object allocator, to get the benefit of
  its extra debugging capabilities.  But Python's small-object allocator
  isn't threadsafe, relying on the GIL to avoid the expense of doing its
  own locking.  ``PyInterpreterState_New()`` and ``PyThreadState_New()``
  call the platform ``malloc()`` directly now, regardless of build type.

- PyLong_AsUnsignedLong[Mask] now support int objects as well.

- SF patch #998993: ``PyUnicode_DecodeUTF8Stateful`` and
  ``PyUnicode_DecodeUTF16Stateful`` have been added, which implement stateful


- test__locale ported to unittest


- ``plistlib`` now supports non-dict root objects.  There is also a new
  interface for reading and writing plist files: ``readPlist(pathOrFile)``
  and ``writePlist(rootObject, pathOrFile)``


- The text file comparison scripts ``ndiff.py`` and ``diff.py`` now
  read the input files in universal-newline mode.  This spares them
  from consuming a great deal of time to deduce the useless result that,
  e.g., a file with Windows line ends and a file with Linux line ends
  have no lines in common.

What's New in Python 2.4 alpha 3?

*Release date: 02-SEP-2004*

Core and builtins

- SF patch #1007189: ``from ... import ...`` statements now allow the name
  list to be surrounded by parentheses.

- Some speedups for long arithmetic, thanks to Trevor Perrin.  Gradeschool
  multiplication was sped a little by optimizing the C code.  Gradeschool
  squaring was sped by about a factor of 2, by exploiting that about half
  the digit products are duplicates in a square.  Because exponentiation
  uses squaring often, this also speeds long power.  For example, the time
  to compute 17**1000000 dropped from about 14 seconds to 9 on my box due
  to this much.  The cutoff for Karatsuba multiplication was raised,
  since gradeschool multiplication got quicker, and the cutoff was
  aggressively small regardless.  The exponentiation algorithm was switched
  from right-to-left to left-to-right, which is more efficient for small
  bases.  In addition, if the exponent is large, the algorithm now does
  5 bits (instead of 1 bit) at a time.  That cut the time to compute
  17**1000000 on my box in half again, down to about 4.5 seconds.

- OverflowWarning is no longer generated.  PEP 237 scheduled this to
  occur in Python 2.3, but since OverflowWarning was disabled by default,
  nobody realized it was still being generated.  On the chance that user
  code is still using them, the Python builtin OverflowWarning, and
  corresponding C API PyExc_OverflowWarning, will exist until Python 2.5.

- Py_InitializeEx has been added.

- Fix the order of application of decorators.  The proper order is bottom-up;
  the first decorator listed is the last one called.

- SF patch #1005778.  Fix a seg fault if the list size changed while
  calling list.index().  This could happen if a rich comparison function
  modified the list.

- The ``func_name`` (a.k.a. ``__name__``) attribute of user-defined
  functions is now writable.

- code_new (a.k.a new.code()) now checks its arguments sufficiently
  carefully that passing them on to PyCode_New() won't trigger calls
  to Py_FatalError() or PyErr_BadInternalCall().  It is still the case
  that the returned code object might be entirely insane.

- Subclasses of string can no longer be interned.  The semantics of
  interning were not clear here -- a subclass could be mutable, for
  example -- and had bugs.  Explicitly interning a subclass of string
  via intern() will raise a TypeError.  Internal operations that attempt
  to intern a string subclass will have no effect.

- Bug 1003935:  xrange() could report bogus OverflowErrors.  Documented
  what xrange() intends, and repaired tests accordingly.

Extension modules

- difflib now supports HTML side-by-side diff.

- os.urandom has been added for systems that support sources of random

- Patch 1012740:  truncate() on a writeable cStringIO now resets the
  position to the end of the stream.  This is consistent with the original
  StringIO module and avoids inadvertently resurrecting data that was
  supposed to have been truncated away.

- Added socket.socketpair().

- Added CurrentByteIndex, CurrentColumnNumber, CurrentLineNumber
  members to xml.parsers.expat.XMLParser object.

- The mpz, rotor, and xreadlines modules, all deprecated in earlier
  versions of Python, have now been removed.


- Patch #934356: if a module defines __all__, believe that rather than using
  heuristics for filtering out imported names.

- Patch #941486: added os.path.lexists(), which returns True for broken
  symlinks, unlike os.path.exists().

- the random module now uses os.urandom() for seeding if it is available.
  Added a new generator based on os.urandom().

- difflib and diff.py can now generate HTML.

- bdist_rpm now includes version and release in the BuildRoot, and
  replaces - by ``_`` in version and release.

- distutils build/build_scripts now has an -e option to specify the
  path to the Python interpreter for installed scripts.

- PEP 292 classes Template and SafeTemplate are added to the string module.

- tarfile now generates GNU tar files by default.

- HTTPResponse has now a getheaders method.

- Patch #1006219: let inspect.getsource handle '@' decorators. Thanks Simon

- logging.handlers.SMTPHandler.date_time has been removed;
  the class now uses email.Utils.formatdate to generate the time stamp.

- A new function tkFont.nametofont was added to return an existing
  font. The Font class constructor now has an additional exists argument
  which, if True, requests to return/configure an existing font, rather
  than creating a new one.

- Updated the decimal package's min() and max() methods to match the
  latest revision of the General Decimal Arithmetic Specification.
  Quiet NaNs are ignored and equal values are sorted based on sign
  and exponent.

- The decimal package's Context.copy() method now returns deep copies.

- Deprecated sys.exitfunc in favor of the atexit module.  The sys.exitfunc
  attribute will be kept around for backwards compatibility and atexit
  will just become the one preferred way to do it.

- patch #675551: Add get_history_item and replace_history_item functions
  to the readline module.

- bug #989672: pdb.doc and the help messages for the help_d and help_u methods
  of the pdb.Pdb class gives have been corrected. d(own) goes to a newer
  frame, u(p) to an older frame, not the other way around.

- bug #990669: os.path.realpath() will resolve symlinks before normalizing the
  path, as normalizing the path may alter the meaning of the path if it
  contains symlinks.

- bug #851123: shutil.copyfile will raise an exception when trying to copy a
  file onto a link to itself. Thanks Gregory Ball.

- bug #570300: Fix inspect to resolve file locations using os.path.realpath()
  so as to properly list all functions in a module when the module itself is
  reached through a symlink.  Thanks Johannes Gijsbers.

- doctest refactoring continued.  See the docs for details.  As part of
  this effort, some old and little- (never?) used features are now
  deprecated:  the Tester class, the module is_private() function, and the
  isprivate argument to testmod().  The Tester class supplied a feeble
  "by hand" way to combine multiple doctests, if you knew exactly what
  you were doing.  The newer doctest features for unittest integration
  already did a better job of that, are stronger now than ever, and the
  new DocTestRunner class is a saner foundation if you want to do it by
  hand.  The "private name" filtering gimmick was a mistake from the
  start, and testmod() changed long ago to ignore it by default.  If
  you want to filter out tests, the new DocTestFinder class can be used
  to return a list of all doctests, and you can filter that list by
  any computable criteria before passing it to a DocTestRunner instance.

- Bug #891637, patch #1005466: fix inspect.getargs() crash on def foo((bar)).


- IDLE's shortcut keys for windows are now case insensitive so that
  Control-V works the same as Control-v.

- pygettext.py: Generate POT-Creation-Date header in ISO format.


- Backward incompatibility:  longintrepr.h now triggers a compile-time
  error if SHIFT (the number of bits in a Python long "digit") isn't
  divisible by 5.  This new requirement allows simple code for the new
  5-bits-at-a-time long_pow() implementation.  If necessary, the
  restriction could be removed (by complicating long_pow(), or by
  falling back to the 1-bit-at-a-time algorithm), but there are no
  plans to do so.

- bug #991962: When building with --disable-toolbox-glue on Darwin no
  attempt to build Mac-specific modules occurs.

- The --with-tsc flag to configure to enable VM profiling with the
  processor's timestamp counter now works on PPC platforms.

- patch #1006629: Define _XOPEN_SOURCE to 500 on Solaris 8/9 to match
  GCC's definition and avoid redefinition warnings.

- Detect pthreads support (provided by gnu pth pthread emulation) on
  GNU/k*BSD systems.

- bug #1005737, #1007249: Fixed several build problems and warnings
  found on old/legacy C compilers of HP-UX, IRIX and Tru64.




- patch #1005936, bug #1009373: fix index entries which contain
  an underscore when viewed with Acrobat.

- bug #990669: os.path.normpath may alter the meaning of a path if
  it contains symbolic links. This has been documented in a comment
  since 1992, but is now in the library reference as well.

New platforms

- FreeBSD 6 is now supported.




- Boosted the stack reservation for python.exe and pythonw.exe from
  the default 1MB to 2MB.  Stack frames under VC 7.1 for 2.4 are enough
  bigger than under VC 6.0 for 2.3.4 that deeply recursive progams
  within the default sys.getrecursionlimit() default value of 1000 were
  able to suffer undetected C stack overflows.  The standard test program
  test_compiler was one such program.  If a Python process on Windows
  "just vanishes" without a trace, and without an error message of any
  kind, but with an exit code of 128, undetected stack overflow may be
  the problem.



What's New in Python 2.4 alpha 2?

*Release date: 05-AUG-2004*

Core and builtins

- Patch #980695:  Implements efficient string concatenation for statements
  of the form s=s+t and s+=t.  This will vary across implementations.
  Accordingly, the str.join() method is strongly preferred for performance
  sensitive code.

- PEP-0318, Function Decorators have been added to the language. These are
  implemented using the Java-style @decorator syntax, like so::

     def foo(bar):

  (The PEP needs to be updated to reflect the current state)

- When importing a module M raises an exception, Python no longer leaves M
  in sys.modules.  Before 2.4a2 it did, and a subsequent import of M would
  succeed, picking up a module object from sys.modules reflecting as much
  of the initialization of M as completed before the exception was raised.
  Subsequent imports got no indication that M was in a partially-
  initialized state, and the importers could get into arbitrarily bad
  trouble as a result (the M they got was in an unintended state,
  arbitrarily far removed from M's author's intent).  Now subsequent
  imports of M will continue raising exceptions (but if, for example, the
  source code for M is edited between import attempts, then perhaps later
  attempts will succeed, or raise a different exception).

  This can break existing code, but in such cases the code was probably
  working before by accident.  In the Python source, the only case of
  breakage discovered was in a test accidentally relying on a damaged
  module remaining in sys.modules.  Cases are also known where tests
  deliberately provoking import errors remove damaged modules from
  sys.modules themselves, and such tests will break now if they do an
  unconditional del sys.modules[M].

- u'%s' % obj will now try obj.__unicode__() first and fallback to
  obj.__str__() if no __unicode__ method can be found.

- Patch #550732: Add PyArg_VaParseTupleAndKeywords().  Analogous to
  PyArg_VaParse().  Both are now documented.  Thanks Greg Chapman.

- Allow string and unicode return types from .encode()/.decode()
  methods on string and unicode objects.  Added unicode.decode()
  which was missing for no apparent reason.

- An attempt to fix the mess that is Python's behaviour with
  signal handlers and threads, complicated by readline's behaviour.
  It's quite possible that there are still bugs here.

- Added C macros Py_CLEAR and Py_VISIT to ease the implementation of
  types that support garbage collection.

- Compiler now treats None as a constant.

- The type of values returned by __int__, __float__, __long__,
  __oct__, and __hex__ are now checked.  Returning an invalid type
  will cause a TypeError to be raised.  This matches the behavior of

- Implemented bind_textdomain_codeset() in locale module.

- Added a workaround for proper string operations in BSDs.  str.split
  and str.is* methods can now work correctly with UTF-8 locales.

- Bug #989185: unicode.iswide() and unicode.width() is dropped and
  the East Asian Width support is moved to unicodedata extension

- Patch #941229: The source code encoding in interactive mode
  now refers sys.stdin.encoding not just ISO-8859-1 anymore.  This
  allows for non-latin-1 users to write unicode strings directly.

Extension modules

- cpickle now supports the same keyword arguments as pickle.


- Added new codecs and aliases for ISO_8859-11, ISO_8859-16 and

- Thanks to Edward Loper, doctest has been massively refactored, and
  many new features were added.  Full docs will appear later.  For now
  the doctest module comments and new test cases give good coverage.
  The refactoring provides many hook points for customizing behavior
  (such as how to report errors, and how to compare expected to actual
  output).  New features include a <BLANKLINE> marker for expected
  output containing blank lines, options to produce unified or context
  diffs when actual output doesn't match expectations, an option to
  normalize whitespace before comparing, and an option to use an
  ellipsis to signify "don't care" regions of output.

- Tkinter now supports the wish -sync and -use options.

- The following methods in time support passing of None: ctime(), gmtime(),
  and localtime().  If None is provided, the current time is used (the
  same as when the argument is omitted).
  [SF bug 658254, patch 663482]

- nntplib does now allow to ignore a .netrc file.

- urllib2 now recognizes Basic authentication even if other authentication
  schemes are offered.

- Bug #1001053.  wave.open() now accepts unicode filenames.

- gzip.GzipFile has a new fileno() method, to retrieve the handle of the
  underlying file object (provided it has a fileno() method).  This is
  needed if you want to use os.fsync() on a GzipFile.

- imaplib has two new methods: deleteacl and myrights.

- nntplib has two new methods: description and descriptions. They
  use a more RFC-compliant way of getting a newsgroup description.

- Bug #993394.  Fix a possible red herring of KeyError in 'threading' being
  raised during interpreter shutdown from a registered function with atexit
  when dummy_threading is being used.

- Bug #857297/Patch #916874.  Fix an error when extracting a hard link
  from a tarfile.

- Patch #846659.  Fix an error in tarfile.py when using
  GNU longname/longlink creation.

- The obsolete FCNTL.py has been deleted.  The builtin fcntl module
  has been available (on platforms that support fcntl) since Python
  1.5a3, and all FCNTL.py did is export fcntl's names, after generating
  a deprecation warning telling you to use fcntl directly.

- Several new unicode codecs are added: big5hkscs, euc_jis_2004,
  iso2022_jp_2004, shift_jis_2004.

- Bug #788520.  Queue.{get, get_nowait, put, put_nowait} have new
  implementations, exploiting Conditions (which didn't exist at the time
  Queue was introduced).  A minor semantic change is that the Full and
  Empty exceptions raised by non-blocking calls now occur only if the
  queue truly was full or empty at the instant the queue was checked (of
  course the Queue may no longer be full or empty by the time a calling
  thread sees those exceptions, though).  Before, the exceptions could
  also be raised if it was "merely inconvenient" for the implementation
  to determine the true state of the Queue (because the Queue was locked
  by some other method in progress).

- Bugs #979794 and #980117: difflib.get_grouped_opcodes() now handles the
  case of comparing two empty lists.  This affected both context_diff() and

- Bug #980938: smtplib now prints debug output to sys.stderr.

- Bug #930024: posixpath.realpath() now handles infinite loops in symlinks by
  returning the last point in the path that was not part of any loop.  Thanks
  AM Kuchling.

- Bug #980327: ntpath not handles compressing erroneous slashes between the
  drive letter and the rest of the path.  Also clearly handles UNC addresses now
  as well.  Thanks Paul Moore.

- bug #679953: zipfile.py should now work for files over 2 GB.  The packed data
  for file sizes (compressed and uncompressed) was being stored as signed
  instead of unsigned.

- decimal.py now only uses signals in the IBM spec.  The other conditions are
  no longer part of the public API.

- codecs module now has two new generic APIs: encode() and decode()
  which don't restrict the return types (unlike the unicode and
  string methods of the same name).

- Non-blocking SSL sockets work again; they were broken in Python 2.3.
  SF patch 945642.

- doctest unittest integration improvements:

  o Improved the unitest test output for doctest-based unit tests

  o Can now pass setUp and tearDown functions when creating

- The threading module has a new class, local, for creating objects
  that provide thread-local data.

- Bug #990307: when keep_empty_values is True, cgi.parse_qsl()
  no longer returns spurious empty fields.

- Implemented bind_textdomain_codeset() in gettext module.

- Introduced in gettext module the l*gettext() family of functions,
  which return translation strings encoded in the preferred encoding,
  as informed by locale module's getpreferredencoding().

- optparse module (and tests) upgraded to Optik 1.5a1.  Changes:

  - Add expansion of default values in help text: the string
    "%default" in an option's help string is expanded to str() of
    that option's default value, or "none" if no default value.

  - Bug #955889: option default values that happen to be strings are
    now processed in the same way as values from the command line; this
    allows generation of nicer help when using custom types.  Can
    be disabled with parser.set_process_default_values(False).

  - Bug #960515: don't crash when generating help for callback
    options that specify 'type', but not 'dest' or 'metavar'.

  - Feature #815264: change the default help format for short options
    that take an argument from e.g. "-oARG" to "-o ARG"; add
    set_short_opt_delimiter() and set_long_opt_delimiter() methods to
    HelpFormatter to allow (slight) customization of the formatting.

  - Patch #736940: internationalize Optik: all built-in user-
    targeted literal strings are passed through gettext.gettext().  (If
    you want translations (.po files), they're not included with Python
    -- you'll find them in the Optik source distribution from
    http://optik.sourceforge.net/ .)

  - Bug #878453: respect $COLUMNS environment variable for
    wrapping help output.

  - Feature #988122: expand "%prog" in the 'description' passed
    to OptionParser, just like in the 'usage' and 'version' strings.
    (This is *not* done in the 'description' passed to OptionGroup.)


- PyImport_ExecCodeModule() and PyImport_ExecCodeModuleEx():  if an
  error occurs while loading the module, these now delete the module's
  entry from sys.modules.  All ways of loading modules eventually call
  one of these, so this is an error-case change in semantics for all
  ways of loading modules.  In rare cases, a module loader may wish
  to keep a module object in sys.modules despite that the module's
  code cannot be executed.  In such cases, the module loader must
  arrange to reinsert the name and module object in sys.modules.
  PyImport_ReloadModule() has been changed to reinsert the original
  module object into sys.modules if the module reload fails, so that
  its visible semantics have not changed.

- A large pile of datetime field-extraction macros is now documented,
  thanks to Anthony Tuininga (patch #986010).


- Improved the tutorial on creating types in C.

  - point out the importance of reassigning data members before
    assigning their values

  - correct my misconception about return values from visitprocs. Sigh.

  - mention the labor saving Py_VISIT and Py_CLEAR macros.

- Major rewrite of the math module docs, to address common confusions.


- The test data files for the decimal test suite are now installed on
  platforms that use the Makefile.

- SF patch 995225:  The test file testtar.tar accidentally contained
  CVS keywords (like $Id$), which could cause spurious failures in
  test_tarfile.py depending on how the test file was checked out.

What's New in Python 2.4 alpha 1?

*Release date: 08-JUL-2004*

Core and builtins

- weakref.ref is now the type object also known as
  weakref.ReferenceType; it can be subclassed like any other new-style
  class.  There's less per-entry overhead in WeakValueDictionary
  objects now (one object instead of three).

- Bug #951851: Python crashed when reading import table of certain
  Windows DLLs.

- Bug #215126.  The locals argument to eval(), execfile(), and exec now
  accept any mapping type.

- marshal now shares interned strings. This change introduces
  a new .pyc magic.

- Bug #966623. classes created with type() in an exec(, {}) don't
  have a __module__, but code in typeobject assumed it would always
  be there.

- Python no longer relies on the LC_NUMERIC locale setting to be
  the "C" locale; as a result, it no longer tries to prevent changing
  the LC_NUMERIC category.

- Bug #952807:  Unpickling pickled instances of subclasses of
  datetime.date, datetime.datetime and datetime.time could yield insane
  objects.  Thanks to Jiwon Seo for a fix.

- Bug #845802: Python crashes when __init__.py is a directory.

- Unicode objects received two new methods: iswide() and width().
  These query East Asian width information, as specified in Unicode

- Improved the tuple hashing algorithm to give fewer collisions in
  common cases.  Fixes bug  #942952.

- Implemented generator expressions (PEP 289).  Coded by Jiwon Seo.

- Enabled the profiling of C extension functions (and builtins) - check
  new documentation and modified profile and bdb modules for more details

- Set file.name to the object passed to open (instead of a new string)

- Moved tracebackobject into traceback.h and renamed to PyTracebackObject

- Optimized the byte coding for multiple assignments like "a,b=b,a" and
  "a,b,c=1,2,3".  Improves their speed by 25% to 30%.

- Limit the nested depth of a tuple for the second argument to isinstance()
  and issubclass() to the recursion limit of the interpreter.
  Fixes bug  #858016 .

- Optimized dict iterators, creating separate types for each
  and having them reveal their length.  Also optimized the
  methods:  keys(), values(), and items().

- Implemented a newcode opcode, LIST_APPEND, that simplifies
  the generated bytecode for list comprehensions and further
  improves their performance (about 35%).

- Implemented rich comparisons for floats, which seems to make
  comparisons involving NaNs somewhat less surprising when the
  underlying C compiler actually implements C99 semantics.

- Optimized list.extend() to save memory and no longer create
  intermediate sequences.  Also, extend() now pre-allocates the
  needed memory whenever the length of the iterable is known in
  advance -- this halves the time to extend the list.

- Optimized list resize operations to make fewer calls to the system
  realloc().  Significantly speeds up list appends, list pops,
  list comprehensions, and the list constructor (when the input iterable
  length is not known).

- Changed the internal list over-allocation scheme.  For larger lists,
  overallocation ranged between 3% and 25%.  Now, it is a constant 12%.
  For smaller lists (n<8), overallocation was upto eight elements.  Now,
  the overallocation is no more than three elements -- this improves space
  utilization for applications that have large numbers of small lists.

- Most list bodies now get re-used rather than freed.  Speeds up list
  instantiation and deletion by saving calls to malloc() and free().

- The dict.update() method now accepts all the same argument forms
  as the dict() constructor.  This now includes item lists and/or
  keyword arguments.

- Support for arbitrary objects supporting the read-only buffer
  interface as the co_code field of code objects (something that was
  only possible to create from C code) has been removed.

- Made omitted callback and None equivalent for weakref.ref() and
  weakref.proxy(); the None case wasn't handled correctly in all

- Fixed problem where PyWeakref_NewRef() and PyWeakref_NewProxy()
  assumed that initial existing entries in an object's weakref list
  would not be removed while allocating a new weakref object.  Since
  GC could be invoked at that time, however, that assumption was
  invalid.  In a truly obscure case of GC being triggered during
  creation for a new weakref object for an referent which already
  has a weakref without a callback which is only referenced from
  cyclic trash, a memory error can occur.  This consistently created a
  segfault in a debug build, but provided less predictable behavior in
  a release build.

- input() builtin function now respects compiler flags such as
  __future__ statements.  SF patch 876178.

- Removed PendingDeprecationWarning from apply().  apply() remains
  deprecated, but the nuisance warning will not be issued.

- At Python shutdown time (Py_Finalize()), 2.3 called cyclic garbage
  collection twice, both before and after tearing down modules.  The
  call after tearing down modules has been disabled, because too much
  of Python has been torn down then for __del__ methods and weakref
  callbacks to execute sanely.  The most common symptom was a sequence
  of uninformative messages on stderr when Python shut down, produced
  by threads trying to raise exceptions, but unable to report the nature
  of their problems because too much of the sys module had already been

- Removed FutureWarnings related to hex/oct literals and conversions
  and left shifts.  (Thanks to Kalle Svensson for SF patch 849227.)
  This addresses most of the remaining semantic changes promised by
  PEP 237, except for repr() of a long, which still shows the trailing
  'L'.  The PEP appears to promise warnings for operations that
  changed semantics compared to Python 2.3, but this is not
  implemented; we've suffered through enough warnings related to
  hex/oct literals and I think it's best to be silent now.

- For str and unicode objects, the ljust(), center(), and rjust()
  methods now accept an optional argument specifying a fill
  character other than a space.

- When method objects have an attribute that can be satisfied either
  by the function object or by the method object, the function
  object's attribute usually wins.  Christian Tismer pointed out that
  that this is really a mistake, because this only happens for special
  methods (like __reduce__) where the method object's version is
  really more appropriate than the function's attribute.  So from now
  on, all method attributes will have precedence over function
  attributes with the same name.

- Critical bugfix, for SF bug 839548:  if a weakref with a callback,
  its callback, and its weakly referenced object, all became part of
  cyclic garbage during a single run of garbage collection, the order
  in which they were torn down was unpredictable.  It was possible for
  the callback to see partially-torn-down objects, leading to immediate
  segfaults, or, if the callback resurrected garbage objects, to
  resurrect insane objects that caused segfaults (or other surprises)
  later.  In one sense this wasn't surprising, because Python's cyclic gc
  had no knowledge of Python's weakref objects.  It does now.  When
  weakrefs with callbacks become part of cyclic garbage now, those
  weakrefs are cleared first.  The callbacks don't trigger then,
  preventing the problems.  If you need callbacks to trigger, then just
  as when cyclic gc is not involved, you need to write your code so
  that weakref objects outlive the objects they weakly reference.

- Critical bugfix, for SF bug 840829:  if cyclic garbage collection
  happened to occur during a weakref callback for a new-style class
  instance, subtle memory corruption was the result (in a release build;
  in a debug build, a segfault occurred reliably very soon after).
  This has been repaired.

- Compiler flags set in PYTHONSTARTUP are now active in __main__.

- Added two builtin types, set() and frozenset().

- Added a reversed() builtin function that returns a reverse iterator
  over a sequence.

- Added a sorted() builtin function that returns a new sorted list
  from any iterable.

- CObjects are now mutable (on the C level) through PyCObject_SetVoidPtr.

- list.sort() now supports three keyword arguments:  cmp, key, and reverse.
  The key argument can be a function of one argument that extracts a
  comparison key from the original record:  mylist.sort(key=str.lower).
  The reverse argument is a boolean value and if True will change the
  sort order as if the comparison arguments were reversed.  In addition,
  the documentation has been amended to provide a guarantee that all sorts
  starting with Py2.3 are guaranteed to be stable (the relative order of
  records with equal keys is unchanged).

- Added test whether wchar_t is signed or not. A signed wchar_t is not
  usable as internal unicode type base for Py_UNICODE since the
  unicode implementation assumes an unsigned type.

- Fixed a bug in the cache of length-one Unicode strings that could
  lead to a seg fault.  The specific problem occurred when an earlier,
  non-fatal error left an uninitialized Unicode object in the

- The % formatting operator now supports '%F' which is equivalent to
  '%f'.  This has always been documented but never implemented.

- complex(obj) could leak a little memory if obj wasn't a string or

- zip() with no arguments now returns an empty list instead of raising
  a TypeError exception.

- obj.__contains__() now returns True/False instead of 1/0.  SF patch

- Python no longer tries to be smart about recursive comparisons.
  When comparing containers with cyclic references to themselves it
  will now just hit the recursion limit.  See SF patch 825639.

- str and unicode builtin types now have an rsplit() method that is
  same as split() except that it scans the string from the end
  working towards the beginning.  See SF feature request 801847.

- Fixed a bug in object.__reduce_ex__ when using protocol 2.  Failure
  to clear the error when attempts to get the __getstate__ attribute
  fail caused intermittent errors and odd behavior.

- buffer objects based on other objects no longer cache a pointer to
  the data and the data length.  Instead, the appropriate tp_as_buffer
  method is called as necessary.

- fixed: if a file is opened with an explicit buffer size >= 1, repeated
  close() calls would attempt to free() the buffer already free()ed on
  the first call.

Extension modules

- Added socket.getservbyport(), and make the second argument in
  getservbyname() and getservbyport() optional.

- time module code that deals with input POSIX timestamps will now raise
  ValueError if more than a second is lost in precision when the
  timestamp is cast to the platform C time_t type.  There's no chance
  that the platform will do anything sensible with the result in such
  cases.  This includes ctime(), localtime() and gmtime().  Assorted
  fromtimestamp() and utcfromtimestamp() methods in the datetime module
  were also protected.  Closes bugs #919012 and 975996.

- fcntl.ioctl now warns if the mutate flag is not specified.

- nt now properly allows to refer to UNC roots, e.g. in nt.stat().

- the weakref module now supports additional objects:  array.array,
  sre.pattern_objects, file objects, and sockets.

- operator.isMappingType() and operator.isSequenceType() now give
  fewer false positives.

- socket.sslerror is now a subclass of socket.error .  Also added
  socket.error to the socket module's C API.

- Bug #920575: A problem where the _locale module segfaults on
  nl_langinfo(ERA) caused by GNU libc's illegal NULL return is fixed.

- array objects now support the copy module.  Also, their resizing
  scheme has been updated to match that used for list objects.  This improves
  the performance (speed and memory usage) of append() operations.
  Also, array.array() and array.extend() now accept any iterable argument
  for repeated appends without needing to create another temporary array.

- cStringIO.writelines() now accepts any iterable argument and writes
  the lines one at a time rather than joining them and writing once.
  Made a parallel change to StringIO.writelines().  Saves memory and
  makes suitable for use with generator expressions.

- time.strftime() now checks that the values in its time tuple argument
  are within the proper boundaries to prevent possible crashes from the
  platform's C library implementation of strftime().  Can possibly
  break code that uses values outside the range that didn't cause
  problems previously (such as sitting day of year to 0).  Fixes bug

- The socket module now supports Bluetooth sockets, if the
  system has <bluetooth/bluetooth.h>

- Added a collections module containing a new datatype, deque(),
  offering high-performance, thread-safe, memory friendly appends
  and pops on either side of the deque.

- Several modules now take advantage of collections.deque() for
  improved performance:  Queue, mutex, shlex, threading, and pydoc.

- The operator module has two new functions, attrgetter() and
  itemgetter() which are useful for creating fast data extractor
  functions for map(), list.sort(), itertools.groupby(), and
  other functions that expect a function argument.

- socket.SHUT_{RD,WR,RDWR} was added.

- os.getsid was added.

- The pwd module incorrectly advertised its struct type as
  struct_pwent; this has been renamed to struct_passwd.  (The old name
  is still supported for backwards compatibility.)

- The xml.parsers.expat module now provides Expat 1.95.7.

- socket.IPPROTO_IPV6 was added.

- readline.clear_history was added.

- select.select() now accepts sequences for its first three arguments.

- cStringIO now supports the f.closed attribute.

- The signal module now exposes SIGRTMIN and SIGRTMAX (if available).

- curses module now supports use_default_colors().  [patch #739124]

- Bug #811028: ncurses.h breakage on FreeBSD/MacOS X

- Bug #814613: INET_ADDRSTRLEN fix needed for all compilers on SGI

- Implemented non-recursive SRE matching scheme (#757624).

- Implemented (?(id/name)yes|no) support in SRE (#572936).

- random.seed() with no arguments or None uses time.time() as a default
  seed.  Modified to match Py2.2 behavior and use fractional seconds so
  that successive runs are more likely to produce different sequences.

- random.Random has a new method, getrandbits(k), which returns an int
  with k random bits.  This method is now an optional part of the API
  for user defined generators.  Any generator that defines genrandbits()
  can now use randrange() for ranges with a length >= 2**53.  Formerly,
  randrange would return only even numbers for ranges that large (see
  SF bug #812202).  Generators that do not define genrandbits() now
  issue a warning when randrange() is called with a range that large.

- itertools has a new function, groupby() for aggregating iterables
  into groups sharing the same key (as determined by a key function).
  It offers some of functionality of SQL's groupby keyword and of
  the Unix uniq filter.

- itertools now has a new tee() function which produces two independent
  iterators from a single iterable.

- itertools.izip() with no arguments now returns an empty iterator instead
  of raising a TypeError exception.

- Fixed #853061: allow BZ2Compressor.compress() to receive an empty string
  as parameter.


- Bug #981530: Fix UnboundLocalError in shutil.rmtree().  This affects
  the documented behavior: the function passed to the onerror()
  handler can now also be os.listdir.

- Bug #754449: threading.Thread objects no longer mask exceptions raised during
  interpreter shutdown with another exception from attempting to handle the
  original exception.

- Added decimal.py per PEP 327.

- Bug #981299: rsync is now a recognized protocol in urlparse that uses a
  "netloc" portion of a URL.

- Bug #919012: shutil.move() will not try to move a directory into itself.
  Thanks Johannes Gijsbers.

- Bug #934282: pydoc.stripid() is now case-insensitive.  Thanks Robin Becker.

- Bug #823209:  cmath.log() now takes an optional base argument so that its
  API matches math.log().

- Bug #957381: distutils bdist_rpm no longer fails on recent RPM versions
  that generate a -debuginfo.rpm

- os.path.devnull has been added for all supported platforms.

- Fixed #877165: distutils now picks the right C++ compiler command
  on cygwin and mingw32.

- urllib.urlopen().readline() now handles HTTP/0.9 correctly.

- refactored site.py into functions.  Also wrote regression tests for the

- The distutils install command now supports the --home option and
  installation scheme for all platforms.

- asyncore.loop now has a repeat count parameter that defaults to
  looping forever.

- The distutils sdist command now ignores all .svn directories, in
  addition to CVS and RCS directories.  .svn directories hold
  administrative files for the Subversion source control system.

- Added a new module: cookielib.  Automatic cookie handling for HTTP
  clients.  Also, support for cookielib has been added to urllib2, so
  urllib2.urlopen() can transparently handle cookies.

- stringprep.py now uses built-in set() instead of sets.Set().

- Bug #876278: Unbounded recursion in modulefinder

- Bug #780300: Swap public and system ID in LexicalHandler.startDTD.
  Applications relying on the wrong order need to be corrected.

- Bug #926075: Fixed a bug that returns a wrong pattern object
  for a string or unicode object in sre.compile() when a different
  type pattern with the same value exists.

- Added countcallers arg to trace.Trace class (--trackcalls command line arg
  when run from the command prompt).

- Fixed a caching bug in platform.platform() where the argument of 'terse' was
  not taken into consideration when caching value.

- Added two new command-line arguments for profile (output file and
  default sort).

- Added global runctx function to profile module

- Add hlist missing entryconfigure and entrycget methods.

- The ptcp154 codec was added for Kazakh character set support.

- Support non-anonymous ftp URLs in urllib2.

- The encodings package will now apply codec name aliases
  first before starting to try the import of the codec module.
  This simplifies overriding built-in codecs with external
  packages, e.g. the included CJK codecs with the JapaneseCodecs
  package, by adjusting the aliases dictionary in encodings.aliases

- base64 now supports RFC 3548 Base16, Base32, and Base64 encoding and
  decoding standards.

- urllib2 now supports processors.  A processor is a handler that
  implements an xxx_request or xxx_response method.  These methods are
  called for all requests.

- distutils compilers now compile source files in the same order as
  they are passed to the compiler.

- pprint.pprint() and pprint.pformat() now have additional parameters
  indent, width and depth.

- Patch #750542: pprint now will pretty print subclasses of list, tuple
  and dict too, as long as they don't overwrite __repr__().

- Bug #848614: distutils' msvccompiler fails to find the MSVC6
  compiler because of incomplete registry entries.

- httplib.HTTP.putrequest now offers to omit the implicit Accept-Encoding.

- Patch #841977: modulefinder didn't find extension modules in packages

- imaplib.IMAP4.thread was added.

- Plugged a minor hole in tempfile.mktemp() due to the use of
  os.path.exists(), switched to using os.lstat() directly if possible.

- bisect.py and heapq.py now have underlying C implementations
  for better performance.

- heapq.py has two new functions, nsmallest() and nlargest().

- traceback.format_exc has been added (similar to print_exc but it returns
  a string).

- xmlrpclib.MultiCall has been added.

- poplib.POP3_SSL has been added.

- tmpfile.mkstemp now returns an absolute path even if dir is relative.

- urlparse is RFC 2396 compliant.

- The fieldnames argument to the csv module's DictReader constructor is now
  optional.  If omitted, the first row of the file will be used as the
  list of fieldnames.

- encodings.bz2_codec was added for access to bz2 compression
  using "a long string".encode('bz2')

- Various improvements to unittest.py, realigned with PyUnit CVS.

- dircache now passes exceptions to the caller, instead of returning
  empty lists.

- The bsddb module and dbhash module now support the iterator and
  mapping protocols which make them more substitutable for dictionaries
  and shelves.

- The csv module's DictReader and DictWriter classes now accept keyword
  arguments.  This was an omission in the initial implementation.

- The email package handles some RFC 2231 parameters with missing
  CHARSET fields better.  It also includes a patch to parameter
  parsing when semicolons appear inside quotes.

- sets.py now runs under Py2.2.  In addition, the argument restrictions
  for most set methods (but not the operators) have been relaxed to
  allow any iterable.

- _strptime.py now has a behind-the-scenes caching mechanism for the most
  recent TimeRE instance used along with the last five unique directive
  patterns.  The overall module was also made more thread-safe.

- random.cunifvariate() and random.stdgamma() were deprecated in Py2.3
  and removed in Py2.4.

- Bug #823328: urllib2.py's HTTP Digest Auth support works again.

- Patch #873597: CJK codecs are imported into rank of default codecs.


- A hotshotmain script was added to the Tools/scripts directory that
  makes it easy to run a script under control of the hotshot profiler.

- The db2pickle and pickle2db scripts can now dump/load gdbm files.

- The file order on the command line of the pickle2db script was reversed.
  It is now [ picklefile ] dbfile.  This provides better symmetry with
  db2pickle.  The file arguments to both scripts are now source followed by
  destination in situations where both files are given.

- The pydoc script will display a link to the module documentation for
  modules determined to be part of the core distribution.  The documentation
  base directory defaults to http://www.python.org/doc/current/lib/ but can
  be changed by setting the PYTHONDOCS environment variable.

- texcheck.py now detects double word errors.

- md5sum.py mistakenly opened input files in text mode by default, a
  silent and dangerous change from previous releases.  It once again
  opens input files in binary mode by default.  The -t and -b flags
  remain for compatibility with the 2.3 release, but -b is the default

- py-electric-colon now works when pending-delete/delete-selection mode is
  in effect

- py-help-at-point is no longer bound to the F1 key - it's still bound to
  C-c C-h

- Pynche was fixed to not crash when there is no ~/.pynche file and no
  -d option was given.


- Bug #978645: Modules/getpath.c now builds properly in --disable-framework
  build under OS X.

- Profiling using gprof is now available if Python is configured with

- Profiling the VM using the Pentium TSC is now possible if Python
  is configured --with-tsc.

- In order to find libraries, setup.py now also looks in /lib64, for use
  on AMD64.

- Bug #934635: Fixed a bug where the configure script couldn't detect
  getaddrinfo() properly if the KAME stack had SCTP support.

- Support for missing ANSI C header files (limits.h, stddef.h, etc) was

- Systems requiring the D4, D6 or D7 variants of pthreads are no longer
  supported (see PEP 11).

- Universal newline support can no longer be disabled (see PEP 11).

- Support for DGUX, SunOS 4, IRIX 4 and Minix was removed (see PEP 11).

- Support for systems requiring --with-dl-dld or --with-sgi-dl was removed
  (see PEP 11).

- Tests for sizeof(char) were removed since ANSI C mandates that
  sizeof(char) must be 1.


- Thanks to Anthony Tuininga, the datetime module now supplies a C API
  containing type-check macros and constructors.  See new docs in the
  Python/C API Reference Manual for details.

- Private function _PyTime_DoubleToTimet added, to convert a Python
  timestamp (C double) to platform time_t with some out-of-bounds
  checking.  Declared in new header file timefuncs.h.  It would be
  good to expose some other internal timemodule.c functions there.

- New public functions PyEval_EvaluateFrame and PyGen_New to expose
  generator objects.

- New public functions Py_IncRef() and Py_DecRef(), exposing the
  functionality of the Py_XINCREF() and Py_XDECREF macros. Useful for
  runtime dynamic embedding of Python.  See patch #938302, by Bob

- Added a new macro, PySequence_Fast_ITEMS, which retrieves a fast sequence's
  underlying array of PyObject pointers.  Useful for high speed looping.

- Created a new method flag, METH_COEXIST, which causes a method to be loaded
  even if already defined by a slot wrapper.  This allows a __contains__
  method, for example, to co-exist with a defined sq_contains slot.  This
  is helpful because the PyCFunction can take advantage of optimized calls
  whenever METH_O or METH_NOARGS flags are defined.

- Added a new function, PyDict_Contains(d, k) which is like
  PySequence_Contains() but is specific to dictionaries and executes
  about 10% faster.

- Added three new macros: Py_RETURN_NONE, Py_RETURN_TRUE, and Py_RETURN_FALSE.
  Each return the singleton they mention after Py_INCREF()ing them.

- Added a new function, PyTuple_Pack(n, ...) for constructing tuples from a
  variable length argument list of Python objects without having to invoke
  the more complex machinery of Py_BuildValue().  PyTuple_Pack(3, a, b, c)
  is equivalent to Py_BuildValue("(OOO)", a, b, c).


- The _winreg module could segfault when reading very large registry
  values, due to unchecked alloca() calls (SF bug 851056).  The fix is
  uses either PyMem_Malloc(n) or PyString_FromStringAndSize(NULL, n),
  as appropriate, followed by a size check.

- file.truncate() could misbehave if the file was open for update
  (modes r+, rb+, w+, wb+), and the most recent file operation before
  the truncate() call was an input operation.  SF bug 801631.

What's New in Python 2.3 final?

*Release date: 29-Jul-2003*


- Bug 778400:  IDLE hangs when selecting "Edit with IDLE" from explorer.
  This was unique to Windows, and was fixed by adding an -n switch to
  the command the Windows installer creates to execute "Edit with IDLE"
  context-menu actions.

- IDLE displays a new message upon startup:  some "personal firewall"
  kinds of programs (for example, ZoneAlarm) open a dialog of their
  own when any program opens a socket.  IDLE does use sockets, talking
  on the computer's internal loopback interface.  This connection is not
  visible on any external interface and no data is sent to or received
  from the Internet.  So, if you get such a dialog when opening IDLE,
  asking whether to let pythonw.exe talk to address, say yes,
  and rest assured no communication external to your machine is taking
  place.  If you don't allow it, IDLE won't be able to start.

What's New in Python 2.3 release candidate 2?

*Release date: 24-Jul-2003*

Core and builtins

- It is now possible to import from zipfiles containing additional
  data bytes before the zip compatible archive.  Zipfiles containing a
  comment at the end are still unsupported.

Extension modules

- A longstanding bug in the parser module's initialization could cause
  fatal internal refcount confusion when the module got initialized more
  than once.  This has been fixed.

- Fixed memory leak in pyexpat; using the parser's ParseFile() method
  with open files that aren't instances of the standard file type
  caused an instance of the bound .read() method to be leaked on every

- Fixed some leaks in the locale module.


- Lib/encodings/rot_13.py when used as a script, now more properly
  uses the first Python interpreter on your path.

- Removed caching of TimeRE (and thus LocaleTime) in _strptime.py to
  fix a locale related bug in the test suite.  Although another patch
  was needed to actually fix the problem, the cache code was not


- Calltips patches.


- For MacOSX, added -mno-fused-madd to BASECFLAGS to fix test_coercion
  on Panther (OSX 10.3).



- The tempfile module could do insane imports on Windows if PYTHONCASEOK
  was set, making temp file creation impossible.  Repaired.

- Add a patch to workaround pthread_sigmask() bugs in Cygwin.


- Various fixes to pimp.

- Scripts runs with pythonw no longer had full window manager access.

- Don't force boot-disk-only install, for reasons unknown it causes
  more problems than it solves.

What's New in Python 2.3 release candidate 1?

*Release date: 18-Jul-2003*

Core and builtins

- The new function sys.getcheckinterval() returns the last value set
  by sys.setcheckinterval().

- Several bugs in the symbol table phase of the compiler have been
  fixed.  Errors could be lost and compilation could fail without
  reporting an error.  SF patch 763201.

- The interpreter is now more robust about importing the warnings
  module.  In an executable generated by freeze or similar programs,
  earlier versions of 2.3 would fail if the warnings module could
  not be found on the file system.  Fixes SF bug 771097.

- A warning about assignments to module attributes that shadow
  builtins, present in earlier releases of 2.3, has been removed.

- It is not possible to create subclasses of builtin types like str
  and tuple that define an itemsize.  Earlier releases of Python 2.3
  allowed this by mistake, leading to crashes and other problems.

- The thread_id is now initialized to 0 in a non-thread build.  SF bug

- SF bug 762891: "del p[key]" on proxy object no longer raises SystemError.

Extension modules

- weakref.proxy() can now handle "del obj[i]" for proxy objects
  defining __delitem__.  Formerly, it generated a SystemError.

- SSL no longer crashes the interpreter when the remote side disconnects.

- On Unix the mmap module can again be used to map device files.

- time.strptime now exclusively uses the Python implementation
  contained within the _strptime module.

- The print slot of weakref proxy objects was removed, because it was
  not consistent with the object's repr slot.

- The mmap module only checks file size for regular files, not
  character or block devices.  SF patch 708374.

- The cPickle Pickler garbage collection support was fixed to traverse
  the find_class attribute, if present.

- There are several fixes for the bsddb3 wrapper module.

  bsddb3 no longer crashes if an environment is closed before a cursor
  (SF bug 763298).

  The DB and DBEnv set_get_returns_none function was extended to take
  a level instead of a boolean flag.  The new level 2 means that in
  addition, cursor.set()/.get() methods return None instead of raising
  an exception.

  A typo was fixed in DBCursor.join_item(), preventing a crash.


- distutils now supports MSVC 7.1

- doctest now examines all docstrings by default.  Previously, it would
  skip over functions with private names (as indicated by the underscore
  naming convention).  The old default created too much of a risk that
  user tests were being skipped inadvertently.  Note, this change could
  break code in the unlikely case that someone had intentionally put
  failing tests in the docstrings of private functions.  The breakage
  is easily fixable by specifying the old behavior when calling testmod()
  or Tester().

- There were several fixes to the way dumbdbms are closed.  It's vital
  that a dumbdbm database be closed properly, else the on-disk data
  and directory files can be left in mutually inconsistent states.
  dumbdbm.py's _Database.__del__() method attempted to close the
  database properly, but a shutdown race in _Database._commit() could
  prevent this from working, so that a program trusting __del__() to
  get the on-disk files in synch could be badly surprised.  The race
  has been repaired.  A sync() method was also added so that shelve
  can guarantee data is written to disk.

  The close() method can now be called more than once without complaint.

- The classes in threading.py are now new-style classes.  That they
  weren't before was an oversight.

- The urllib2 digest authentication handlers now define the correct
  auth_header.  The earlier versions would fail at runtime.

- SF bug 763023: fix uncaught ZeroDivisionError in difflib ratio methods
  when there are no lines.

- SF bug 763637: fix exception in Tkinter with after_cancel
  which could occur with Tk 8.4

- SF bug 770601: CGIHTTPServer.py now passes the entire environment
  to child processes.

- SF bug 765238: add filter to fnmatch's __all__.

- SF bug 748201: make time.strptime() error messages more helpful.

- SF patch 764470: Do not dump the args attribute of a Fault object in

- SF patch 549151: urllib and urllib2 now redirect POSTs on 301

- SF patch 766650: The whichdb module was fixed to recognize dbm files
  generated by gdbm on OS/2 EMX.

- SF bugs 763047 and 763052: fixes bug of timezone value being left as
  -1 when ``time.tzname[0] == time.tzname[1] and not time.daylight``
  is true when it should only when time.daylight is true.

- SF bug 764548: re now allows subclasses of str and unicode to be
  used as patterns.

- SF bug 763637: In Tkinter, change after_cancel() to handle tuples
  of varying sizes.  Tk 8.4 returns a different number of values
  than Tk 8.3.

- SF bug 763023: difflib.ratio() did not catch zero division.

- The Queue module now has an __all__ attribute.


- See Lib/idlelib/NEWS.txt for IDLE news.

- SF bug 753592: webchecker/wsgui now handles user supplied directories.

- The trace.py script has been removed.  It is now in the standard library.


- Python now compiles with -fno-strict-aliasing if possible (SF bug 766696).

- The socket module compiles on IRIX 6.5.10.

- An irix64 system is treated the same way as an irix6 system (SF
  patch 764560).

- Several definitions were missing on FreeBSD 5.x unless the
  __BSD_VISIBLE symbol was defined.  configure now defines it as


- Unicode objects now support mbcs as a built-in encoding, so the C
  API can use it without deferring to the encodings package.


- The Windows implementation of PyThread_start_new_thread() never
  checked error returns from Windows functions correctly.  As a result,
  it could claim to start a new thread even when the Microsoft
  _beginthread() function failed (due to "too many threads" -- this is
  on the order of thousands when it happens).  In these cases, the
  Python exception ::

      thread.error: can't start new thread

  is raised now.

- SF bug 766669: Prevent a GPF on interpreter exit when sockets are in
  use.  The interpreter now calls WSACleanup() from Py_Finalize()
  instead of from DLL teardown.


- Bundlebuilder now inherits default values in the right way.  It was
  previously possible for app bundles to get a type of "BNDL" instead
  of "APPL."  Other improvements include, a --build-id option to
  specify the CFBundleIdentifier and using the --python option to set
  the executable in the bundle.

- Fixed two bugs in MacOSX framework handling.

- pythonw did not allow user interaction in 2.3rc1, this has been fixed.

- Python is now compiled with -mno-fused-madd, making all tests pass
  on Panther.

What's New in Python 2.3 beta 2?

*Release date: 29-Jun-2003*

Core and builtins

- A program can now set the environment variable PYTHONINSPECT to some
  string value in Python, and cause the interpreter to enter the
  interactive prompt at program exit, as if Python had been invoked
  with the -i option.

- list.index() now accepts optional start and stop arguments.  Similar
  changes were made to UserList.index(). SF feature request 754014.

- SF patch 751998 fixes an unwanted side effect of the previous fix
  for SF bug 742860 (the next item).

- SF bug 742860: "WeakKeyDictionary __delitem__ uses iterkeys".  This
  wasn't threadsafe, was very inefficient (expected time O(len(dict))
  instead of O(1)), and could raise a spurious RuntimeError if another
  thread mutated the dict during __delitem__, or if a comparison function
  mutated it.  It also neglected to raise KeyError when the key wasn't
  present; didn't raise TypeError when the key wasn't of a weakly
  referencable type; and broke various more-or-less obscure dict
  invariants by using a sequence of equality comparisons over the whole
  set of dict keys instead of computing the key's hash code to narrow
  the search to those keys with the same hash code.  All of these are
  considered to be bugs.  A new implementation of __delitem__ repairs all
  that, but note that fixing these bugs may change visible behavior in
  code relying (whether intentionally or accidentally) on old behavior.

- SF bug 734869: Fixed a compiler bug that caused a fatal error when
  compiling a list comprehension that contained another list comprehension
  embedded in a lambda expression.

- SF bug 705231:  builtin pow() no longer lets the platform C pow()
  raise -1.0 to integer powers, because (at least) glibc gets it wrong
  in some cases.  The result should be -1.0 if the power is odd and 1.0
  if the power is even, and any float with a sufficiently large exponent
  is (mathematically) an exact even integer.

- SF bug 759227: A new-style class that implements __nonzero__() must
  return a bool or int (but not an int subclass) from that method.  This
  matches the restriction on classic classes.

- The encoding attribute has been added for file objects, and set to
  the terminal encoding on Unix and Windows.

- The softspace attribute of file objects became read-only by oversight.
  It's writable again.

- Reverted a 2.3 beta 1 change to iterators for subclasses of list and
  tuple.  By default, the iterators now access data elements directly
  instead of going through __getitem__.  If __getitem__ access is
  preferred, then __iter__ can be overridden.

- SF bug 735247: The staticmethod and super types participate in
  garbage collection. Before this change, it was possible for leaks to
  occur in functions with non-global free variables that used these types.

Extension modules

- the socket module has a new exception, socket.timeout, to allow
  timeouts to be handled separately from other socket errors.

- SF bug 751276: cPickle has fixed to propagate exceptions raised in
  user code.  In earlier versions, cPickle caught and ignored any
  exception when it performed operations that it expected to raise
  specific exceptions like AttributeError.

- cPickle Pickler and Unpickler objects now participate in garbage

- mimetools.choose_boundary() could return duplicate strings at times,
  especially likely on Windows.  The strings returned are now guaranteed
  unique within a single program run.

- thread.interrupt_main() raises KeyboardInterrupt in the main thread.
  dummy_thread has also been modified to try to simulate the behavior.

- array.array.insert() now treats negative indices as being relative
  to the end of the array, just like list.insert() does. (SF bug #739313)

- The datetime module classes datetime, time, and timedelta are now
  properly subclassable.

- _tkinter.{get|set}busywaitinterval was added.

- itertools.islice() now accepts stop=None as documented.
  Fixes SF bug #730685.

- the bsddb185 module is built in one restricted instance -
  /usr/include/db.h exists and defines HASHVERSION to be 2.  This is true
  for many BSD-derived systems.


- Some happy doctest extensions from Jim Fulton have been added to
  doctest.py.  These are already being used in Zope3.  The two
  primary ones:

  doctest.debug(module, name) extracts the doctests from the named object
  in the given module, puts them in a temp file, and starts pdb running
  on that file.  This is great when a doctest fails.

  doctest.DocTestSuite(module=None) returns a synthesized unittest
  TestSuite instance, to be run by the unittest framework, which
  runs all the doctests in the module.  This allows writing tests in
  doctest style (which can be clearer and shorter than writing tests
  in unittest style), without losing unittest's powerful testing
  framework features (which doctest lacks).

- For compatibility with doctests created before 2.3, if an expected
  output block consists solely of "1" and the actual output block
  consists solely of "True", it's accepted as a match; similarly
  for "0" and "False".  This is quite un-doctest-like, but is practical.
  The behavior can be disabled by passing the new doctest module
  constant DONT_ACCEPT_TRUE_FOR_1 to the new optionflags optional

- ZipFile.testzip() now only traps BadZipfile exceptions.  Previously,
  a bare except caught to much and reported all errors as a problem
  in the archive.

- The logging module now has a new function, makeLogRecord() making
  LogHandler easier to interact with DatagramHandler and SocketHandler.

- The cgitb module has been extended to support plain text display (SF patch

- A brand new version of IDLE (from the IDLEfork project at
  SourceForge) is now included as Lib/idlelib.  The old Tools/idle is
  no more.

- Added a new module: trace (documentation missing).  This module used
  to be distributed in Tools/scripts.  It uses sys.settrace() to trace
  code execution -- either function calls or individual lines.  It can
  generate tracing output during execution or a post-mortem report of
  code coverage.

- The threading module has new functions settrace() and setprofile()
  that cooperate with the functions of the same name in the sys
  module.  A function registered with the threading module will
  be used for all threads it creates.  The new trace module uses this
  to provide tracing for code running in threads.

- copy.py: applied SF patch 707900, fixing bug 702858, by Steven
  Taschuk.  Copying a new-style class that had a reference to itself
  didn't work.  (The same thing worked fine for old-style classes.)
  Builtin functions are now treated as atomic, fixing bug #746304.

- difflib.py has two new functions:  context_diff() and unified_diff().

- More fixes to urllib (SF 549151): (a) When redirecting, always use
  GET.  This is common practice and more-or-less sanctioned by the
  HTTP standard. (b) Add a handler for 307 redirection, which becomes
  an error for POST, but a regular redirect for GET and HEAD

- Added optional 'onerror' argument to os.walk(), to control error

- inspect.is{method|data}descriptor was added, to allow pydoc display
  __doc__ of data descriptors.

- Fixed socket speed loss caused by use of the _socketobject wrapper class
  in socket.py.

- timeit.py now checks the current directory for imports.

- urllib2.py now knows how to order proxy classes, so the user doesn't
  have to insert it in front of other classes, nor do dirty tricks like
  inserting a "dummy" HTTPHandler after a ProxyHandler when building an
  opener with proxy support.

- Iterators have been added for dbm keys.

- random.Random objects can now be pickled.


- pydoc now offers help on keywords and topics.

- Tools/idle is gone; long live Lib/idlelib.

- diff.py prints file diffs in context, unified, or ndiff formats,
  providing a command line interface to difflib.py.

- texcheck.py is a new script for making a rough validation of Python LaTeX


- Setting DESTDIR during 'make install' now allows specifying a
  different root directory.


- PyType_Ready():  If a type declares that it participates in gc
  (Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC), and its base class does not, and its base class's
  tp_free slot is the default _PyObject_Del, and type does not define
  a tp_free slot itself, _PyObject_GC_Del is assigned to type->tp_free.
  Previously _PyObject_Del was inherited, which could at best lead to a
  segfault.  In addition, if even after this magic the type's tp_free
  slot is _PyObject_Del or NULL, and the type is a base type
  (Py_TPFLAGS_BASETYPE), TypeError is raised:  since the type is a base
  type, its dealloc function must call type->tp_free, and since the type
  is gc'able, tp_free must not be NULL or _PyObject_Del.

- PyThreadState_SetAsyncExc(): A new API (deliberately accessible only
  from C) to interrupt a thread by sending it an exception.  It is
  intentional that you have to write your own C extension to call it
  from Python.

New platforms

None this time.


- test_imp rewritten so that it doesn't raise RuntimeError if run as a
  side effect of being imported ("import test.autotest").


- The Windows installer ships with Tcl/Tk 8.4.3 (upgraded from 8.4.1).

- The installer always suggested that Python be installed on the C:
  drive, due to a hardcoded "C:" generated by the Wise installation
  wizard.  People with machines where C: is not the system drive
  usually want Python installed on whichever drive is their system drive
  instead.  We removed the hardcoded "C:", and two testers on machines
  where C: is not the system drive report that the installer now
  suggests their system drive.  Note that you can always select the
  directory you want in the "Select Destination Directory" dialog --
  that's what it's for.


- There's a new module called "autoGIL", which offers a mechanism to
  automatically release the Global Interpreter Lock when an event loop
  goes to sleep, allowing other threads to run. It's currently only
  supported on OSX, in the Mach-O version.
- The OSA modules now allow direct access to properties of the
  toplevel application class (in AppleScript terminology).
- The Package Manager can now update itself.

SourceForge Bugs and Patches Applied

430160, 471893, 501716, 542562, 549151, 569574, 595837, 596434,
598163, 604210, 604716, 610332, 612627, 614770, 620190, 621891,
622042, 639139, 640236, 644345, 649742, 649742, 658233, 660022,
661318, 661676, 662807, 662923, 666219, 672855, 678325, 682347,
683486, 684981, 685773, 686254, 692776, 692959, 693094, 696777,
697989, 700827, 703666, 708495, 708604, 708901, 710733, 711902,
713722, 715782, 718286, 719359, 719367, 723136, 723831, 723962,
724588, 724767, 724767, 725942, 726150, 726446, 726869, 727051,
727719, 727719, 727805, 728277, 728563, 728656, 729096, 729103,
729293, 729297, 729300, 729317, 729395, 729622, 729817, 730170,
730296, 730594, 730685, 730826, 730963, 731209, 731403, 731504,
731514, 731626, 731635, 731643, 731644, 731644, 731689, 732124,
732143, 732234, 732284, 732284, 732479, 732761, 732783, 732951,
733667, 733781, 734118, 734231, 734869, 735051, 735293, 735527,
735613, 735694, 736962, 736962, 737970, 738066, 739313, 740055,
740234, 740301, 741806, 742126, 742741, 742860, 742860, 742911,
744041, 744104, 744238, 744687, 744877, 745055, 745478, 745525,
745620, 746012, 746304, 746366, 746801, 746953, 747348, 747667,
747954, 748846, 748849, 748973, 748975, 749191, 749210, 749759,
749831, 749911, 750008, 750092, 750542, 750595, 751038, 751107,
751276, 751451, 751916, 751941, 751956, 751998, 752671, 753451,
753602, 753617, 753845, 753925, 754014, 754340, 754447, 755031,
755087, 755147, 755245, 755683, 755987, 756032, 756996, 757058,
757229, 757818, 757821, 757822, 758112, 758910, 759227, 759889,
760257, 760703, 760792, 761104, 761337, 761519, 761830, 762455

What's New in Python 2.3 beta 1?

*Release date: 25-Apr-2003*

Core and builtins

- New format codes B, H, I, k and K have been implemented for
  PyArg_ParseTuple and PyBuild_Value.

- New builtin function sum(seq, start=0) returns the sum of all the
  items in iterable object seq, plus start (items are normally numbers,
  and cannot be strings).

- bool() called without arguments now returns False rather than
  raising an exception.  This is consistent with calling the
  constructors for the other builtin types -- called without argument
  they all return the false value of that type.  (SF patch #724135)

- In support of PEP 269 (making the pgen parser generator accessible
  from Python), some changes to the pgen code structure were made; a
  few files that used to be linked only with pgen are now linked with
  Python itself.

- The repr() of a weakref object now shows the __name__ attribute of
  the referenced object, if it has one.

- super() no longer ignores data descriptors, except __class__.  See
  the thread started at

- list.insert(i, x) now interprets negative i as it would be
  interpreted by slicing, so negative values count from the end of the
  list.  This was the only place where such an interpretation was not
  placed on a list index.

- range() now works even if the arguments are longs with magnitude
  larger than sys.maxint, as long as the total length of the sequence
  fits.  E.g., range(2**100, 2**101, 2**100) is the following list:
  [1267650600228229401496703205376L].  (SF patch #707427.)

- Some horridly obscure problems were fixed involving interaction
  between garbage collection and old-style classes with "ambitious"
  getattr hooks.  If an old-style instance didn't have a __del__ method,
  but did have a __getattr__ hook, and the instance became reachable
  only from an unreachable cycle, and the hook resurrected or deleted
  unreachable objects when asked to resolve "__del__", anything up to
  a segfault could happen.  That's been repaired.

- dict.pop now takes an optional argument specifying a default
  value to return if the key is not in the dict.  If a default is not
  given and the key is not found, a KeyError will still be raised.
  Parallel changes were made to UserDict.UserDict and UserDict.DictMixin.
  [SF patch #693753] (contributed by Michael Stone.)

- sys.getfilesystemencoding() was added to expose

- New function sys.exc_clear() clears the current exception.  This is
  rarely needed, but can sometimes be useful to release objects
  referenced by the traceback held in sys.exc_info()[2].  (SF patch

- On 64-bit systems, a dictionary could contain duplicate long/int keys
  if the key value was larger than 2**32.  See SF bug #689659.

- Fixed SF bug #663074. The codec system was using global static
  variables to store internal data. As a result, any attempts to use the
  unicode system with multiple active interpreters, or successive
  interpreter executions, would fail.

- "%c" % u"a" now returns a unicode string instead of raising a
  TypeError. u"%c" % 0xffffffff now raises a OverflowError instead
  of a ValueError to be consistent with "%c" % 256. See SF patch #710127.

Extension modules

- The socket module now provides the functions inet_pton and inet_ntop
  for converting between string and packed representation of IP
  addresses.  There is also a new module variable, has_ipv6, which is
  True iff the current Python has IPv6 support.  See SF patch #658327.

- Tkinter wrappers around Tcl variables now pass objects directly
  to Tcl, instead of first converting them to strings.

- The .*? pattern in the re module is now special-cased to avoid the
  recursion limit.  (SF patch #720991 -- many thanks to Gary Herron
  and Greg Chapman.)

- New function sys.call_tracing() allows pdb to debug code

- New function gc.get_referents(obj) returns a list of objects
  directly referenced by obj.  In effect, it exposes what the object's
  tp_traverse slot does, and can be helpful when debugging memory

- The iconv module has been removed from this release.

- The platform-independent routines for packing floats in IEEE formats
  (struct.pack's <f, >f, <d, and >d codes; pickle and cPickle's protocol 1
  pickling of floats) ignored that rounding can cause a carry to
  propagate.  The worst consequence was that, in rare cases, <f and >f
  could produce strings that, when unpacked again, were a factor of 2
  away from the original float.  This has been fixed.  See SF bug

- New function time.tzset() provides access to the C library tzset()
  function, if supported.  (SF patch #675422.)

- Using createfilehandler, deletefilehandler, createtimerhandler functions
  on Tkinter.tkinter (_tkinter module) no longer crashes the interpreter.
  See SF bug #692416.

- Modified the fcntl.ioctl() function to allow modification of a passed
  mutable buffer (for details see the reference documentation).

- Made user requested changes to the itertools module.
  Subsumed the times() function into repeat().
  Added chain() and cycle().

- The rotor module is now deprecated; the encryption algorithm it uses
  is not believed to be secure, and including crypto code with Python
  has implications for exporting and importing it in various countries.

- The socket module now always uses the _socketobject wrapper class, even on
  platforms which have dup(2).  The makefile() method is built directly
  on top of the socket without duplicating the file descriptor, allowing
  timeouts to work properly.


- New generator function os.walk() is an easy-to-use alternative to
  os.path.walk().  See os module docs for details.  os.path.walk()
  isn't deprecated at this time, but may become deprecated in a
  future release.

- Added new module "platform" which provides a wide range of tools
  for querying platform dependent features.

- netrc now allows ASCII punctuation characters in passwords.

- shelve now supports the optional writeback argument, and exposes
  pickle protocol versions.

- Several methods of nntplib.NNTP have grown an optional file argument
  which specifies a file where to divert the command's output
  (already supported by the body() method).  (SF patch #720468)

- The self-documenting XML server library DocXMLRPCServer was added.

- Support for internationalized domain names has been added through
  the 'idna' and 'punycode' encodings, the 'stringprep' module, the
  'mkstringprep' tool, and enhancements to the socket and httplib

- htmlentitydefs has two new dictionaries: name2codepoint maps
  HTML entity names to Unicode codepoints (as integers).
  codepoint2name is the reverse mapping. See SF patch #722017.

- pdb has a new command, "debug", which lets you step through
  arbitrary code from the debugger's (pdb) prompt.

- unittest.failUnlessEqual and its equivalent unittest.assertEqual now
  return 'not a == b' rather than 'a != b'.  This gives the desired
  result for classes that define __eq__ without defining __ne__.

- sgmllib now supports SGML marked sections, in particular the
  MS Office extensions.

- The urllib module now offers support for the iterator protocol.
  SF patch 698520 contributed by Brett Cannon.

- New module timeit provides a simple framework for timing the
  execution speed of expressions and statements.

- sets.Set objects now support mixed-type __eq__ and __ne__, instead
  of raising TypeError.  If x is a Set object and y is a non-Set object,
  x == y is False, and x != y is True.  This is akin to the change made
  for mixed-type comparisons of datetime objects in 2.3a2; more info
  about the rationale is in the NEWS entry for that.  See also SF bug
  report <http://www.python.org/sf/693121>.

- On Unix platforms, if os.listdir() is called with a Unicode argument,
  it now returns Unicode strings.  (This behavior was added earlier
  to the Windows NT/2k/XP version of os.listdir().)

- Distutils: both 'py_modules' and 'packages' keywords can now be specified
  in core.setup().  Previously you could supply one or the other, but
  not both of them.  (SF patch #695090 from Bernhard Herzog)

- New csv package makes it easy to read/write CSV files.

- Module shlex has been extended to allow posix-like shell parsings,
  including a split() function for easy spliting of quoted strings and
  commands. An iterator interface was also implemented.


- New script combinerefs.py helps analyze new PYTHONDUMPREFS output.
  See the module docstring for details.


- Fix problem building on OSF1 because the compiler only accepted
  preprocessor directives that start in column 1.  (SF bug #691793.)


- Added PyGC_Collect(), equivalent to calling gc.collect().

- PyThreadState_GetDict() was changed not to raise an exception or
  issue a fatal error when no current thread state is available.  This
  makes it possible to print dictionaries when no thread is active.

- LONG_LONG was renamed to PY_LONG_LONG.  Extensions that use this and
  need compatibility with previous versions can use this:

    #ifndef  PY_LONG_LONG
    #define  PY_LONG_LONG  LONG_LONG

- Added PyObject_SelfIter() to fill the tp_iter slot for the
  typical case where the method returns its self argument.

- The extended type structure used for heap types (new-style
  classes defined by Python code using a class statement) is now
  exported from object.h as PyHeapTypeObject.  (SF patch #696193.)

New platforms

None this time.


- test_timeout now requires -u network to be passed to regrtest to run.
  See SF bug #692988.


- os.fsync() now exists on Windows, and calls the Microsoft _commit()

- New function winsound.MessageBeep() wraps the Win32 API


- os.listdir() now returns Unicode strings on MacOS X when called with
  a Unicode argument. See the general news item under "Library".

- A new method MacOS.WMAvailable() returns true if it is safe to access
  the window manager, false otherwise.

- EasyDialogs dialogs are now movable-modal, and if the application is
  currently in the background they will ask to be moved to the foreground
  before displaying.

- OSA Scripting support has improved a lot, and gensuitemodule.py can now
  be used by mere mortals. The documentation is now also more or less

- The IDE (in a framework build) now includes introductory documentation
  in Apple Help Viewer format.

What's New in Python 2.3 alpha 2?

*Release date: 19-Feb-2003*

Core and builtins

- Negative positions returned from PEP 293 error callbacks are now
  treated as being relative to the end of the input string. Positions
  that are out of bounds raise an IndexError.

- sys.path[0] (the directory from which the script is loaded) is now
  turned into an absolute pathname, unless it is the empty string.
  (SF patch #664376.)

- Finally fixed the bug in compile() and exec where a string ending
  with an indented code block but no newline would raise SyntaxError.
  This would have been a four-line change in parsetok.c...  Except
  codeop.py depends on this behavior, so a compilation flag had to be
  invented that causes the tokenizer to revert to the old behavior;
  this required extra changes to 2 .h files, 2 .c files, and 2 .py
  files.  (Fixes SF bug #501622.)

- If a new-style class defines neither __new__ nor __init__, its
  constructor would ignore all arguments.  This is changed now: the
  constructor refuses arguments in this case.  This might break code
  that worked under Python 2.2.  The simplest fix is to add a no-op
  __init__: ``def __init__(self, *args, **kw): pass``.

- Through a bytecode optimizer bug (and I bet you didn't even know
  Python *had* a bytecode optimizer :-), "unsigned" hex/oct constants
  with a leading minus sign would come out with the wrong sign.
  ("Unsigned" hex/oct constants are those with a face value in the
  range sys.maxint+1 through sys.maxint*2+1, inclusive; these have
  always been interpreted as negative numbers through sign folding.)
  E.g. 0xffffffff is -1, and -(0xffffffff) is 1, but -0xffffffff would
  come out as -4294967295.  This was the case in Python 2.2 through
  2.2.2 and 2.3a1, and in Python 2.4 it will once again have that
  value, but according to PEP 237 it really needs to be 1 now.  This
  will be backported to Python 2.2.3 a well.  (SF #660455)

- int(s, base) sometimes sign-folds hex and oct constants; it only
  does this when base is 0 and s.strip() starts with a '0'.  When the
  sign is actually folded, as in int("0xffffffff", 0) on a 32-bit
  machine, which returns -1, a FutureWarning is now issued; in Python
  2.4, this will return 4294967295L, as do int("+0xffffffff", 0) and
  int("0xffffffff", 16) right now.  (PEP 347)

- super(X, x): x may now be a proxy for an X instance, i.e.
  issubclass(x.__class__, X) but not issubclass(type(x), X).

- isinstance(x, X): if X is a new-style class, this is now equivalent
  to issubclass(type(x), X) or issubclass(x.__class__, X).  Previously
  only type(x) was tested.  (For classic classes this was already the

- compile(), eval() and the exec statement now fully support source code
  passed as unicode strings.

- int subclasses can be initialized with longs if the value fits in an int.
  See SF bug #683467.

- long(string, base) takes time linear in len(string) when base is a power
  of 2 now.  It used to take time quadratic in len(string).

- filter returns now Unicode results for Unicode arguments.

- raw_input can now return Unicode objects.

- List objects' sort() method now accepts None as the comparison function.
  Passing None is semantically identical to calling sort() with no

- Fixed crash when printing a subclass of str and __str__ returned self.
  See SF bug #667147.

- Fixed an invalid RuntimeWarning and an undetected error when trying
  to convert a long integer into a float which couldn't fit.
  See SF bug #676155.

- Function objects now have a __module__ attribute that is bound to
  the name of the module in which the function was defined.  This
  applies for C functions and methods as well as functions and methods
  defined in Python.  This attribute is used by pickle.whichmodule(),
  which changes the behavior of whichmodule slightly.  In Python 2.2
  whichmodule() returns "__main__" for functions that are not defined
  at the top-level of a module (examples: methods, nested functions).
  Now whichmodule() will return the proper module name.

Extension modules

- operator.isNumberType() now checks that the object has a nb_int or
  nb_float slot, rather than simply checking whether it has a non-NULL
  tp_as_number pointer.

- The imp module now has ways to acquire and release the "import
  lock": imp.acquire_lock() and imp.release_lock().  Note: this is a
  reentrant lock, so releasing the lock only truly releases it when
  this is the last release_lock() call.  You can check with
  imp.lock_held().  (SF bug #580952 and patch #683257.)

- Change to cPickle to match pickle.py (see below and PEP 307).

- Fix some bugs in the parser module.  SF bug #678518.

- Thanks to Scott David Daniels, a subtle bug in how the zlib
  extension implemented flush() was fixed.  Scott also rewrote the
  zlib test suite using the unittest module.  (SF bug #640230 and
  patch #678531.)

- Added an itertools module containing high speed, memory efficient
  looping constructs inspired by tools from Haskell and SML.

- The SSL module now handles sockets with a timeout set correctly (SF
  patch #675750, fixing SF bug #675552).

- os/posixmodule has grown the sysexits.h constants (EX_OK and friends).

- Fixed broken threadstate swap in readline that could cause fatal
  errors when a readline hook was being invoked while a background
  thread was active.  (SF bugs #660476 and #513033.)

- fcntl now exposes the strops.h I_* constants.

- Fix a crash on Solaris that occurred when calling close() on
  an mmap'ed file which was already closed.  (SF patch #665913)

- Fixed several serious bugs in the zipimport implementation.

- datetime changes:

  The date class is now properly subclassable.  (SF bug #720908)

  The datetime and datetimetz classes have been collapsed into a single
  datetime class, and likewise the time and timetz classes into a single
  time class.  Previously, a datetimetz object with tzinfo=None acted
  exactly like a datetime object, and similarly for timetz.  This wasn't
  enough of a difference to justify distinct classes, and life is simpler

  today() and now() now round system timestamps to the closest
  microsecond <http://www.python.org/sf/661086>.  This repairs an
  irritation most likely seen on Windows systems.

  In dt.astimezone(tz), if tz.utcoffset(dt) returns a duration,
  ValueError is raised if tz.dst(dt) returns None (2.3a1 treated it
  as 0 instead, but a tzinfo subclass wishing to participate in
  time zone conversion has to take a stand on whether it supports
  DST; if you don't care about DST, then code dst() to return 0 minutes,
  meaning that DST is never in effect).

  The tzinfo methods utcoffset() and dst() must return a timedelta object
  (or None) now.  In 2.3a1 they could also return an int or long, but that
  was an unhelpfully redundant leftover from an earlier version wherein
  they couldn't return a timedelta.  TOOWTDI.

  The example tzinfo class for local time had a bug.  It was replaced
  by a later example coded by Guido.

  datetime.astimezone(tz) no longer raises an exception when the
  input datetime has no UTC equivalent in tz.  For typical "hybrid" time
  zones (a single tzinfo subclass modeling both standard and daylight
  time), this case can arise one hour per year, at the hour daylight time
  ends.  See new docs for details.  In short, the new behavior mimics
  the local wall clock's behavior of repeating an hour in local time.

  dt.astimezone() can no longer be used to convert between naive and aware
  datetime objects.  If you merely want to attach, or remove, a tzinfo
  object, without any conversion of date and time members, use
  dt.replace(tzinfo=whatever) instead, where "whatever" is None or a
  tzinfo subclass instance.

  A new method tzinfo.fromutc(dt) can be overridden in tzinfo subclasses
  to give complete control over how a UTC time is to be converted to
  a local time.  The default astimezone() implementation calls fromutc()
  as its last step, so a tzinfo subclass can affect that too by overriding
  fromutc().  It's expected that the default fromutc() implementation will
  be suitable as-is for "almost all" time zone subclasses, but the
  creativity of political time zone fiddling appears unbounded -- fromutc()
  allows the highly motivated to emulate any scheme expressible in Python.

  datetime.now():  The optional tzinfo argument was undocumented (that's
  repaired), and its name was changed to tz ("tzinfo" is overloaded enough
  already).  With a tz argument, now(tz) used to return the local date
  and time, and attach tz to it, without any conversion of date and time
  members.  This was less than useful.  Now now(tz) returns the current
  date and time as local time in tz's time zone, akin to ::


  where "utc" is an instance of a tzinfo subclass modeling UTC.  Without
  a tz argument, now() continues to return the current local date and time,
  as a naive datetime object.

  datetime.fromtimestamp():  Like datetime.now() above, this had less than
  useful behavior when the optional tinzo argument was specified.  See
  also SF bug report <http://www.python.org/sf/660872>.

  date and datetime comparison:  In order to prevent comparison from
  falling back to the default compare-object-addresses strategy, these
  raised TypeError whenever they didn't understand the other object type.
  They still do, except when the other object has a "timetuple" attribute,
  in which case they return NotImplemented now.  This gives other
  datetime objects (e.g., mxDateTime) a chance to intercept the

  date, time, datetime and timedelta comparison:  When the exception
  for mixed-type comparisons in the last paragraph doesn't apply, if
  the comparison is == then False is returned, and if the comparison is
  != then True is returned.  Because dict lookup and the "in" operator
  only invoke __eq__, this allows, for example, ::

      if some_datetime in some_sequence:

  and ::

      some_dict[some_timedelta] = whatever

  to work as expected, without raising TypeError just because the
  sequence is heterogeneous, or the dict has mixed-type keys.  [This
  seems like a good idea to implement for all mixed-type comparisons
  that don't want to allow falling back to address comparison.]

  The constructors building a datetime from a timestamp could raise
  ValueError if the platform C localtime()/gmtime() inserted "leap
  seconds".  Leap seconds are ignored now.  On such platforms, it's
  possible to have timestamps that differ by a second, yet where
  datetimes constructed from them are equal.

  The pickle format of date, time and datetime objects has changed
  completely.  The undocumented pickler and unpickler functions no
  longer exist.  The undocumented __setstate__() and __getstate__()
  methods no longer exist either.


- The logging module was updated slightly; the WARN level was renamed
  to WARNING, and the matching function/method warn() to warning().

- The pickle and cPickle modules were updated with a new pickling
  protocol (documented by pickletools.py, see below) and several
  extensions to the pickle customization API (__reduce__, __setstate__
  etc.).  The copy module now uses more of the pickle customization
  API to copy objects that don't implement __copy__ or __deepcopy__.
  See PEP 307 for details.

- The distutils "register" command now uses http://www.python.org/pypi
  as the default repository.  (See PEP 301.)

- the platform dependent path related variables sep, altsep, extsep,
  pathsep, curdir, pardir and defpath are now defined in the platform
  dependent path modules (e.g. ntpath.py) rather than os.py, so these
  variables are now available via os.path.  They continue to be
  available from the os module.
  (see <http://www.python.org/sf/680789>).

- array.array was added to the types repr.py knows about (see

- The new pickletools.py contains lots of documentation about pickle
  internals, and supplies some helpers for working with pickles, such as
  a symbolic pickle disassembler.

- Xmlrpclib.py now supports the builtin boolean type.

- py_compile has a new 'doraise' flag and a new PyCompileError

- SimpleXMLRPCServer now supports CGI through the CGIXMLRPCRequestHandler

- The sets module now raises TypeError in __cmp__, to clarify that
  sets are not intended to be three-way-compared; the comparison
  operators are overloaded as subset/superset tests.

- Bastion.py and rexec.py are disabled.  These modules are not safe in
  Python 2.2. or 2.3.

- realpath is now exported when doing ``from poxixpath import *``.
  It is also exported for ntpath, macpath, and os2emxpath.
  See SF bug #659228.

- New module tarfile from Lars Gustäbel provides a comprehensive interface
  to tar archive files with transparent gzip and bzip2 compression.
  See SF patch #651082.

- urlparse can now parse imap:// URLs.  See SF feature request #618024.

- Tkinter.Canvas.scan_dragto() provides an optional parameter to support
  the gain value which is passed to Tk.  SF bug# 602259.

- Fix logging.handlers.SysLogHandler protocol when using UNIX domain sockets.
  See SF patch #642974.

- The dospath module was deleted.  Use the ntpath module when manipulating
  DOS paths from other platforms.


- Two new scripts (db2pickle.py and pickle2db.py) were added to the
  Tools/scripts directory to facilitate conversion from the old bsddb module
  to the new one.  While the user-visible API of the new module is
  compatible with the old one, it's likely that the version of the
  underlying database library has changed.  To convert from the old library,
  run the db2pickle.py script using the old version of Python to convert it
  to a pickle file.  After upgrading Python, run the pickle2db.py script
  using the new version of Python to reconstitute your database.  For

    % python2.2 db2pickle.py -h some.db > some.pickle
    % python2.3 pickle2db.py -h some.db.new < some.pickle

  Run the scripts without any args to get a usage message.


- The audio driver tests (test_ossaudiodev.py and
  test_linuxaudiodev.py) are no longer run by default.  This is
  because they don't always work, depending on your hardware and
  software.  To run these tests, you must use an invocation like ::

    ./python Lib/test/regrtest.py -u audio test_ossaudiodev

- On systems which build using the configure script, compiler flags which
  used to be lumped together using the OPT flag have been split into two
  groups, OPT and BASECFLAGS.  OPT is meant to carry just optimization- and
  debug-related flags like "-g" and "-O3".  BASECFLAGS is meant to carry
  compiler flags that are required to get a clean compile.  On some
  platforms (many Linux flavors in particular) BASECFLAGS will be empty by
  default.  On others, such as Mac OS X and SCO, it will contain required
  flags.  This change allows people building Python to override OPT without
  fear of clobbering compiler flags which are required to get a clean build.

- On Darwin/Mac OS X platforms, /sw/lib and /sw/include are added to the
  relevant search lists in setup.py.  This allows users building Python to
  take advantage of the many packages available from the fink project

- A new Makefile target, scriptsinstall, installs a number of useful scripts
  from the Tools/scripts directory.


- PyEval_GetFrame() is now declared to return a ``PyFrameObject *``
  instead of a plain ``PyObject *``.  (SF patch #686601.)

- PyNumber_Check() now checks that the object has a nb_int or nb_float
  slot, rather than simply checking whether it has a non-NULL
  tp_as_number pointer.

- A C type that inherits from a base type that defines tp_as_buffer
  will now inherit the tp_as_buffer pointer if it doesn't define one.
  (SF #681367)

- The PyArg_Parse functions now issue a DeprecationWarning if a float
  argument is provided when an integer is specified (this affects the 'b',
  'B', 'h', 'H', 'i', and 'l' codes).  Future versions of Python will
  raise a TypeError.


- Several tests weren't being run from regrtest.py (test_timeout.py,
  test_tarfile.py, test_netrc.py, test_multifile.py,
  test_importhooks.py and test_imp.py).  Now they are.  (Note to
  developers: please read Lib/test/README when creating a new test, to
  make sure to do it right!  All tests need to use either unittest or

- Added test_posix.py, a test suite for the posix module.

- Added test_hexoct.py, a test suite for hex/oct constant folding.


- The timeout code for socket connect() didn't work right; this has
  now been fixed.  test_timeout.py should pass (at least most of the

- distutils' msvccompiler class now passes the preprocessor options to
  the resource compiler.  See SF patch #669198.

- The bsddb module now ships with Sleepycat's 4.1.25.NC, the latest
  release without strong cryptography.

- sys.path[0], if it contains a directory name, is now always an
  absolute pathname. (SF patch #664376.)

- The new logging package is now installed by the Windows installer.  It
  wasn't in 2.3a1 due to oversight.


- There are new dialogs EasyDialogs.AskFileForOpen, AskFileForSave
  and AskFolder. The old macfs.StandardGetFile and friends are deprecated.

- Most of the standard library now uses pathnames or FSRefs in preference
  of FSSpecs, and use the underlying Carbon.File and Carbon.Folder modules
  in stead of macfs. macfs will probably be deprecated in the future.

- Type Carbon.File.FSCatalogInfo and supporting methods have been implemented.
  This also makes macfs.FSSpec.SetDates() work again.

- There is a new module pimp, the package install manager for Python, and
  accompanying applet PackageManager. These allow you to easily download
  and install pretested extension packages either in source or binary
  form. Only in MacPython-OSX.

- Applets are now built with bundlebuilder in MacPython-OSX, which should make
  them more robust and also provides a path towards BuildApplication. The
  downside of this change is that applets can no longer be run from the
  Terminal window, this will hopefully be fixed in the 2.3b1.

What's New in Python 2.3 alpha 1?

*Release date: 31-Dec-2002*

Type/class unification and new-style classes

- One can now assign to __bases__ and __name__ of new-style classes.

- dict() now accepts keyword arguments so that dict(one=1, two=2)
  is the equivalent of {"one": 1, "two": 2}.  Accordingly,
  the existing (but undocumented) 'items' keyword argument has
  been eliminated.  This means that dict(items=someMapping) now has
  a different meaning than before.

- int() now returns a long object if the argument is outside the
  integer range, so int("4" * 1000), int(1e200) and int(1L<<1000) will
  all return long objects instead of raising an OverflowError.

- Assignment to __class__ is disallowed if either the old or the new
  class is a statically allocated type object (such as defined by an
  extension module).  This prevents anomalies like 2.__class__ = bool.

- New-style object creation and deallocation have been sped up
  significantly; they are now faster than classic instance creation
  and deallocation.

- The __slots__ variable can now mention "private" names, and the
  right thing will happen (e.g. __slots__ = ["__foo"]).

- The built-ins slice() and buffer() are now callable types.  The
  types classobj (formerly class), code, function, instance, and
  instancemethod (formerly instance-method), which have no built-in
  names but are accessible through the types module, are now also
  callable.  The type dict-proxy is renamed to dictproxy.

- Cycles going through the __class__ link of a new-style instance are
  now detected by the garbage collector.

- Classes using __slots__ are now properly garbage collected.
  [SF bug 519621]

- Tightened the __slots__ rules: a slot name must be a valid Python

- The constructor for the module type now requires a name argument and
  takes an optional docstring argument.  Previously, this constructor
  ignored its arguments.  As a consequence, deriving a class from a
  module (not from the module type) is now illegal; previously this
  created an unnamed module, just like invoking the module type did.
  [SF bug 563060]

- A new type object, 'basestring', is added.  This is a common base type
  for 'str' and 'unicode', and can be used instead of
  types.StringTypes, e.g. to test whether something is "a string":
  isinstance(x, basestring) is True for Unicode and 8-bit strings.  This
  is an abstract base class and cannot be instantiated directly.

- Changed new-style class instantiation so that when C's __new__
  method returns something that's not a C instance, its __init__ is
  not called.  [SF bug #537450]

- Fixed super() to work correctly with class methods.  [SF bug #535444]

- If you try to pickle an instance of a class that has __slots__ but
  doesn't define or override __getstate__, a TypeError is now raised.
  This is done by adding a bozo __getstate__ to the class that always
  raises TypeError.  (Before, this would appear to be pickled, but the
  state of the slots would be lost.)

Core and builtins

- Import from zipfiles is now supported.  The name of a zipfile placed
  on sys.path causes the import statement to look for importable Python
  modules (with .py, pyc and .pyo extensions) and packages inside the
  zipfile.  The zipfile import follows the specification (though not
  the sample implementation) of PEP 273.  The semantics of __path__ are
  compatible with those that have been implemented in Jython since
  Jython 2.1.

- PEP 302 has been accepted.  Although it was initially developed to
  support zipimport, it offers a new, general import hook mechanism.
  Several new variables have been added to the sys module:
  sys.meta_path, sys.path_hooks, and sys.path_importer_cache; these
  make extending the import statement much more convenient than
  overriding the __import__ built-in function.  For a description of
  these, see PEP 302.

- A frame object's f_lineno attribute can now be written to from a
  trace function to change which line will execute next.  A command to
  exploit this from pdb has been added.  [SF patch #643835]

- The _codecs support module for codecs.py was turned into a builtin
  module to assure that at least the builtin codecs are available
  to the Python parser for source code decoding according to PEP 263.

- issubclass now supports a tuple as the second argument, just like
  isinstance does. ``issubclass(X, (A, B))`` is equivalent to
  ``issubclass(X, A) or issubclass(X, B)``.

- Thanks to Armin Rigo, the last known way to provoke a system crash
  by cleverly arranging for a comparison function to mutate a list
  during a list.sort() operation has been fixed.  The effect of
  attempting to mutate a list, or even to inspect its contents or
  length, while a sort is in progress, is not defined by the language.
  The C implementation of Python 2.3 attempts to detect mutations,
  and raise ValueError if one occurs, but there's no guarantee that
  all mutations will be caught, or that any will be caught across
  releases or implementations.

- Unicode file name processing for Windows (PEP 277) is implemented.
  All platforms now have an os.path.supports_unicode_filenames attribute,
  which is set to True on Windows NT/2000/XP, and False elsewhere.

- Codec error handling callbacks (PEP 293) are implemented.
  Error handling in unicode.encode or str.decode can now be customized.

- A subtle change to the semantics of the built-in function intern():
  interned strings are no longer immortal.  You must keep a reference
  to the return value intern() around to get the benefit.

- Use of 'None' as a variable, argument or attribute name now
  issues a SyntaxWarning.  In the future, None may become a keyword.

- SET_LINENO is gone.  co_lnotab is now consulted to determine when to
  call the trace function.  C code that accessed f_lineno should call
  PyCode_Addr2Line instead (f_lineno is still there, but only kept up
  to date when there is a trace function set).

- There's a new warning category, FutureWarning.  This is used to warn
  about a number of situations where the value or sign of an integer
  result will change in Python 2.4 as a result of PEP 237 (integer
  unification).  The warnings implement stage B0 mentioned in that
  PEP.  The warnings are about the following situations:

    - Octal and hex literals without 'L' prefix in the inclusive range
      [0x80000000..0xffffffff]; these are currently negative ints, but
      in Python 2.4 they will be positive longs with the same bit

    - Left shifts on integer values that cause the outcome to lose
      bits or have a different sign than the left operand.  To be
      precise: x<<n where this currently doesn't yield the same value
      as long(x)<<n; in Python 2.4, the outcome will be long(x)<<n.

    - Conversions from ints to string that show negative values as
      unsigned ints in the inclusive range [0x80000000..0xffffffff];
      this affects the functions hex() and oct(), and the string
      formatting codes %u, %o, %x, and %X.  In Python 2.4, these will
      show signed values (e.g. hex(-1) currently returns "0xffffffff";
      in Python 2.4 it will return "-0x1").

- The bits manipulated under the cover by sys.setcheckinterval() have
  been changed.  Both the check interval and the ticker used to be
  per-thread values.  They are now just a pair of global variables.
  In addition, the default check interval was boosted from 10 to 100
  bytecode instructions.  This may have some effect on systems that
  relied on the old default value.  In particular, in multi-threaded
  applications which try to be highly responsive, response time will
  increase by some (perhaps imperceptible) amount.

- When multiplying very large integers, a version of the so-called
  Karatsuba algorithm is now used.  This is most effective if the
  inputs have roughly the same size.  If they both have about N digits,
  Karatsuba multiplication has O(N**1.58) runtime (the exponent is
  log_base_2(3)) instead of the previous O(N**2).  Measured results may
  be better or worse than that, depending on platform quirks.  Besides
  the O() improvement in raw instruction count, the Karatsuba algorithm
  appears to have much better cache behavior on extremely large integers
  (starting in the ballpark of a million bits).  Note that this is a
  simple implementation, and there's no intent here to compete with,
  e.g., GMP.  It gives a very nice speedup when it applies, but a package
  devoted to fast large-integer arithmetic should run circles around it.

- u'%c' will now raise a ValueError in case the argument is an
  integer outside the valid range of Unicode code point ordinals.

- The tempfile module has been overhauled for enhanced security.  The
  mktemp() function is now deprecated; new, safe replacements are
  mkstemp() (for files) and mkdtemp() (for directories), and the
  higher-level functions NamedTemporaryFile() and TemporaryFile().
  Use of some global variables in this module is also deprecated; the
  new functions have keyword arguments to provide the same
  functionality.  All Lib, Tools and Demo modules that used the unsafe
  interfaces have been updated to use the safe replacements.  Thanks
  to Zack Weinberg!

- When x is an object whose class implements __mul__ and __rmul__,
  1.0*x would correctly invoke __rmul__, but 1*x would erroneously
  invoke __mul__.  This was due to the sequence-repeat code in the int
  type.  This has been fixed now.

- Previously, "str1 in str2" required str1 to be a string of length 1.
  This restriction has been relaxed to allow str1 to be a string of
  any length.  Thus "'el' in 'hello world'" returns True now.

- File objects are now their own iterators.  For a file f, iter(f) now
  returns f (unless f is closed), and f.next() is similar to
  f.readline() when EOF is not reached; however, f.next() uses a
  readahead buffer that messes up the file position, so mixing
  f.next() and f.readline() (or other methods) doesn't work right.
  Calling f.seek() drops the readahead buffer, but other operations
  don't.  It so happens that this gives a nice additional speed boost
  to "for line in file:"; the xreadlines method and corresponding
  module are now obsolete.  Thanks to Oren Tirosh!

- Encoding declarations (PEP 263, phase 1) have been implemented.  A
  comment of the form "# -*- coding: <encodingname> -*-" in the first
  or second line of a Python source file indicates the encoding.

- list.sort() has a new implementation.  While cross-platform results
  may vary, and in data-dependent ways, this is much faster on many
  kinds of partially ordered lists than the previous implementation,
  and reported to be just as fast on randomly ordered lists on
  several major platforms.  This sort is also stable (if A==B and A
  precedes B in the list at the start, A precedes B after the sort too),
  although the language definition does not guarantee stability.  A
  potential drawback is that list.sort() may require temp space of
  len(list)*2 bytes (``*4`` on a 64-bit machine).  It's therefore possible
  for list.sort() to raise MemoryError now, even if a comparison function
  does not.  See <http://www.python.org/sf/587076> for full details.

- All standard iterators now ensure that, once StopIteration has been
  raised, all future calls to next() on the same iterator will also
  raise StopIteration.  There used to be various counterexamples to
  this behavior, which could caused confusion or subtle program
  breakage, without any benefits.  (Note that this is still an
  iterator's responsibility; the iterator framework does not enforce

- Ctrl+C handling on Windows has been made more consistent with
  other platforms.  KeyboardInterrupt can now reliably be caught,
  and Ctrl+C at an interactive prompt no longer terminates the
  process under NT/2k/XP (it never did under Win9x).  Ctrl+C will
  interrupt time.sleep() in the main thread, and any child processes
  created via the popen family (on win2k; we can't make win9x work
  reliably) are also interrupted (as generally happens on for Linux/Unix.)
  [SF bugs 231273, 439992 and 581232]

- sys.getwindowsversion() has been added on Windows.  This
  returns a tuple with information about the version of Windows
  currently running.

- Slices and repetitions of buffer objects now consistently return
  a string.  Formerly, strings would be returned most of the time,
  but a buffer object would be returned when the repetition count
  was one or when the slice range was all inclusive.

- Unicode objects in sys.path are no longer ignored but treated
  as directory names.

- Fixed string.startswith and string.endswith builtin methods
  so they accept negative indices.  [SF bug 493951]

- Fixed a bug with a continue inside a try block and a yield in the
  finally clause.  [SF bug 567538]

- Most builtin sequences now support "extended slices", i.e. slices
  with a third "stride" parameter.  For example, "hello world"[::-1]
  gives "dlrow olleh".

- A new warning PendingDeprecationWarning was added to provide
  direction on features which are in the process of being deprecated.
  The warning will not be printed by default.  To see the pending
  deprecations, use -Walways::PendingDeprecationWarning::
  as a command line option or warnings.filterwarnings() in code.

- Deprecated features of xrange objects have been removed as
  promised.  The start, stop, and step attributes and the tolist()
  method no longer exist.  xrange repetition and slicing have been

- New builtin function enumerate(x), from PEP 279.  Example:
  enumerate("abc") is an iterator returning (0,"a"), (1,"b"), (2,"c").
  The argument can be an arbitrary iterable object.

- The assert statement no longer tests __debug__ at runtime.  This means
  that assert statements cannot be disabled by assigning a false value
  to __debug__.

- A method zfill() was added to str and unicode, that fills a numeric
  string to the left with zeros.  For example,
  "+123".zfill(6) -> "+00123".

- Complex numbers supported divmod() and the // and % operators, but
  these make no sense.  Since this was documented, they're being
  deprecated now.

- String and unicode methods lstrip(), rstrip() and strip() now take
  an optional argument that specifies the characters to strip.  For
  example, "Foo!!!?!?!?".rstrip("?!") -> "Foo".

- There's a new dictionary constructor (a class method of the dict
  class), dict.fromkeys(iterable, value=None).  It constructs a
  dictionary with keys taken from the iterable and all values set to a
  single value.  It can be used for building sets and for removing
  duplicates from sequences.

- Added a new dict method pop(key).  This removes and returns the
  value corresponding to key.  [SF patch #539949]

- A new built-in type, bool, has been added, as well as built-in
  names for its two values, True and False.  Comparisons and sundry
  other operations that return a truth value have been changed to
  return a bool instead.  Read PEP 285 for an explanation of why this
  is backward compatible.

- Fixed two bugs reported as SF #535905: under certain conditions,
  deallocating a deeply nested structure could cause a segfault in the
  garbage collector, due to interaction with the "trashcan" code;
  access to the current frame during destruction of a local variable
  could access a pointer to freed memory.

- The optional object allocator ("pymalloc") has been enabled by
  default.  The recommended practice for memory allocation and
  deallocation has been streamlined.  A header file is included,
  Misc/pymemcompat.h, which can be bundled with 3rd party extensions
  and lets them use the same API with Python versions from 1.5.2

- PyErr_Display will provide file and line information for all exceptions
  that have an attribute print_file_and_line, not just SyntaxErrors.

- The UTF-8 codec will now encode and decode Unicode surrogates
  correctly and without raising exceptions for unpaired ones.

- Universal newlines (PEP 278) is implemented.  Briefly, using 'U'
  instead of 'r' when opening a text file for reading changes the line
  ending convention so that any of '\r', '\r\n', and '\n' is
  recognized (even mixed in one file); all three are converted to
  '\n', the standard Python line end character.

- file.xreadlines() now raises a ValueError if the file is closed:
  Previously, an xreadlines object was returned which would raise
  a ValueError when the xreadlines.next() method was called.

- sys.exit() inadvertently allowed more than one argument.
  An exception will now be raised if more than one argument is used.

- Changed evaluation order of dictionary literals to conform to the
  general left to right evaluation order rule. Now {f1(): f2()} will
  evaluate f1 first.

- Fixed bug #521782: when a file was in non-blocking mode, file.read()
  could silently lose data or wrongly throw an unknown error.

- The sq_repeat, sq_inplace_repeat, sq_concat and sq_inplace_concat
  slots are now always tried after trying the corresponding nb_* slots.
  This fixes a number of minor bugs (see bug #624807).

- Fix problem with dynamic loading on 64-bit AIX (see bug #639945).

Extension modules

- Added three operators to the operator module:
    operator.pow(a,b) which is equivalent to:  a**b.
    operator.is_(a,b) which is equivalent to:  a is b.
    operator.is_not(a,b) which is equivalent to:  a is not b.

- posix.openpty now works on all systems that have /dev/ptmx.

- A module zipimport exists to support importing code from zip

- The new datetime module supplies classes for manipulating dates and
  times.  The basic design came from the Zope "fishbowl process", and
  favors practical commercial applications over calendar esoterica.  See


- _tkinter now returns Tcl objects, instead of strings. Objects which
  have Python equivalents are converted to Python objects, other objects
  are wrapped. This can be configured through the wantobjects method,
  or Tkinter.wantobjects.

- The PyBSDDB wrapper around the Sleepycat Berkeley DB library has
  been added as the package bsddb.  The traditional bsddb module is
  still available in source code, but not built automatically anymore,
  and is now named bsddb185.  This supports Berkeley DB versions from
  3.0 to 4.1.  For help converting your databases from the old module (which
  probably used an obsolete version of Berkeley DB) to the new module, see
  the db2pickle.py and pickle2db.py scripts described in the Tools/Demos
  section above.

- unicodedata was updated to Unicode 3.2. It supports normalization
  and names for Hangul syllables and CJK unified ideographs.

- resource.getrlimit() now returns longs instead of ints.

- readline now dynamically adjusts its input/output stream if
  sys.stdin/stdout changes.

- The _tkinter module (and hence Tkinter) has dropped support for
  Tcl/Tk 8.0 and 8.1.  Only Tcl/Tk versions 8.2, 8.3 and 8.4 are

- cPickle.BadPickleGet is now a class.

- The time stamps in os.stat_result are floating point numbers
  after stat_float_times has been called.

- If the size passed to mmap.mmap() is larger than the length of the
  file on non-Windows platforms, a ValueError is raised. [SF bug 585792]

- The xreadlines module is slated for obsolescence.

- The strptime function in the time module is now always available (a
  Python implementation is used when the C library doesn't define it).

- The 'new' module is no longer an extension, but a Python module that
  only exists for backwards compatibility.  Its contents are no longer
  functions but callable type objects.

- The bsddb.*open functions can now take 'None' as a filename.
  This will create a temporary in-memory bsddb that won't be
  written to disk.

- posix.getloadavg, posix.lchown, posix.killpg, posix.mknod, and
  posix.getpgid have been added where available.

- The locale module now exposes the C library's gettext interface. It
  also has a new function getpreferredencoding.

- A security hole ("double free") was found in zlib-1.1.3, a popular
  third party compression library used by some Python modules.  The
  hole was quickly plugged in zlib-1.1.4, and the Windows build of
  Python now ships with zlib-1.1.4.

- pwd, grp, and resource return enhanced tuples now, with symbolic
  field names.

- array.array is now a type object. A new format character
  'u' indicates Py_UNICODE arrays. For those, .tounicode and
  .fromunicode methods are available. Arrays now support __iadd__
  and __imul__.

- dl now builds on every system that has dlfcn.h.  Failure in case
  of sizeof(int)!=sizeof(long)!=sizeof(void*) is delayed until dl.open
  is called.

- The sys module acquired a new attribute, api_version, which evaluates
  to the value of the PYTHON_API_VERSION macro with which the
  interpreter was compiled.

- Fixed bug #470582: sre module would return a tuple (None, 'a', 'ab')
  when applying the regular expression '^((a)c)?(ab)$' on 'ab'. It now
  returns (None, None, 'ab'), as expected. Also fixed handling of
  lastindex/lastgroup match attributes in similar cases. For example,
  when running the expression r'(a)(b)?b' over 'ab', lastindex must be
  1, not 2.

- Fixed bug #581080: sre scanner was not checking the buffer limit
  before increasing the current pointer. This was creating an infinite
  loop in the search function, once the pointer exceeded the buffer

- The os.fdopen function now enforces a file mode starting with the
  letter 'r', 'w' or 'a', otherwise a ValueError is raised. This fixes
  bug #623464.

- The linuxaudiodev module is now deprecated; it is being replaced by
  ossaudiodev.  The interface has been extended to cover a lot more of
  OSS (see www.opensound.com), including most DSP ioctls and the
  OSS mixer API.  Documentation forthcoming in 2.3a2.


- imaplib.py now supports SSL (Tino Lange and Piers Lauder).

- Freeze's modulefinder.py has been moved to the standard library;
  slightly improved so it will issue less false missing submodule
  reports (see sf path #643711 for details).  Documentation will follow
  with Python 2.3a2.

- os.path exposes getctime.

- unittest.py now has two additional methods called assertAlmostEqual()
  and failIfAlmostEqual().  They implement an approximate comparison
  by rounding the difference between the two arguments and comparing
  the result to zero.  Approximate comparison is essential for
  unit tests of floating point results.

- calendar.py now depends on the new datetime module rather than
  the time module.  As a result, the range of allowable dates
  has been increased.

- pdb has a new 'j(ump)' command to select the next line to be

- The distutils created windows installers now can run a
  postinstallation script.

- doctest.testmod can now be called without argument, which means to
  test the current module.

- When canceling a server that implemented threading with a keyboard
  interrupt, the server would shut down but not terminate (waiting on
  client threads). A new member variable, daemon_threads, was added to
  the ThreadingMixIn class in SocketServer.py to make it explicit that
  this behavior needs to be controlled.

- A new module, optparse, provides a fancy alternative to getopt for
  command line parsing.  It is a slightly modified version of Greg
  Ward's Optik package.

- UserDict.py now defines a DictMixin class which defines all dictionary
  methods for classes that already have a minimum mapping interface.
  This greatly simplifies writing classes that need to be substitutable
  for dictionaries (such as the shelve module).

- shelve.py now subclasses from UserDict.DictMixin.  Now shelve supports
  all dictionary methods.  This eases the transition to persistent
  storage for scripts originally written with dictionaries in mind.

- shelve.open and the various classes in shelve.py now accept an optional
  binary flag, which defaults to False.  If True, the values stored in the
  shelf are binary pickles.

- A new package, logging, implements the logging API defined by PEP
  282.  The code is written by Vinay Sajip.

- StreamReader, StreamReaderWriter and StreamRecoder in the codecs
  modules are iterators now.

- gzip.py now handles files exceeding 2GB.  Files over 4GB also work
  now (provided the OS supports it, and Python is configured with large
  file support), but in that case the underlying gzip file format can
  record only the least-significant 32 bits of the file size, so that
  some tools working with gzipped files may report an incorrect file

- xml.sax.saxutils.unescape has been added, to replace entity references
  with their entity value.

- Queue.Queue.{put,get} now support an optional timeout argument.

- Various features of Tk 8.4 are exposed in Tkinter.py. The multiple
  option of tkFileDialog is exposed as function askopenfile{,name}s.

- Various configure methods of Tkinter have been stream-lined, so that
  tag_configure, image_configure, window_configure now return a
  dictionary when invoked with no argument.

- Importing the readline module now no longer has the side effect of
  calling setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "").  The initial "C" locale, or
  whatever locale is explicitly set by the user, is preserved.  If you
  want repr() of 8-bit strings in your preferred encoding to preserve
  all printable characters of that encoding, you have to add the
  following code to your $PYTHONSTARTUP file or to your application's

    import locale
    locale.setlocale(locale.LC_CTYPE, "")

- shutil.move was added. shutil.copytree now reports errors as an
  exception at the end, instead of printing error messages.

- Encoding name normalization was generalized to not only
  replace hyphens with underscores, but also all other non-alphanumeric
  characters (with the exception of the dot which is used for Python
  package names during lookup). The aliases.py mapping was updated
  to the new standard.

- mimetypes has two new functions: guess_all_extensions() which
  returns a list of all known extensions for a mime type, and
  add_type() which adds one mapping between a mime type and
  an extension to the database.

- New module: sets, defines the class Set that implements a mutable
  set type using the keys of a dict to represent the set.  There's
  also a class ImmutableSet which is useful when you need sets of sets
  or when you need to use sets as dict keys, and a class BaseSet which
  is the base class of the two.

- Added random.sample(population,k) for random sampling without replacement.
  Returns a k length list of unique elements chosen from the population.

- random.randrange(-sys.maxint-1, sys.maxint) no longer raises
  OverflowError.  That is, it now accepts any combination of 'start'
  and 'stop' arguments so long as each is in the range of Python's
  bounded integers.

- Thanks to Raymond Hettinger, random.random() now uses a new core
  generator.  The Mersenne Twister algorithm is implemented in C,
  threadsafe, faster than the previous generator, has an astronomically
  large period (2**19937-1), creates random floats to full 53-bit
  precision, and may be the most widely tested random number generator
  in existence.

  The random.jumpahead(n) method has different semantics for the new
  generator.  Instead of jumping n steps ahead, it uses n and the
  existing state to create a new state.  This means that jumpahead()
  continues to support multi-threaded code needing generators of
  non-overlapping sequences.  However, it will break code which relies
  on jumpahead moving a specific number of steps forward.

  The attributes random.whseed and random.__whseed have no meaning for
  the new generator.  Code using these attributes should switch to a
  new class, random.WichmannHill which is provided for backward
  compatibility and to make an alternate generator available.

- New "algorithms" module: heapq, implements a heap queue.  Thanks to
  Kevin O'Connor for the code and François Pinard for an entertaining
  write-up explaining the theory and practical uses of heaps.

- New encoding for the Palm OS character set: palmos.

- binascii.crc32() and the zipfile module had problems on some 64-bit
  platforms.  These have been fixed.  On a platform with 8-byte C longs,
  crc32() now returns a signed-extended 4-byte result, so that its value
  as a Python int is equal to the value computed a 32-bit platform.

- xml.dom.minidom.toxml and toprettyxml now take an optional encoding

- Some fixes in the copy module: when an object is copied through its
  __reduce__ method, there was no check for a __setstate__ method on
  the result [SF patch 565085]; deepcopy should treat instances of
  custom metaclasses the same way it treats instances of type 'type'
  [SF patch 560794].

- Sockets now support timeout mode.  After s.settimeout(T), where T is
  a float expressing seconds, subsequent operations raise an exception
  if they cannot be completed within T seconds.  To disable timeout
  mode, use s.settimeout(None).  There's also a module function,
  socket.setdefaulttimeout(T), which sets the default for all sockets
  created henceforth.

- getopt.gnu_getopt was added.  This supports GNU-style option
  processing, where options can be mixed with non-option arguments.

- Stop using strings for exceptions.  String objects used for
  exceptions are now classes deriving from Exception.  The objects
  changed were: Tkinter.TclError, bdb.BdbQuit, macpath.norm_error,
  tabnanny.NannyNag, and xdrlib.Error.

- Constants BOM_UTF8, BOM_UTF16, BOM_UTF16_LE, BOM_UTF16_BE,
  BOM_UTF32, BOM_UTF32_LE and BOM_UTF32_BE that represent the Byte
  Order Mark in UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32 encodings for little and
  big endian systems were added to the codecs module. The old names
  BOM32_* and BOM64_* were off by a factor of 2.

- Added conversion functions math.degrees() and math.radians().

- math.log() now takes an optional argument:  math.log(x[, base]).

- ftplib.retrlines() now tests for callback is None rather than testing
  for False.  Was causing an error when given a callback object which
  was callable but also returned len() as zero.  The change may
  create new breakage if the caller relied on the undocumented behavior
  and called with callback set to [] or some other False value not
  identical to None.

- random.gauss() uses a piece of hidden state used by nothing else,
  and the .seed() and .whseed() methods failed to reset it.  In other
  words, setting the seed didn't completely determine the sequence of
  results produced by random.gauss().  It does now.  Programs repeatedly
  mixing calls to a seed method with calls to gauss() may see different
  results now.

- The pickle.Pickler class grew a clear_memo() method to mimic that
  provided by cPickle.Pickler.

- difflib's SequenceMatcher class now does a dynamic analysis of
  which elements are so frequent as to constitute noise.  For
  comparing files as sequences of lines, this generally works better
  than the IS_LINE_JUNK function, and function ndiff's linejunk
  argument defaults to None now as a result.  A happy benefit is
  that SequenceMatcher may run much faster now when applied
  to large files with many duplicate lines (for example, C program
  text with lots of repeated "}" and "return NULL;" lines).

- New Text.dump() method in Tkinter module.

- New distutils commands for building packagers were added to
  support pkgtool on Solaris and swinstall on HP-UX.

- distutils now has a new abstract binary packager base class
  command/bdist_packager, which simplifies writing packagers.
  This will hopefully provide the missing bits to encourage
  people to submit more packagers, e.g. for Debian, FreeBSD
  and other systems.

- The UTF-16, -LE and -BE stream readers now raise a
  NotImplementedError for all calls to .readline(). Previously, they
  used to just produce garbage or fail with an encoding error --
  UTF-16 is a 2-byte encoding and the C lib's line reading APIs don't
  work well with these.

- compileall now supports quiet operation.

- The BaseHTTPServer now implements optional HTTP/1.1 persistent

- socket module: the SSL support was broken out of the main
  _socket module C helper and placed into a new _ssl helper
  which now gets imported by socket.py if available and working.

- encodings package: added aliases for all supported IANA character

- ftplib: to safeguard the user's privacy, anonymous login will use
  "anonymous@" as default password, rather than the real user and host

- webbrowser: tightened up the command passed to os.system() so that
  arbitrary shell code can't be executed because a bogus URL was
  passed in.

- gettext.translation has an optional fallback argument, and
  gettext.find an optional all argument. Translations will now fallback
  on a per-message basis. The module supports plural forms, by means
  of gettext.[d]ngettext and Translation.[u]ngettext.

- distutils bdist commands now offer a --skip-build option.

- warnings.warn now accepts a Warning instance as first argument.

- The xml.sax.expatreader.ExpatParser class will no longer create
  circular references by using itself as the locator that gets passed
  to the content handler implementation.  [SF bug #535474]

- The email.Parser.Parser class now properly parses strings regardless
  of their line endings, which can be any of \r, \n, or \r\n (CR, LF,
  or CRLF).  Also, the Header class's constructor default arguments
  has changed slightly so that an explicit maxlinelen value is always
  honored, and so unicode conversion error handling can be specified.

- distutils' build_ext command now links C++ extensions with the C++
  compiler available in the Makefile or CXX environment variable, if
  running under \*nix.

- New module bz2: provides a comprehensive interface for the bz2 compression
  library.  It implements a complete file interface, one-shot (de)compression
  functions, and types for sequential (de)compression.

- New pdb command 'pp' which is like 'p' except that it pretty-prints
  the value of its expression argument.

- Now bdist_rpm distutils command understands a verify_script option in
  the config file, including the contents of the referred filename in
  the "%verifyscript" section of the rpm spec file.

- Fixed bug #495695: webbrowser module would run graphic browsers in a
  unix environment even if DISPLAY was not set. Also, support for
  skipstone browser was included.

- Fixed bug #636769: rexec would run unallowed code if subclasses of
  strings were used as parameters for certain functions.


- pygettext.py now supports globbing on Windows, and accepts module
  names in addition to accepting file names.

- The SGI demos (Demo/sgi) have been removed.  Nobody thought they
  were interesting any more.  (The SGI library modules and extensions
  are still there; it is believed that at least some of these are
  still used and useful.)

- IDLE supports the new encoding declarations (PEP 263); it can also
  deal with legacy 8-bit files if they use the locale's encoding. It
  allows non-ASCII strings in the interactive shell and executes them
  in the locale's encoding.

- freeze.py now produces binaries which can import shared modules,
  unlike before when this failed due to missing symbol exports in
  the generated binary.


- On Unix, IDLE is now installed automatically.

- The fpectl module is not built by default; it's dangerous or useless
  except in the hands of experts.

- The public Python C API will generally be declared using PyAPI_FUNC
  and PyAPI_DATA macros, while Python extension module init functions
  will be declared with PyMODINIT_FUNC.  DL_EXPORT/DL_IMPORT macros
  are deprecated.

- A bug was fixed that could cause COUNT_ALLOCS builds to segfault, or
  get into infinite loops, when a new-style class got garbage-collected.
  Unfortunately, to avoid this, the way COUNT_ALLOCS works requires
  that new-style classes be immortal in COUNT_ALLOCS builds.  Note that
  COUNT_ALLOCS is not enabled by default, in either release or debug
  builds, and that new-style classes are immortal only in COUNT_ALLOCS

- Compiling out the cyclic garbage collector is no longer an option.
  The old symbol WITH_CYCLE_GC is now ignored, and Python.h arranges
  that it's always defined (for the benefit of any extension modules
  that may be conditionalizing on it).  A bonus is that any extension
  type participating in cyclic gc can choose to participate in the
  Py_TRASHCAN mechanism now too; in the absence of cyclic gc, this used
  to require editing the core to teach the trashcan mechanism about the
  new type.

- According to Annex F of the current C standard,

    The Standard C macro HUGE_VAL and its float and long double analogs,
    HUGE_VALF and HUGE_VALL, expand to expressions whose values are
    positive infinities.

  Python only uses the double HUGE_VAL, and only to #define its own symbol
  Py_HUGE_VAL.  Some platforms have incorrect definitions for HUGE_VAL.
  pyport.h used to try to worm around that, but the workarounds triggered
  other bugs on other platforms, so we gave up.  If your platform defines
  HUGE_VAL incorrectly, you'll need to #define Py_HUGE_VAL to something
  that works on your platform.  The only instance of this I'm sure about
  is on an unknown subset of Cray systems, described here:


  Presumably 2.3a1 breaks such systems.  If anyone uses such a system, help!

- The configure option --without-doc-strings can be used to remove the
  doc strings from the builtin functions and modules; this reduces the
  size of the executable.

- The universal newlines option (PEP 278) is on by default.  On Unix
  it can be disabled by passing --without-universal-newlines to the
  configure script.  On other platforms, remove
  WITH_UNIVERSAL_NEWLINES from pyconfig.h.

- On Unix, a shared libpython2.3.so can be created with --enable-shared.

  preprocessor symbols were eliminated.  The internal decisions they
  controlled stopped being experimental long ago.

- The tools used to build the documentation now work under Cygwin as
  well as Unix.

- The bsddb and dbm module builds have been changed to try and avoid version
  skew problems and disable linkage with Berkeley DB 1.85 unless the
  installer knows what s/he's doing.  See the section on building these
  modules in the README file for details.


- PyNumber_Check() now returns true for string and unicode objects.
  This is a result of these types having a partially defined
  tp_as_number slot.  (This is not a feature, but an indication that
  PyNumber_Check() is not very useful to determine numeric behavior.
  It may be deprecated.)

- The string object's layout has changed: the pointer member
  ob_sinterned has been replaced by an int member ob_sstate.  On some
  platforms (e.g. most 64-bit systems) this may change the offset of
  the ob_sval member, so as a precaution the API_VERSION has been
  incremented.  The apparently unused feature of "indirect interned
  strings", supported by the ob_sinterned member, is gone.  Interned
  strings are now usually mortal; there is a new API,
  PyString_InternImmortal() that creates immortal interned strings.
  (The ob_sstate member can only take three values; however, while
  making it a char saves a few bytes per string object on average, in
  it also slowed things down a bit because ob_sval was no longer

- The Py_InitModule*() functions now accept NULL for the 'methods'
  argument.  Modules without global functions are becoming more common
  now that factories can be types rather than functions.

- New C API PyUnicode_FromOrdinal() which exposes unichr() at C

- New functions PyErr_SetExcFromWindowsErr() and
  PyErr_SetExcFromWindowsErrWithFilename(). Similar to
  PyErr_SetFromWindowsErrWithFilename() and
  PyErr_SetFromWindowsErr(), but they allow to specify
  the exception type to raise. Available on Windows.

- Py_FatalError() is now declared as taking a const char* argument.  It
  was previously declared without const.  This should not affect working

- Added new macro PySequence_ITEM(o, i) that directly calls
  sq_item without rechecking that o is a sequence and without
  adjusting for negative indices.

- PyRange_New() now raises ValueError if the fourth argument is not 1.
  This is part of the removal of deprecated features of the xrange

- PyNumber_Coerce() and PyNumber_CoerceEx() now also invoke the type's
  coercion if both arguments have the same type but this type has the
  CHECKTYPES flag set.  This is to better support proxies.

- The type of tp_free has been changed from "``void (*)(PyObject *)``" to
  "``void (*)(void *)``".

- PyObject_Del, PyObject_GC_Del are now functions instead of macros.

- A type can now inherit its metatype from its base type.  Previously,
  when PyType_Ready() was called, if ob_type was found to be NULL, it
  was always set to &PyType_Type; now it is set to base->ob_type,
  where base is tp_base, defaulting to &PyObject_Type.

- PyType_Ready() accidentally did not inherit tp_is_gc; now it does.

- The PyCore_* family of APIs have been removed.

- The "u#" parser marker will now pass through Unicode objects as-is
  without going through the buffer API.

- The enumerators of cmp_op have been renamed to use the prefix ``PyCmp_``.

- An old #define of ANY as void has been removed from pyport.h.  This
  hasn't been used since Python's pre-ANSI days, and the #define has
  been marked as obsolete since then.  SF bug 495548 says it created
  conflicts with other packages, so keeping it around wasn't harmless.

- Because Python's magic number scheme broke on January 1st, we decided
  to stop Python development.  Thanks for all the fish!

- Some of us don't like fish, so we changed Python's magic number
  scheme to a new one. See Python/import.c for details.

New platforms

- OpenVMS is now supported.

- AtheOS is now supported.

- the EMX runtime environment on OS/2 is now supported.

- GNU/Hurd is now supported.


- The regrtest.py script's -u option now provides a way to say "allow
  all resources except this one."  For example, to allow everything
  except bsddb, give the option '-uall,-bsddb'.


- The Windows distribution now ships with version 4.0.14 of the
  Sleepycat Berkeley database library.  This should be a huge
  improvement over the previous Berkeley DB 1.85, which had many
  XXX What are the licensing issues here?
  XXX If a user has a database created with a previous version of
  XXX     Python, what must they do to convert it?
  XXX I'm still not sure how to link this thing (see PCbuild/readme.txt).
  XXX The version # is likely to change before 2.3a1.

- The Windows distribution now ships with a Secure Sockets Library (SLL)
   module (_ssl.pyd)

- The Windows distribution now ships with Tcl/Tk version 8.4.1 (it
  previously shipped with Tcl/Tk 8.3.2).

- When Python is built under a Microsoft compiler, sys.version now
  includes the compiler version number (_MSC_VER).  For example, under
  MSVC 6, sys.version contains the substring "MSC v.1200 ".  1200 is
  the value of _MSC_VER under MSVC 6.

- Sometimes the uninstall executable (UNWISE.EXE) vanishes.  One cause
  of that has been fixed in the installer (disabled Wise's "delete in-
  use files" uninstall option).

- Fixed a bug in urllib's proxy handling in Windows.  [SF bug #503031]

- The installer now installs Start menu shortcuts under (the local
  equivalent of) "All Users" when doing an Admin install.

- file.truncate([newsize]) now works on Windows for all newsize values.
  It used to fail if newsize didn't fit in 32 bits, reflecting a
  limitation of MS _chsize (which is no longer used).

- os.waitpid() is now implemented for Windows, and can be used to block
  until a specified process exits.  This is similar to, but not exactly
  the same as, os.waitpid() on POSIX systems.  If you're waiting for
  a specific process whose pid was obtained from one of the spawn()
  functions, the same Python os.waitpid() code works across platforms.
  See the docs for details.  The docs were changed to clarify that
  spawn functions return, and waitpid requires, a process handle on
  Windows (not the same thing as a Windows process id).

- New tempfile.TemporaryFile implementation for Windows:  this doesn't
  need a TemporaryFileWrapper wrapper anymore, and should be immune
  to a nasty problem:  before 2.3, if you got a temp file on Windows, it
  got wrapped in an object whose close() method first closed the
  underlying file, then deleted the file.  This usually worked fine.
  However, the spawn family of functions on Windows create (at a low C
  level) the same set of open files in the spawned process Q as were
  open in the spawning process P.  If a temp file f was among them, then
  doing f.close() in P first closed P's C-level file handle on f, but Q's
  C-level file handle on f remained open, so the attempt in P to delete f
  blew up with a "Permission denied" error (Windows doesn't allow
  deleting open files).  This was surprising, subtle, and difficult to
  work around.

- The os module now exports all the symbolic constants usable with the
  low-level os.open() on Windows:  the new constants in 2.3 are
  The others were also available in 2.2:  O_APPEND, O_BINARY, O_CREAT,
  to Microsoft docs, O_SHORT_LIVED does not seem to imply O_TEMPORARY
  (so specify both if you want both; note that neither is useful unless
  specified with O_CREAT too).


- Mac/Relnotes is gone, the release notes are now here.

- Python (the OSX-only, unix-based version, not the OS9-compatible CFM
  version) now fully supports unicode strings as arguments to various file
  system calls, eg. open(), file(), os.stat() and os.listdir().

- The current naming convention for Python on the Macintosh is that MacPython
  refers to the unix-based OSX-only version, and MacPython-OS9 refers to the
  CFM-based version that runs on both OS9 and OSX.

- All MacPython-OS9 functionality is now available in an OSX unix build,
  including the Carbon modules, the IDE, OSA support, etc. A lot of this
  will only work correctly in a framework build, though, because you cannot
  talk to the window manager unless your application is run from a .app
  bundle. There is a command line tool "pythonw" that runs your script
  with an interpreter living in such a .app bundle, this interpreter should
  be used to run any Python script using the window manager (including
  Tkinter or wxPython scripts).

- Most of Mac/Lib has moved to Lib/plat-mac, which is again used both in
  MacPython-OSX and MacPython-OS9. The only modules remaining in Mac/Lib
  are specifically for MacPython-OS9 (CFM support, preference resources, etc).

- A new utility PythonLauncher will start a Python interpreter when a .py or
  .pyw script is double-clicked in the Finder. By default .py scripts are
  run with a normal Python interpreter in a Terminal window and .pyw
  files are run with a window-aware pythonw interpreter without a Terminal
  window, but all this can be customized.

- MacPython-OS9 is now Carbon-only, so it runs on Mac OS 9 or Mac OS X and
  possibly on Mac OS 8.6 with the right CarbonLib installed, but not on earlier

- Many tools such as BuildApplet.py and gensuitemodule.py now support a command
  line interface too.

- All the Carbon classes are now PEP253 compliant, meaning that you can
  subclass them from Python. Most of the attributes have gone, you should
  now use the accessor function call API, which is also what Apple's
  documentation uses. Some attributes such as grafport.visRgn are still
  available for convenience.

- New Carbon modules File (implementing the APIs in Files.h and Aliases.h)
  and Folder (APIs from Folders.h). The old macfs builtin module is
  gone, and replaced by a Python wrapper around the new modules.

- Pathname handling should now be fully consistent: MacPython-OSX always uses
  unix pathnames and MacPython-OS9 always uses colon-separated Mac pathnames
  (also when running on Mac OS X).

- New Carbon modules Help and AH give access to the Carbon Help Manager.
  There are hooks in the IDE to allow accessing the Python documentation
  (and Apple's Carbon and Cocoa documentation) through the Help Viewer.
  See Mac/OSX/README for converting the Python documentation to a
  Help Viewer compatible form and installing it.

- OSA support has been redesigned and the generated Python classes now
  mirror the inheritance defined by the underlying OSA classes.

- MacPython no longer maps both \r and \n to \n on input for any text file.
  This feature has been replaced by universal newline support (PEP278).

- The default encoding for Python sourcefiles in MacPython-OS9 is no longer
  mac-roman (or whatever your local Mac encoding was) but "ascii", like on
  other platforms. If you really need sourcefiles with Mac characters in them
  you can change this in site.py.

What's New in Python 2.2 final?

*Release date: 21-Dec-2001*

Type/class unification and new-style classes

- pickle.py, cPickle: allow pickling instances of new-style classes
  with a custom metaclass.

Core and builtins

- weakref proxy object: when comparing, unwrap both arguments if both
  are proxies.

Extension modules

- binascii.b2a_base64(): fix a potential buffer overrun when encoding
  very short strings.

- cPickle: the obscure "fast" mode was suspected of causing stack
  overflows on the Mac.  Hopefully fixed this by setting the recursion
  limit much smaller.  If the limit is too low (it only affects
  performance), you can change it by defining PY_CPICKLE_FAST_LIMIT
  when compiling cPickle.c (or in pyconfig.h).


- dumbdbm.py: fixed a dumb old bug (the file didn't get synched at
  close or delete time).

- rfc822.py: fixed a bug where the address '<>' was converted to None
  instead of an empty string (also fixes the email.Utils module).

- xmlrpclib.py: version 1.0.0; uses precision for doubles.

- test suite: the pickle and cPickle tests were not executing any code
  when run from the standard regression test.




New platforms



- distutils package: fixed broken Windows installers (bdist_wininst).

- tempfile.py: prevent mysterious warnings when TemporaryFileWrapper
  instances are deleted at process exit time.

- socket.py: prevent mysterious warnings when socket instances are
  deleted at process exit time.

- posixmodule.c: fix a Windows crash with stat() of a filename ending
  in backslash.


- The Carbon toolbox modules have been upgraded to Universal Headers
  3.4, and experimental CoreGraphics and CarbonEvents modules have
  been added.  All only for framework-enabled MacOSX.

What's New in Python 2.2c1?

*Release date: 14-Dec-2001*

Type/class unification and new-style classes

- Guido's tutorial introduction to the new type/class features has
  been extensively updated.  See


  That remains the primary documentation in this area.

- Fixed a leak: instance variables declared with __slots__ were never

- The "delete attribute" method of descriptor objects is called
  __delete__, not __del__.  In previous releases, it was mistakenly
  called __del__, which created an unfortunate overloading condition
  with finalizers.  (The "get attribute" and "set attribute" methods
  are still called __get__ and __set__, respectively.)

- Some subtle issues with the super built-in were fixed:

  (a) When super itself is subclassed, its __get__ method would still
      return an instance of the base class (i.e., of super).

  (b) super(C, C()).__class__ would return C rather than super.  This
      is confusing.  To fix this, I decided to change the semantics of
      super so that it only applies to code attributes, not to data
      attributes.  After all, overriding data attributes is not
      supported anyway.

  (c) The __get__ method didn't check whether the argument was an
      instance of the type used in creation of the super instance.

- Previously, hash() of an instance of a subclass of a mutable type
  (list or dictionary) would return some value, rather than raising
  TypeError.  This has been fixed.  Also, directly calling
  dict.__hash__ and list.__hash__ now raises the same TypeError
  (previously, these were the same as object.__hash__).

- New-style objects now support deleting their __dict__.  This is for
  all intents and purposes equivalent to assigning a brand new empty
  dictionary, but saves space if the object is not used further.

Core and builtins

- -Qnew now works as documented in PEP 238:  when -Qnew is passed on
  the command line, all occurrences of "/" use true division instead
  of classic division.  See the PEP for details.  Note that "all"
  means all instances in library and 3rd-party modules, as well as in
  your own code.  As the PEP says, -Qnew is intended for use only in
  educational environments with control over the libraries in use.
  Note that test_coercion.py in the standard Python test suite fails
  under -Qnew; this is expected, and won't be repaired until true
  division becomes the default (in the meantime, test_coercion is
  testing the current rules).

- complex() now only allows the first argument to be a string
  argument, and raises TypeError if either the second arg is a string
  or if the second arg is specified when the first is a string.

Extension modules

- gc.get_referents was renamed to gc.get_referrers.


- Functions in the os.spawn() family now release the global interpreter
  lock around calling the platform spawn.  They should always have done
  this, but did not before 2.2c1.  Multithreaded programs calling
  an os.spawn function with P_WAIT will no longer block all Python threads
  until the spawned program completes.  It's possible that some programs
  relies on blocking, although more likely by accident than by design.

- webbrowser defaults to netscape.exe on OS/2 now.

- Tix.ResizeHandle exposes detach_widget, hide, and show.

- The charset alias windows_1252 has been added.

- types.StringTypes is a tuple containing the defined string types;
  usually this will be (str, unicode), but if Python was compiled
  without Unicode support it will be just (str,).

- The pulldom and minidom modules were synchronized to PyXML.


- A new script called Tools/scripts/google.py was added, which fires
  off a search on Google.


- Note that release builds of Python should arrange to define the
  preprocessor symbol NDEBUG on the command line (or equivalent).
  In the 2.2 pre-release series we tried to define this by magic in
  Python.h instead, but it proved to cause problems for extension
  authors.  The Unix, Windows and Mac builds now all define NDEBUG in
  release builds via cmdline (or equivalent) instead.  Ports to
  other platforms should do likewise.

- It is no longer necessary to use --with-suffix when building on a
  case-insensitive file system (such as Mac OS X HFS+). In the build
  directory an extension is used, but not in the installed python.


- New function PyDict_MergeFromSeq2() exposes the builtin dict
  constructor's logic for updating a dictionary from an iterable object
  producing key-value pairs.

- PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords() requires that the number of entries in
  the keyword list equal the number of argument specifiers.  This
  wasn't checked correctly, and PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords could even
  dump core in some bad cases.  This has been repaired.  As a result,
  PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords may raise RuntimeError in bad cases that
  previously went unchallenged.

New platforms




- In unix-Python on Mac OS X (and darwin) sys.platform is now "darwin",
  without any trailing digits.

- Changed logic for finding python home in Mac OS X framework Pythons.
  Now sys.executable points to the executable again, in stead of to
  the shared library. The latter is used only for locating the python

What's New in Python 2.2b2?

*Release date: 16-Nov-2001*

Type/class unification and new-style classes

- Multiple inheritance mixing new-style and classic classes in the
  list of base classes is now allowed, so this works now:

      class Classic: pass
      class Mixed(Classic, object): pass

  The MRO (method resolution order) for each base class is respected
  according to its kind, but the MRO for the derived class is computed
  using new-style MRO rules if any base class is a new-style class.
  This needs to be documented.

- The new builtin dictionary() constructor, and dictionary type, have
  been renamed to dict.  This reflects a decade of common usage.

- dict() now accepts an iterable object producing 2-sequences.  For
  example, dict(d.items()) == d for any dictionary d.  The argument,
  and the elements of the argument, can be any iterable objects.

- New-style classes can now have a __del__ method, which is called
  when the instance is deleted (just like for classic classes).

- Assignment to object.__dict__ is now possible, for objects that are
  instances of new-style classes that have a __dict__ (unless the base
  class forbids it).

- Methods of built-in types now properly check for keyword arguments
  (formerly these were silently ignored).  The only built-in methods
  that take keyword arguments are __call__, __init__ and __new__.

- The socket function has been converted to a type; see below.

Core and builtins

- Assignment to __debug__ raises SyntaxError at compile-time.  This
  was promised when 2.1c1 was released as "What's New in Python 2.1c1"
  (see below) says.

- Clarified the error messages for unsupported operands to an operator
  (like 1 + '').

Extension modules

- mmap has a new keyword argument, "access", allowing a uniform way for
  both Windows and Unix users to create read-only, write-through and
  copy-on-write memory mappings.  This was previously possible only on
  Unix.  A new keyword argument was required to support this in a
  uniform way because the mmap() signatures had diverged across
  platforms.  Thanks to Jay T Miller for repairing this!

- By default, the gc.garbage list now contains only those instances in
  unreachable cycles that have __del__ methods; in 2.1 it contained all
  instances in unreachable cycles.  "Instances" here has been generalized
  to include instances of both new-style and old-style classes.

- The socket module defines a new method for socket objects,
  sendall().  This is like send() but may make multiple calls to
  send() until all data has been sent.  Also, the socket function has
  been converted to a subclassable type, like list and tuple (etc.)
  before it; socket and SocketType are now the same thing.

- Various bugfixes to the curses module.  There is now a test suite
  for the curses module (you have to run it manually).

- binascii.b2a_base64 no longer places an arbitrary restriction of 57
  bytes on its input.


- tkFileDialog exposes a Directory class and askdirectory
  convenience function.

- Symbolic group names in regular expressions must be unique.  For
  example, the regexp r'(?P<abc>)(?P<abc>)' is not allowed, because a
  single name can't mean both "group 1" and "group 2" simultaneously.
  Python 2.2 detects this error at regexp compilation time;
  previously, the error went undetected, and results were
  unpredictable.  Also in sre, the pattern.split(), pattern.sub(), and
  pattern.subn() methods have been rewritten in C.  Also, an
  experimental function/method finditer() has been added, which works
  like findall() but returns an iterator.

- Tix exposes more commands through the classes DirSelectBox,
  DirSelectDialog, ListNoteBook, Meter, CheckList, and the
  methods tix_addbitmapdir, tix_cget, tix_configure, tix_filedialog,
  tix_getbitmap, tix_getimage, tix_option_get, and tix_resetoptions.

- Traceback objects are now scanned by cyclic garbage collection, so
  cycles created by casual use of sys.exc_info() no longer cause
  permanent memory leaks (provided garbage collection is enabled).

- os.extsep -- a new variable needed by the RISCOS support.  It is the
  separator used by extensions, and is '.' on all platforms except
  RISCOS, where it is '/'.  There is no need to use this variable
  unless you have a masochistic desire to port your code to RISCOS.

- mimetypes.py has optional support for non-standard, but commonly
  found types.  guess_type() and guess_extension() now accept an
  optional 'strict' flag, defaulting to true, which controls whether
  recognize non-standard types or not.  A few non-standard types we
  know about have been added.  Also, when run as a script, there are
  new -l and -e options.

- statcache is now deprecated.

- email.Utils.formatdate() now produces the preferred RFC 2822 style
  dates with numeric timezones (it used to produce obsolete dates
  hard coded to "GMT" timezone).  An optional 'localtime' flag is
  added to produce dates in the local timezone, with daylight savings
  time properly taken into account.

- In pickle and cPickle, instead of masking errors in load() by
  transforming them into SystemError, we let the original exception
  propagate out.  Also, implement support for __safe_for_unpickling__
  in pickle, as it already was supported in cPickle.



- The dbm module is built using libdb1 if available.  The bsddb module
  is built with libdb3 if available.

- Misc/Makefile.pre.in has been removed by BDFL pronouncement.


- New function PySequence_Fast_GET_SIZE() returns the size of a non-
  NULL result from PySequence_Fast(), more quickly than calling

- New argument unpacking function PyArg_UnpackTuple() added.

- New functions PyObject_CallFunctionObjArgs() and
  PyObject_CallMethodObjArgs() have been added to make it more
  convenient and efficient to call functions and methods from C.

- PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords() no longer masks errors, so it's
  possible that this will propagate errors it didn't before.

- New function PyObject_CheckReadBuffer(), which returns true if its
  argument supports the single-segment readable buffer interface.

New platforms

- We've finally confirmed that this release builds on HP-UX 11.00,
  *with* threads, and passes the test suite.

- Thanks to a series of patches from Michael Muller, Python may build
  again under OS/2 Visual Age C++.

- Updated RISCOS port by Dietmar Schwertberger.


- Added a test script for the curses module.  It isn't run automatically;
  regrtest.py must be run with '-u curses' to enable it.



- PythonScript has been moved to unsupported and is slated to be
  removed completely in the next release.

- It should now be possible to build applets that work on both OS9 and

- The core is now linked with CoreServices not Carbon; as a side
  result, default 8bit encoding on OSX is now ASCII.

- Python should now build on OSX 10.1.1

What's New in Python 2.2b1?

*Release date: 19-Oct-2001*

Type/class unification and new-style classes

- New-style classes are now always dynamic (except for built-in and
  extension types).  There is no longer a performance penalty, and I
  no longer see another reason to keep this baggage around.  One relic
  remains: the __dict__ of a new-style class is a read-only proxy; you
  must set the class's attribute to modify it.  As a consequence, the
  __defined__ attribute of new-style types no longer exists, for lack
  of need: there is once again only one __dict__ (although in the
  future a __cache__ may be resurrected with a similar function, if I
  can prove that it actually speeds things up).

- C.__doc__ now works as expected for new-style classes (in 2.2a4 it
  always returned None, even when there was a class docstring).

- doctest now finds and runs docstrings attached to new-style classes,
  class methods, static methods, and properties.

Core and builtins

- A very subtle syntactical pitfall in list comprehensions was fixed.
  For example: [a+b for a in 'abc', for b in 'def'].  The comma in
  this example is a mistake.  Previously, this would silently let 'a'
  iterate over the singleton tuple ('abc',), yielding ['abcd', 'abce',
  'abcf'] rather than the intended ['ad', 'ae', 'af', 'bd', 'be',
  'bf', 'cd', 'ce', 'cf'].  Now, this is flagged as a syntax error.
  Note that [a for a in <singleton>] is a convoluted way to say
  [<singleton>] anyway, so it's not like any expressiveness is lost.

- getattr(obj, name, default) now only catches AttributeError, as
  documented, rather than returning the default value for all
  exceptions (which could mask bugs in a __getattr__ hook, for

- Weak reference objects are now part of the core and offer a C API.
  A bug which could allow a core dump when binary operations involved
  proxy reference has been fixed.  weakref.ReferenceError is now a
  built-in exception.

- unicode(obj) now behaves more like str(obj), accepting arbitrary
  objects, and calling a __unicode__ method if it exists.
  unicode(obj, encoding) and unicode(obj, encoding, errors) still
  require an 8-bit string or character buffer argument.

- isinstance() now allows any object as the first argument and a
  class, a type or something with a __bases__ tuple attribute for the
  second argument.  The second argument may also be a tuple of a
  class, type, or something with __bases__, in which case isinstance()
  will return true if the first argument is an instance of any of the
  things contained in the second argument tuple.  E.g.

  isinstance(x, (A, B))

  returns true if x is an instance of A or B.

Extension modules

- thread.start_new_thread() now returns the thread ID (previously None).

- binascii has now two quopri support functions, a2b_qp and b2a_qp.

- readline now supports setting the startup_hook and the
  pre_event_hook, and adds the add_history() function.

- os and posix supports chroot(), setgroups() and unsetenv() where
  available.  The stat(), fstat(), statvfs() and fstatvfs() functions
  now return "pseudo-sequences" -- the various fields can now be
  accessed as attributes (e.g. os.stat("/").st_mtime) but for
  backwards compatibility they also behave as a fixed-length sequence.
  Some platform-specific fields (e.g. st_rdev) are only accessible as

- time: localtime(), gmtime() and strptime() now return a
  pseudo-sequence similar to the os.stat() return value, with
  attributes like tm_year etc.

- Decompression objects in the zlib module now accept an optional
  second parameter to decompress() that specifies the maximum amount
  of memory to use for the uncompressed data.

- optional SSL support in the socket module now exports OpenSSL
  functions RAND_add(), RAND_egd(), and RAND_status().  These calls
  are useful on platforms like Solaris where OpenSSL does not
  automatically seed its PRNG.  Also, the keyfile and certfile
  arguments to socket.ssl() are now optional.

- posixmodule (and by extension, the os module on POSIX platforms) now


- doctest now excludes functions and classes not defined by the module
  being tested, thanks to Tim Hochberg.

- HotShot, a new profiler implemented using a C-based callback, has
  been added.  This substantially reduces the overhead of profiling,
  but it is still quite preliminary.  Support modules and
  documentation will be added in upcoming releases (before 2.2 final).

- profile now produces correct output in situations where an exception
  raised in Python is cleared by C code (e.g. hasattr()).  This used
  to cause wrong output, including spurious claims of recursive
  functions and attribution of time spent to the wrong function.

  The code and documentation for the derived OldProfile and HotProfile
  profiling classes was removed.  The code hasn't worked for years (if
  you tried to use them, they raised exceptions).  OldProfile
  intended to reproduce the behavior of the profiler Python used more
  than 7 years ago, and isn't interesting anymore.  HotProfile intended
  to provide a faster profiler (but producing less information), and
  that's a worthy goal we intend to meet via a different approach (but
  without losing information).

- Profile.calibrate() has a new implementation that should deliver
  a much better system-specific calibration constant.  The constant can
  now be specified in an instance constructor, or as a Profile class or
  instance variable, instead of by editing profile.py's source code.
  Calibration must still be done manually (see the docs for the profile

  Note that Profile.calibrate() must be overridden by subclasses.
  Improving the accuracy required exploiting detailed knowledge of
  profiler internals; the earlier method abstracted away the details
  and measured a simplified model instead, but consequently computed
  a constant too small by a factor of 2 on some modern machines.

- quopri's encode and decode methods take an optional header parameter,
  which indicates whether output is intended for the header 'Q'

- The SocketServer.ThreadingMixIn class now closes the request after
  finish_request() returns.  (Not when it errors out though.)

- The nntplib module's NNTP.body() method has grown a 'file' argument
  to allow saving the message body to a file.

- The email package has added a class email.Parser.HeaderParser which
  only parses headers and does not recurse into the message's body.
  Also, the module/class MIMEAudio has been added for representing
  audio data (contributed by Anthony Baxter).

- ftplib should be able to handle files > 2GB.

- ConfigParser.getboolean() now also interprets TRUE, FALSE, YES, NO,
  ON, and OFF.

- xml.dom.minidom NodeList objects now support the length attribute
  and item() method as required by the DOM specifications.


- Demo/dns was removed.  It no longer serves any purpose; a package
  derived from it is now maintained by Anthony Baxter, see

- The freeze tool has been made more robust, and two new options have
  been added: -X and -E.


- configure will use CXX in LINKCC if CXX is used to build main() and
  the system requires to link a C++ main using the C++ compiler.


- The documentation for the tp_compare slot is updated to require that
  the return value must be -1, 0, 1; an arbitrary number <0 or >0 is
  not correct.  This is not yet enforced but will be enforced in
  Python 2.3; even later, we may use -2 to indicate errors and +2 for
  "NotImplemented".  Right now, -1 should be used for an error return.

- PyLong_AsLongLong() now accepts int (as well as long) arguments.
  Consequently, PyArg_ParseTuple's 'L' code also accepts int (as well
  as long) arguments.

- PyThread_start_new_thread() now returns a long int giving the thread
  ID, if one can be calculated; it returns -1 for error, 0 if no
  thread ID is calculated (this is an incompatible change, but only
  the thread module used this API).  This code has only really been
  tested on Linux and Windows; other platforms please beware (and
  report any bugs or strange behavior).

- PyUnicode_FromEncodedObject() no longer accepts Unicode objects as

New platforms



- Installer:  If you install IDLE, and don't disable file-extension
  registration, a new "Edit with IDLE" context (right-click) menu entry
  is created for .py and .pyw files.

- The signal module now supports SIGBREAK on Windows, thanks to Steven
  Scott.  Note that SIGBREAK is unique to Windows.  The default SIGBREAK
  action remains to call Win32 ExitProcess().  This can be changed via
  signal.signal().  For example::

      # Make Ctrl+Break raise KeyboardInterrupt, like Python's default Ctrl+C
      # (SIGINT) behavior.
      import signal
      signal.signal(signal.SIGBREAK, signal.default_int_handler)

          while 1:
      except KeyboardInterrupt:
          # We get here on Ctrl+C or Ctrl+Break now; if we had not changed
          # SIGBREAK, only on Ctrl+C (and Ctrl+Break would terminate the
          # program without the possibility for any Python-level cleanup).
          print "Clean exit"

What's New in Python 2.2a4?

*Release date: 28-Sep-2001*

Type/class unification and new-style classes

- pydoc and inspect are now aware of new-style classes;
  e.g. help(list) at the interactive prompt now shows proper
  documentation for all operations on list objects.

- Applications using Jim Fulton's ExtensionClass module can now safely
  be used with Python 2.2.  In particular, Zope 2.4.1 now works with
  Python 2.2 (as well as with Python 2.1.1).  The Demo/metaclass
  examples also work again.  It is hoped that Gtk and Boost also work
  with 2.2a4 and beyond.  (If you can confirm this, please write
  webmaster@python.org; if there are still problems, please open a bug
  report on SourceForge.)

- property() now takes 4 keyword arguments:  fget, fset, fdel and doc.
  These map to read-only attributes 'fget', 'fset', 'fdel', and '__doc__'
  in the constructed property object.  fget, fset and fdel weren't
  discoverable from Python in 2.2a3.  __doc__ is new, and allows to
  associate a docstring with a property.

- Comparison overloading is now more completely implemented.  For
  example, a str subclass instance can properly be compared to a str
  instance, and it can properly overload comparison.  Ditto for most
  other built-in object types.

- The repr() of new-style classes has changed; instead of <type
  'M.Foo'> a new-style class is now rendered as <class 'M.Foo'>,
  *except* for built-in types, which are still rendered as <type
  'Foo'> (to avoid upsetting existing code that might parse or
  otherwise rely on repr() of certain type objects).

- The repr() of new-style objects is now always <Foo object at XXX>;
  previously, it was sometimes <Foo instance at XXX>.

- For new-style classes, what was previously called __getattr__ is now
  called __getattribute__.  This method, if defined, is called for
  *every* attribute access.  A new __getattr__ hook more similar to the
  one in classic classes is defined which is called only if regular
  attribute access raises AttributeError; to catch *all* attribute
  access, you can use __getattribute__ (for new-style classes).  If
  both are defined, __getattribute__ is called first, and if it raises
  AttributeError, __getattr__ is called.

- The __class__ attribute of new-style objects can be assigned to.
  The new class must have the same C-level object layout as the old

- The builtin file type can be subclassed now.  In the usual pattern,
  "file" is the name of the builtin type, and file() is a new builtin
  constructor, with the same signature as the builtin open() function.
  file() is now the preferred way to open a file.

- Previously, __new__ would only see sequential arguments passed to
  the type in a constructor call; __init__ would see both sequential
  and keyword arguments.  This made no sense whatsoever any more, so
  now both __new__ and __init__ see all arguments.

- Previously, hash() applied to an instance of a subclass of str or
  unicode always returned 0.  This has been repaired.

- Previously, an operation on an instance of a subclass of an
  immutable type (int, long, float, complex, tuple, str, unicode),
  where the subtype didn't override the operation (and so the
  operation was handled by the builtin type), could return that
  instance instead a value of the base type.  For example, if s was of
  a str subclass type, s[:] returned s as-is.  Now it returns a str
  with the same value as s.

- Provisional support for pickling new-style objects has been added.


- file.writelines() now accepts any iterable object producing strings.

- PyUnicode_FromEncodedObject() now works very much like
  PyObject_Str(obj) in that it tries to use __str__/tp_str
  on the object if the object is not a string or buffer. This
  makes unicode() behave like str() when applied to non-string/buffer

- PyFile_WriteObject now passes Unicode objects to the file's write
  method. As a result, all file-like objects which may be the target
  of a print statement must support Unicode objects, i.e. they must
  at least convert them into ASCII strings.

- Thread scheduling on Solaris should be improved; it is no longer
  necessary to insert a small sleep at the start of a thread in order
  to let other runnable threads be scheduled.


- StringIO.StringIO instances and cStringIO.StringIO instances support
  read character buffer compatible objects for their .write() methods.
  These objects are converted to strings and then handled as such
  by the instances.

- The "email" package has been added.  This is basically a port of the
  mimelib package <http://sf.net/projects/mimelib> with API changes
  and some implementations updated to use iterators and generators.

- difflib.ndiff() and difflib.Differ.compare() are generators now.  This
  restores the ability of Tools/scripts/ndiff.py to start producing output
  before the entire comparison is complete.

- StringIO.StringIO instances and cStringIO.StringIO instances support
  iteration just like file objects (i.e. their .readline() method is
  called for each iteration until it returns an empty string).

- The codecs module has grown four new helper APIs to access
  builtin codecs: getencoder(), getdecoder(), getreader(),

- SimpleXMLRPCServer: a new module (based upon SimpleHTMLServer)
  simplifies writing XML RPC servers.

- os.path.realpath(): a new function that returns the absolute pathname
  after interpretation of symbolic links.  On non-Unix systems, this
  is an alias for os.path.abspath().

- operator.indexOf() (PySequence_Index() in the C API) now works with any
  iterable object.

- smtplib now supports various authentication and security features of
  the SMTP protocol through the new login() and starttls() methods.

- hmac: a new module implementing keyed hashing for message

- mimetypes now recognizes more extensions and file types.  At the
  same time, some mappings not sanctioned by IANA were removed.

- The "compiler" package has been brought up to date to the state of
  Python 2.2 bytecode generation.  It has also been promoted from a
  Tool to a standard library package.  (Tools/compiler still exists as
  a sample driver.)


- Large file support (LFS) is now automatic when the platform supports
  it; no more manual configuration tweaks are needed.  On Linux, at
  least, it's possible to have a system whose C library supports large
  files but whose kernel doesn't; in this case, large file support is
  still enabled but doesn't do you any good unless you upgrade your
  kernel or share your Python executable with another system whose
  kernel has large file support.

- The configure script now supplies plausible defaults in a
  cross-compilation environment.  This doesn't mean that the supplied
  values are always correct, or that cross-compilation now works
  flawlessly -- but it's a first step (and it shuts up most of
  autoconf's warnings about AC_TRY_RUN).

- The Unix build is now a bit less chatty, courtesy of the parser
  generator.  The build is completely silent (except for errors) when
  using "make -s", thanks to a -q option to setup.py.


- The "structmember" API now supports some new flag bits to deny read
  and/or write access to attributes in restricted execution mode.

New platforms

- Compaq's iPAQ handheld, running the "familiar" Linux distribution


- The "classic" standard tests, which work by comparing stdout to
  an expected-output file under Lib/test/output/, no longer stop at
  the first mismatch.  Instead the test is run to completion, and a
  variant of ndiff-style comparison is used to report all differences.
  This is much easier to understand than the previous style of reporting.

- The unittest-based standard tests now use regrtest's test_main()
  convention, instead of running as a side-effect of merely being
  imported.  This allows these tests to be run in more natural and
  flexible ways as unittests, outside the regrtest framework.

- regrtest.py is much better integrated with unittest and doctest now,
  especially in regard to reporting errors.


- Large file support now also works for files > 4GB, on filesystems
  that support it (NTFS under Windows 2000).  See "What's New in
  Python 2.2a3" for more detail.

What's New in Python 2.2a3?

*Release Date: 07-Sep-2001*


- Conversion of long to float now raises OverflowError if the long is too
  big to represent as a C double.

- The 3-argument builtin pow() no longer allows a third non-None argument
  if either of the first two arguments is a float, or if both are of
  integer types and the second argument is negative (in which latter case
  the arguments are converted to float, so this is really the same

- The builtin dir() now returns more information, and sometimes much
  more, generally naming all attributes of an object, and all attributes
  reachable from the object via its class, and from its class's base
  classes, and so on from them too.  Example:  in 2.2a2, dir([]) returned
  an empty list.  In 2.2a3,

  >>> dir([])
  ['__add__', '__class__', '__contains__', '__delattr__', '__delitem__',
   '__eq__', '__ge__', '__getattr__', '__getitem__', '__getslice__',
   '__gt__', '__hash__', '__iadd__', '__imul__', '__init__', '__le__',
   '__len__', '__lt__', '__mul__', '__ne__', '__new__', '__repr__',
   '__rmul__', '__setattr__', '__setitem__', '__setslice__', '__str__',
   'append', 'count', 'extend', 'index', 'insert', 'pop', 'remove',
   'reverse', 'sort']

  dir(module) continues to return only the module's attributes, though.

- Overflowing operations on plain ints now return a long int rather
  than raising OverflowError.  This is a partial implementation of PEP
  237.  You can use -Wdefault::OverflowWarning to enable a warning for
  this situation, and -Werror::OverflowWarning to revert to the old
  OverflowError exception.

- A new command line option, -Q<arg>, is added to control run-time
  warnings for the use of classic division.  (See PEP 238.)  Possible
  values are -Qold, -Qwarn, -Qwarnall, and -Qnew.  The default is
  -Qold, meaning the / operator has its classic meaning and no
  warnings are issued.  Using -Qwarn issues a run-time warning about
  all uses of classic division for int and long arguments; -Qwarnall
  also warns about classic division for float and complex arguments
  (for use with fixdiv.py).
  [Note:  the remainder of this item (preserved below) became
  obsolete in 2.2c1 -- -Qnew has global effect in 2.2] ::

    Using -Qnew is questionable; it turns on new division by default, but
    only in the __main__ module.  You can usefully combine -Qwarn or
    -Qwarnall and -Qnew: this gives the __main__ module new division, and
    warns about classic division everywhere else.

- Many built-in types can now be subclassed.  This applies to int,
  long, float, str, unicode, and tuple.  (The types complex, list and
  dictionary can also be subclassed; this was introduced earlier.)
  Note that restrictions apply when subclassing immutable built-in
  types: you can only affect the value of the instance by overloading
  __new__.  You can add mutable attributes, and the subclass instances
  will have a __dict__ attribute, but you cannot change the "value"
  (as implemented by the base class) of an immutable subclass instance
  once it is created.

- The dictionary constructor now takes an optional argument, a
  mapping-like object, and initializes the dictionary from its
  (key, value) pairs.

- A new built-in type, super, has been added.  This facilitates making
  "cooperative super calls" in a multiple inheritance setting.  For an
  explanation, see http://www.python.org/2.2/descrintro.html#cooperation

- A new built-in type, property, has been added.  This enables the
  creation of "properties".  These are attributes implemented by
  getter and setter functions (or only one of these for read-only or
  write-only attributes), without the need to override __getattr__.
  See http://www.python.org/2.2/descrintro.html#property

- The syntax of floating-point and imaginary literals has been
  liberalized, to allow leading zeroes.  Examples of literals now
  legal that were SyntaxErrors before:

      00.0    0e3   0100j   07.5   00000000000000000008.

- An old tokenizer bug allowed floating point literals with an incomplete
  exponent, such as 1e and 3.1e-.  Such literals now raise SyntaxError.


- telnetlib includes symbolic names for the options, and support for
  setting an option negotiation callback. It also supports processing
  of suboptions.

- The new C standard no longer requires that math libraries set errno to
  ERANGE on overflow.  For platform libraries that exploit this new
  freedom, Python's overflow-checking was wholly broken.  A new overflow-
  checking scheme attempts to repair that, but may not be reliable on all
  platforms (C doesn't seem to provide anything both useful and portable
  in this area anymore).

- Asynchronous timeout actions are available through the new class

- math.log and math.log10 now return sensible results for even huge
  long arguments.  For example, math.log10(10 ** 10000) ~= 10000.0.

- A new function, imp.lock_held(), returns 1 when the import lock is
  currently held.  See the docs for the imp module.

- pickle, cPickle and marshal on 32-bit platforms can now correctly read
  dumps containing ints written on platforms where Python ints are 8 bytes.
  When read on a box where Python ints are 4 bytes, such values are
  converted to Python longs.

- In restricted execution mode (using the rexec module), unmarshalling
  code objects is no longer allowed.  This plugs a security hole.

- unittest.TestResult instances no longer store references to tracebacks
  generated by test failures. This prevents unexpected dangling references
  to objects that should be garbage collected between tests.


- Tools/scripts/fixdiv.py has been added which can be used to fix
  division operators as per PEP 238.


- If you are an adventurous person using Mac OS X you may want to look at
  Mac/OSX. There is a Makefile there that will build Python as a real Mac
  application, which can be used for experimenting with Carbon or Cocoa.
  Discussion of this on pythonmac-sig, please.


- New function PyObject_Dir(obj), like Python __builtin__.dir(obj).

- Note that PyLong_AsDouble can fail!  This has always been true, but no
  callers checked for it.  It's more likely to fail now, because overflow
  errors are properly detected now.  The proper way to check::

      double x = PyLong_AsDouble(some_long_object);
      if (x == -1.0 && PyErr_Occurred()) {
              /* The conversion failed. */

- The GC API has been changed.  Extensions that use the old API will still
  compile but will not participate in GC.  To upgrade an extension


    - use PyObject_GC_New or PyObject_GC_NewVar to allocate objects and
      PyObject_GC_Del to deallocate them

    - rename PyObject_GC_Init to PyObject_GC_Track and PyObject_GC_Fini
      to PyObject_GC_UnTrack

    - remove PyGC_HEAD_SIZE from object size calculations

    - remove calls to PyObject_AS_GC and PyObject_FROM_GC

- Two new functions: PyString_FromFormat() and PyString_FromFormatV().
  These can be used safely to construct string objects from a
  sprintf-style format string (similar to the format string supported
  by PyErr_Format()).

New platforms

- Stephen Hansen contributed patches sufficient to get a clean compile
  under Borland C (Windows), but he reports problems running it and ran
  out of time to complete the port.  Volunteers?  Expect a MemoryError
  when importing the types module; this is probably shallow, and
  causing later failures too.



- Large file support is now enabled on Win32 platforms as well as on
  Win64.  This means that, for example, you can use f.tell() and f.seek()
  to manipulate files larger than 2 gigabytes (provided you have enough
  disk space, and are using a Windows filesystem that supports large
  partitions).  Windows filesystem limits:  FAT has a 2GB (gigabyte)
  filesize limit, and large file support makes no difference there.
  FAT32's limit is 4GB, and files >= 2GB are easier to use from Python now.
  NTFS has no practical limit on file size, and files of any size can be
  used from Python now.

- The w9xpopen hack is now used on Windows NT and 2000 too when COMPSPEC
  points to command.com (patch from Brian Quinlan).

What's New in Python 2.2a2?

*Release Date: 22-Aug-2001*


- Tim Peters developed a brand new Windows installer using Wise 8.1,
  generously donated to us by Wise Solutions.

- configure supports a new option --enable-unicode, with the values
  ucs2 and ucs4 (new in 2.2a1). With --disable-unicode, the Unicode
  type and supporting code is completely removed from the interpreter.

- A new configure option --enable-framework builds a Mac OS X framework,
  which "make frameworkinstall" will install. This provides a starting
  point for more mac-like functionality, join pythonmac-sig@python.org
  if you are interested in helping.

- The NeXT platform is no longer supported.

- The 'new' module is now statically linked.


- The new Tools/scripts/cleanfuture.py can be used to automatically
  edit out obsolete future statements from Python source code.  See
  the module docstring for details.


- regrtest.py now knows which tests are expected to be skipped on some
  platforms, allowing to give clearer test result output.  regrtest
  also has optional --use/-u switch to run normally disabled tests
  which require network access or consume significant disk resources.

- Several new tests in the standard test suite, with special thanks to
  Nick Mathewson.


- The floor division operator // has been added as outlined in PEP
  238.  The / operator still provides classic division (and will until
  Python 3.0) unless "from __future__ import division" is included, in
  which case the / operator will provide true division.  The operator
  module provides truediv() and floordiv() functions.  Augmented
  assignment variants are included, as are the equivalent overloadable
  methods and C API methods.  See the PEP for a full discussion:

- Future statements are now effective in simulated interactive shells
  (like IDLE).  This should "just work" by magic, but read Michael
  Hudson's "Future statements in simulated shells" PEP 264 for full
  details:  <http://python.sf.net/peps/pep-0264.html>.

- The type/class unification (PEP 252-253) was integrated into the
  trunk and is not so tentative any more (the exact specification of
  some features is still tentative).  A lot of work has done on fixing
  bugs and adding robustness and features (performance still has to
  come a long way).

- Warnings about a mismatch in the Python API during extension import
  now use the Python warning framework (which makes it possible to
  write filters for these warnings).

- A function's __dict__ (aka func_dict) will now always be a
  dictionary.  It used to be possible to delete it or set it to None,
  but now both actions raise TypeErrors.  It is still legal to set it
  to a dictionary object.  Getting func.__dict__ before any attributes
  have been assigned now returns an empty dictionary instead of None.

- A new command line option, -E, was added which disables the use of
  all environment variables, or at least those that are specifically
  significant to Python.  Usually those have a name starting with
  "PYTHON".  This was used to fix a problem where the tests fail if
  the user happens to have PYTHONHOME or PYTHONPATH pointing to an
  older distribution.


- New class Differ and new functions ndiff() and restore() in difflib.py.
  These package the algorithms used by the popular Tools/scripts/ndiff.py,
  for programmatic reuse.

- New function xml.sax.saxutils.quoteattr():  Quote an XML attribute
  value using the minimal quoting required for the value; more
  reliable than using xml.sax.saxutils.escape() for attribute values.

- Readline completion support for cmd.Cmd was added.

- Calling os.tempnam() or os.tmpnam() generate RuntimeWarnings.

- Added function threading.BoundedSemaphore()

- Added Ka-Ping Yee's cgitb.py module.

- The 'new' module now exposes the CO_xxx flags.

- The gc module offers the get_referents function.

New platforms


- Two new APIs PyOS_snprintf() and PyOS_vsnprintf() were added
  which provide a cross-platform implementations for the
  relatively new snprintf()/vsnprintf() C lib APIs. In contrast to
  the standard sprintf() and vsprintf() C lib APIs, these versions
  apply bounds checking on the used buffer which enhances protection
  against buffer overruns.

- Unicode APIs now use name mangling to assure that mixing interpreters
  and extensions using different Unicode widths is rendered next to
  impossible. Trying to import an incompatible Unicode-aware extension
  will result in an ImportError.  Unicode extensions writers must make
  sure to check the Unicode width compatibility in their extensions by
  using at least one of the mangled Unicode APIs in the extension.

- Two new flags METH_NOARGS and METH_O are available in method definition
  tables to simplify implementation of methods with no arguments and a
  single untyped argument. Calling such methods is more efficient than
  calling corresponding METH_VARARGS methods. METH_OLDARGS is now


- "import module" now compiles module.pyw if it exists and nothing else
  relevant is found.

What's New in Python 2.2a1?

*Release date: 18-Jul-2001*


- TENTATIVELY, a large amount of code implementing much of what's
  described in PEP 252 (Making Types Look More Like Classes) and PEP
  253 (Subtyping Built-in Types) was added.  This will be released
  with Python 2.2a1.  Documentation will be provided separately
  through http://www.python.org/2.2/.  The purpose of releasing this
  with Python 2.2a1 is to test backwards compatibility.  It is
  possible, though not likely, that a decision is made not to release
  this code as part of 2.2 final, if any serious backwards
  incompatibilities are found during alpha testing that cannot be

- Generators were added; this is a new way to create an iterator (see
  below) using what looks like a simple function containing one or
  more 'yield' statements.  See PEP 255.  Since this adds a new
  keyword to the language, this feature must be enabled by including a
  future statement: "from __future__ import generators" (see PEP 236).
  Generators will become a standard feature in a future release
  (probably 2.3).  Without this future statement, 'yield' remains an
  ordinary identifier, but a warning is issued each time it is used.
  (These warnings currently don't conform to the warnings framework of
  PEP 230; we intend to fix this in 2.2a2.)

- The UTF-16 codec was modified to be more RFC compliant. It will now
  only remove BOM characters at the start of the string and then
  only if running in native mode (UTF-16-LE and -BE won't remove a
  leading BMO character).

- Strings now have a new method .decode() to complement the already
  existing .encode() method. These two methods provide direct access
  to the corresponding decoders and encoders of the registered codecs.

  To enhance the usability of the .encode() method, the special
  casing of Unicode object return values was dropped (Unicode objects
  were auto-magically converted to string using the default encoding).

  Both methods will now return whatever the codec in charge of the
  requested encoding returns as object, e.g. Unicode codecs will
  return Unicode objects when decoding is requested ("äöü".decode("latin-1")
  will return u"äöü"). This enables codec writer to create codecs
  for various simple to use conversions.

  New codecs were added to demonstrate these new features (the .encode()
  and .decode() columns indicate the type of the returned objects):

  |Name     | .encode() | .decode() | Description                 |
  |uu       | string    | string    | UU codec (e.g. for email)   |
  |base64   | string    | string    | base64 codec                |
  |quopri   | string    | string    | quoted-printable codec      |
  |zlib     | string    | string    | zlib compression            |
  |hex      | string    | string    | 2-byte hex codec            |
  |rot-13   | string    | Unicode   | ROT-13 Unicode charmap codec|

- Some operating systems now support the concept of a default Unicode
  encoding for file system operations.  Notably, Windows supports 'mbcs'
  as the default.  The Macintosh will also adopt this concept in the medium
  term, although the default encoding for that platform will be other than

  On operating system that support non-ASCII filenames, it is common for
  functions that return filenames (such as os.listdir()) to return Python
  string objects pre-encoded using the default file system encoding for
  the platform.  As this encoding is likely to be different from Python's
  default encoding, converting this name to a Unicode object before passing
  it back to the Operating System would result in a Unicode error, as Python
  would attempt to use its default encoding (generally ASCII) rather than
  the default encoding for the file system.

  In general, this change simply removes surprises when working with
  Unicode and the file system, making these operations work as you expect,
  increasing the transparency of Unicode objects in this context.
  See [????] for more details, including examples.

- Float (and complex) literals in source code were evaluated to full
  precision only when running from a .py file; the same code loaded from a
  .pyc (or .pyo) file could suffer numeric differences starting at about the
  12th significant decimal digit.  For example, on a machine with IEEE-754
  floating arithmetic,

      x = 9007199254740992.0
      print long(x)

  printed 9007199254740992 if run directly from .py, but 9007199254740000
  if from a compiled (.pyc or .pyo) file.  This was due to marshal using
  str(float) instead of repr(float) when building code objects.  marshal
  now uses repr(float) instead, which should reproduce floats to full
  machine precision (assuming the platform C float<->string I/O conversion
  functions are of good quality).

  This may cause floating-point results to change in some cases, and
  usually for the better, but may also cause numerically unstable
  algorithms to break.

- The implementation of dicts suffers fewer collisions, which has speed
  benefits.  However, the order in which dict entries appear in dict.keys(),
  dict.values() and dict.items() may differ from previous releases for a
  given dict.  Nothing is defined about this order, so no program should
  rely on it.  Nevertheless, it's easy to write test cases that rely on the
  order by accident, typically because of printing the str() or repr() of a
  dict to an "expected results" file.  See Lib/test/test_support.py's new
  sortdict(dict) function for a simple way to display a dict in sorted

- Many other small changes to dicts were made, resulting in faster
  operation along the most common code paths.

- Dictionary objects now support the "in" operator: "x in dict" means
  the same as dict.has_key(x).

- The update() method of dictionaries now accepts generic mapping
  objects.  Specifically the argument object must support the .keys()
  and __getitem__() methods.  This allows you to say, for example,

- Iterators were added; this is a generalized way of providing values
  to a for loop.  See PEP 234.  There's a new built-in function iter()
  to return an iterator.  There's a new protocol to get the next value
  from an iterator using the next() method (in Python) or the
  tp_iternext slot (in C).  There's a new protocol to get iterators
  using the __iter__() method (in Python) or the tp_iter slot (in C).
  Iterating (i.e. a for loop) over a dictionary generates its keys.
  Iterating over a file generates its lines.

- The following functions were generalized to work nicely with iterator

    map(), filter(), reduce(), zip()
    list(), tuple() (PySequence_Tuple() and PySequence_Fast() in C API)
    max(), min()
    join() method of strings
    extend() method of lists
    'x in y' and 'x not in y' (PySequence_Contains() in C API)
    operator.countOf() (PySequence_Count() in C API)
    right-hand side of assignment statements with multiple targets, such as ::
        x, y, z = some_iterable_object_returning_exactly_3_values

- Accessing module attributes is significantly faster (for example,
  random.random or os.path or yourPythonModule.yourAttribute).

- Comparing dictionary objects via == and != is faster, and now works even
  if the keys and values don't support comparisons other than ==.

- Comparing dictionaries in ways other than == and != is slower:  there were
  insecurities in the dict comparison implementation that could cause Python
  to crash if the element comparison routines for the dict keys and/or
  values mutated the dicts.  Making the code bulletproof slowed it down.

- Collisions in dicts are resolved via a new approach, which can help
  dramatically in bad cases.  For example, looking up every key in a dict
  d with d.keys() == [i << 16 for i in range(20000)] is approximately 500x
  faster now.  Thanks to Christian Tismer for pointing out the cause and
  the nature of an effective cure (last December! better late than never).

- repr() is much faster for large containers (dict, list, tuple).


- The constants ascii_letters, ascii_lowercase. and ascii_uppercase
  were added to the string module.  These a locale-independent
  constants, unlike letters, lowercase, and uppercase.  These are now
  use in appropriate locations in the standard library.

- The flags used in dlopen calls can now be configured using
  sys.setdlopenflags and queried using sys.getdlopenflags.

- Fredrik Lundh's xmlrpclib is now a standard library module.  This
  provides full client-side XML-RPC support.  In addition,
  Demo/xmlrpc/ contains two server frameworks (one SocketServer-based,
  one asyncore-based).  Thanks to Eric Raymond for the documentation.

- The xrange() object is simplified: it no longer supports slicing,
  repetition, comparisons, efficient 'in' checking, the tolist()
  method, or the start, stop and step attributes.  See PEP 260.

- A new function fnmatch.filter to filter lists of file names was added.

- calendar.py uses month and day names based on the current locale.

- strop is now *really* obsolete (this was announced before with 1.6),
  and issues DeprecationWarning when used (except for the four items
  that are still imported into string.py).

- Cookie.py now sorts key+value pairs by key in output strings.

- pprint.isrecursive(object) didn't correctly identify recursive objects.
  Now it does.

- pprint functions now much faster for large containers (tuple, list, dict).

- New 'q' and 'Q' format codes in the struct module, corresponding to C
  types "long long" and "unsigned long long" (on Windows, __int64).  In
  native mode, these can be used only when the platform C compiler supports
  these types (when HAVE_LONG_LONG is #define'd by the Python config
  process), and then they inherit the sizes and alignments of the C types.
  In standard mode, 'q' and 'Q' are supported on all platforms, and are
  8-byte integral types.

- The site module installs a new built-in function 'help' that invokes
  pydoc.help.  It must be invoked as 'help()'; when invoked as 'help',
  it displays a message reminding the user to use 'help()' or


- New test_mutants.py runs dict comparisons where the key and value
  comparison operators mutate the dicts randomly during comparison.  This
  rapidly causes Python to crash under earlier releases (not for the faint
  of heart:  it can also cause Win9x to freeze or reboot!).

- New test_pprint.py verifies that pprint.isrecursive() and
  pprint.isreadable() return sensible results.  Also verifies that simple
  cases produce correct output.


- Removed the unused last_is_sticky argument from the internal
  _PyTuple_Resize().  If this affects you, you were cheating.


**(For information about older versions, consult the HISTORY file.)**

Get latest updates about Open Source Projects, Conferences and News.

Sign up for the SourceForge newsletter:

No, thanks