#352 biblStruct for Patent citations

Javier Pose

We are implementing a project for encoding our patent and non-patent literature according to the TEI standard.

For doing so, we would need to have a very precise bibliographical reference (very important in the patent literature) of patent documents.
The current TEI standard does not allow us to encode the patent bibliographical citations. In the patents, the patent documents are cited according to a very well defined encoding for which the main elements are:

- Identification of a Patent Authority
- Identification of a Patent Number
- Identification of a Date
- Identification of a Kind Code

Therefore, we would need to have the following structure in TEI for encoding the bibliographic information of patents:

<biblStruct type="patent¦utilityModel¦designPatent¦plant" status="application¦publication">
<orgName type="national¦regional"><orgName>
<idno type="docNumber"></idno>
<date type=""applicationDate¦publicationDate"></date>
<idno type="kindCode"></idno>

I would like to add some examples, to show the importance of having this structure for our project:

1) Normally in the patent documents, the citation of other patents is one of the most important information.
This citation could identify the priority patents, related patents or simply are patents cited in the document.
The bibliographical reference to these patents is done without indicating any title, but using the patent standard bibliographical codification.
See the following examples (I attached a file with the corresponding images)

E1) In this text (from a patent) another patent is cited by: "Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 223883/1974
E2) in this example you can see how normally the bibliographical information of the patents is provided:
E3) also non-patent literature uses very often this kind of citation, see the following example:

2) I would like also to indicate that there are different citation manual styles which explicitly avoid to use the title and other information to cite the patents:

Bluebook Citation:
U.S. Patent No. 6,885,550 (issued Apr. 26, 2005).

APA Citation:
Williams, D. (2005). U.S. Patent No. 6,885,550. Washington, DC: U.S.

ACS Citation:
Williams, D. U.S. Patent 6,885,550, 2005.


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  • Kevin Hawkins

    Kevin Hawkins - 2013-04-08
    • status: open --> closed-fixed
  • Javier Pose

    Javier Pose - 2013-04-08

    Hi Kevin,
    many thanks for your fantastic work!!!!
    I think we reach a very good agreement on the final encoding.
    I created a new TEIWiki page with an extended version of the TEI encoding for patent citations. Please, find here the address of the web page:


    Feel free to use it as you think it could be more useful for the TEI community.
    Maybe you have a suggestion about how to make the TEI community aware about this piece of information.
    Have a very nice day :-)


    Last edit: Javier Pose 2013-04-08
  • James Cummings

    James Cummings - 2013-04-08
    • status: closed-fixed --> open-later
  • Kevin Hawkins

    Kevin Hawkins - 2013-04-08

    See also revision 11847 for a fix to the content model for imprint (based on a bug I accidentally introduced months ago).

  • Kevin Hawkins

    Kevin Hawkins - 2013-04-08
    • status: open-later --> closed-fixed
  • Kevin Hawkins

    Kevin Hawkins - 2013-04-08

    Testing that I can change a ticket status without having admin privileges. Seems to work!

  • Kevin Hawkins

    Kevin Hawkins - 2013-04-12

    For the record, I had incorrectly implemented the content model of <imprint> back in 2012. Now fixed:


    The intent was to allow either classCode or catRef, not require first classCode and then catRef.

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