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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE book
PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.3//EN"
"http://www.docbook.org/xml/4.3/docbookx.dtd">
<article>
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Panorama Tools Plugin</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<articleinfo>
<author>
<firstname>Douglas</firstname>
<surname>Wilkins</surname>
</author>
</articleinfo>
<abstract>
<para>This document provides information on the Panotools plugin
for the <ulink url="http://www.gimp.org">GIMP</ulink>.</para>
</abstract>
<sect1 id="introduction">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Introduction</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<sect2 id="introAbout">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">About Panorama Tools</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME About</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME About</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME About</phrase>
</title>
<para lang="en">Panorama Tools is a free program which can be used to generate,
edit and transform many kinds of panoramic images.</para>
<para lang="de">Intro in deutch.</para>
<para lang="fr">Intro in french.</para>
<para lang="pl">Intro in polish.</para>
<para lang="de;fr;pl">Para in some languages</para>
<para>This is the GIMP plugin based on the panoramatools library.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="introLegal">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Legal Information</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>Copyright (c) 2004 Douglas Wilkins</para>
<para>portions Copyright (c) 1998,1999 Helmut Dersch</para>
<para>Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
document under the terms of the <ulink
url="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/fdl.txt">GNU Free Documentation
License</ulink>, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts,
and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the file
<filename>license.txt</filename>.</para>
<para>This documentation is provided as-is with no warranty of any kind,
either expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied
warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Use
the concepts, examples and information at your own risk. The author(s)
do not take any responsibility for damages that may arise from the use
of this document.</para>
<para>All copyrights are held by their respective owners, unless
specifically noted otherwise. Use of a term in this document should not
be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.
Naming of particular products or brands should not be seen as
endorsements.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="genFeat">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">General Features</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<sect2 id="genFeatOverview">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Overview</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>The Panotools plugin offers four different types of image
manipulation</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="featImageCorrection">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Correction of images</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para><quote>Automatic cropping</quote> of images to brightest
rectangle.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Remove all sorts of barrel and/or pincussion
distortion.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Correct light fall-off at edges of your wide angle
shots.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Correct chromatic errors (colour separation) of your
lens.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Skew/Unskew your images horizontally or vertically.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Correction of scanning slit cameras</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Fourier Transform Filtering/Wiener Filter</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="featPerspectiveControl">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Perspective Control</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>Simulates a shift lens in software for normal and fisheye
lenses</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="featRemap">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Remap from any projection to any projection</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>Warp and unwarp normal, panoramic and fisheye images.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Convert equirectangular LivePicture panos to QTVR-panos and
vice-versa</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Convert mirror images (BeHere-setup or similar) to any
panorama and vice-versa.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Convert fisheye images to any panorama and vice-versa</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Unwarp panorama sections (QTVR and LivePicture) to edit in
the GIMP, then rewarp and seamlessly insert back.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="featAdjust">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Adjust images into a panoramic view</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>Generate full panoramic view using any mixture of normal,
fisheye and panoramic images.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Built-in optimizer to find optimum pitch/roll/yaw for a given
image to fit a panorama.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Built-in optimizer to find optimum correction settings for a
given image.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Built-in stitching tool to automatically merge images into a
panoramic view.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Automatic colour adjustment of to be merged images</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Extract any view (normal/fisheye/panoramic) from any panorama
(RealVR/QTVR/rectilinear)</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Insert any image (normal/fisheye/panoramic) into any panorama
(RealVR/QTVR/rectilinear)</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="featPanoEdit">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Realtime Panorama Editor</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>The realtime Panorama Editor is a separate Plug-in which
makes the image window an editable VR-viewer. You can pan left
and right, tilt up and down, and zoom in and out. At any time
you can use all GIMP tools to edit the image and instantly apply
the changes to the warped panoramic image while keeping the
interactive window open. This can be done with any view
(<quote>camera</quote>) and any panorama (see <xref
linkend="featAdjust" /> ).</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="installing">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Installation</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<sect2 id="installOverview">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Overview</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>The Panotools plugin can be installed on any of the
platforms that GIMP supports.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="installWin">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Installing on Windows</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>To be completed</para>
<sect3 id="winPrereq">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Prerequisites</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>To be completed</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="winInst">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Installation</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>To be completed</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="installMac">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Installing on Mac</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<sect3 id="macPrereq">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Prerequisites</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>To be completed</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="macInst">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Installation</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>To be completed</para>
<note>
<para>On the Macintosh, the <quote>sleep</quote> value can
be set using the Resource editor
<command>ResEdit</command>. It is now set to 0, which
results in maximum speed but prohibits background
operations. To enable background operations, open the
library file <filename>pano12.lib</filename> (should be in
your Extensions Folder) inside <command>ResEdit</command>,
and find the resource named <quote>SLEP</quote>. Open it,
and change its value from <quote>0000 0000</quote> to
something in the range <quote>0000 0010</quote> to
<quote>0000 0100</quote>. The larger this value, the more
time is granted to background processes. Save and close the
library file again.</para>
<para>Previous versions of Panorama Tools used a sleep value
of 10, which on some machines caused significant slowdown
when batch-converting.</para>
</note>
</sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="installLinux">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Installing on Linux</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<sect3 id="linPrereq">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Prerequisites</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>To be completed</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="linInst">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Installation</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>To be completed</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="useFilter">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">How to use the filter</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<sect2 id="useOverview">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Overview</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>This is just a very brief introduction of the various
features. There are many more on-line resources available which
are maintained by users and supporters of this program. Two good
place to start are the <ulink url="http://panotools.sf.net"
>panotools site</ulink> and the <ulink
url="http://www.panotools.info/mediawiki/index.php?title=Main_Page"
>panotools wiki</ulink>.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="useSetPrefs">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Setting Preferences</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>Many operations will result in a change in the overall
size of an image. If the resultimage is equally sized (eg most
transformations in the <guisubmenu>correct</guisubmenu>
submenu), it simply replaces the source image.</para>
<para>If, however, the resultimage is larger or smaller than the
source, you can set options how Panorama Tools should handle
this situation by clicking the <guibutton>Prefs</guibutton>
button, which each tool displays. You can select among the
options:</para>
<orderedlist numeration="loweralpha">
<listitem id="prefOpt1">
<para><emphasis>Display cropped/framed image</emphasis>. This image
replaces your source image. Please note that you not only loose
image information, but also some image characteristics: The
horizontal field of view changes! Other than that it is the most
convenient mode, and default.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem id="prefOpt2">
<para><emphasis>Resize image</emphasis> is similar to <xref
linkend="prefOpt1" /> but resizes the image to fit the image
resulting from the transformation.</para>
</listitem>
</orderedlist>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="useSelInterp">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Selecting the Interpolator</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>Transforming an image usually requires some interpolations, since
the new pixel positions generally do not coincide with grid-positions of
the screen. The effort spent for this interpolation largely determines
the quality of the final image.</para>
<para>Panorama Tools uses bicubic or better
interpolation. Pressing <guibutton>More</guibutton> in the
<quote>Preferences</quote> dialog (see <xref
linkend="useSetPrefs" />) brings up a dialog allowing the user
to select the options for the interpolator. The five options
differ in quality and in speed as indicated by the
arrows. Please note that many commercial packages use bilinear
interpolation, which is far inferior to the lowest quality
bicubic schemes offered by <quote>Panorama Tools</quote>. The
previous versions of <quote>Panorama Tools</quote> used the
<quote>Polynomial</quote> method, which is also default
now.</para>
<para>Additionally the dialog also allows the user to select
whether fast interpolation is used or not. The fast transform
increases speed by only precisely locating every
n<superscript>th</superscript> pixel. The in-between pixels are
linearly interpolated between two pixels that were positioned
according to the original method. There are three
options:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para><emphasis role="bold">Normal</emphasis> does not use the fast
transform and is the default and results in the highest
quality</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para><emphasis role="bold">Medium</emphasis> uses a 6 pixel
step. It is faster than <quote>Normal</quote> but introduces
small levels of distortion, typically displacing parts of
the image by approximately one pixel.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para><emphasis role="bold">Fast</emphasis> uses a 40 pixel step and is
the fastest option, but creates more distortion.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
<note>
<para>You can read more about interpolators, test images and
comparisons with other graphics packages at <ulink
url="http://www.path.unimelb.edu.au/~dersch/interpolator/interpolator.html"
>http://www.path.unimelb.edu.au/~dersch/interpolator/interpolator.html</ulink>. Also,
Jim Watters has posted some results of tests of the fast
interpolation algorithm at <ulink
url="http://photocreations.ca/fast_test"
>http://photocreations.ca/fast_test</ulink>
</para>
</note>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="useGammaCorrection">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Gamma Correction</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>The dialog described above also has a
<guibutton>Gamma</guibutton> entry, which is set to 1.0 by
default. You can enter the gamma-value for your image (typical
values are 2.5 for an uncorrected monitor, 2.2 for the windows
operating system and the Internet-standard <ulink
url="http://www.w3.org/Graphics/Color/sRGB" >sRGB</ulink> color
space.The standard for Mcintosh is 1.8). This will cause
Panorama Tools to linearize the images prior to transformations,
and then gamma-correct them again afterwards. This means the
output should look almost the same.</para>
<para>Theoretically, any calculation on images should be done on
linearized data, but practically, no graphics program seems to care.
Most often, you do not see any differences. Errors show up when
transforming images having adjacent areas of complementary colors. Then
you might experience dark stripes at the edges. You can avoid this by
setting gamma, or by doing the transformation in Lab-
colourspace.</para>
<para>Always using gamma correction has its own disadvantages, like
(very slight) brightness changes.</para>
<note>
<para>A more detailed discussion is available at <ulink
url="http://www.path.unimelb.edu.au/~dersch/gamma/gamma.html"
>Interpolation and Gamma Correction</ulink>. Norman Koren has
a detailed discussion of what gamma is at <ulink
url="http://www.normankoren.com/makingfineprints1A.html#Gammabox"
>Gamma and black level</ulink></para>
</note>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="panoTools">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Panorama Tools</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<sect2 id="panToolOverview">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Overview</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>The Panorama Tools filters:</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="panToolAdjust">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Adjust</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<sect3 id="panToolAdjOverview">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Overview</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>The main functionality of
<guisubmenu>adjust</guisubmenu> is to extract and insert
images into a panorama, but it also includes tools to find the
optimum position of an image in a panorama. See the
documentation at <ulink
url="http://www.path.unimelb.edu.au/~dersch"
>http://www.path.unimelb.edu.au/~dersch</ulink> for
details. It contains flags which you have to paste into the
image to mark feature points, and which are then read by
Panorama Tools to adjust image position.</para>
<para>Adjust can be used to create panoramic images from a set
of photographs. It uses an internal buffer to load images and
automatically stitch them into a wide angle view.</para>
<para>The tool can be driven by setting options in a dialog
(image and panorama characteristics are settable, as well as
position and stitching options), or read from an external
script (text file). This way it is possible to merge several
images in a single operation.</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="adjExtract">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Extract arbitrary views from any panorama</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>In this mode the current image is assumed to be a panoramic
image, and Panorama Tools creates a view. The characteristics of this
view can be set by an <quote>Options</quote> dialog or read from a text file
(<quote>script</quote>). Only the parameters not obviously available
have to be set: </para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>- image width/height/format/hfov</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>- panorama format/hfov</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
<para>If the panorama is needed in a later processing step
(e.g. if you want to reinsert the view, or merge it with
another image) you can save it to the internal buffer by
clicking <guibutton>Save to Buffer</guibutton>.</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="adjInsert">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Insert arbitrary images into any panorama</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>Again, only not available parameters have to be specified, in
this case</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>image format/hfov</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>panorama width/height/format/hfov</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
<para>If the buffer is not used, a panoramic image containing
the view (warped and scaled properly) is generated. If you
selected <quote>Load Buffer</quote>, Panorama Tools attempts
to load a previously saved buffer image and merges both images
into one. You have a couple of stitching options:
<quote>blend</quote> places the seam into the middle of the
overlap between the two images, while <quote>paste</quote>
pastes the image completely into the buffer. A feather can be
selected which hides the seam. Color correction of the two
images can be automatically performed: Panorama Tools analyzes
the overlap of the images, and tries to adjust the colour
channels to match both images. The found correction can be
applied to either or both of the images. Finally, if you need
the panorama in a later processing step again (maybe to add
some more images) you can save it by clicking <guibutton>Save
to Buffer</guibutton>.</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="adjMore">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">More uses of <quote>Adjust</quote></phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>You can extract the six cubic face images needed for
VRML-viewers from any QTVR-Cylinder or RealVR-sphere by
using the <guilabel>extract</guilabel> option set to
rectilinear images (HFoV=90degree).</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>The opposite is also possible, i.e. merging six
cubic face images into any QTVR-Cylinder or RealVR-sphere
(use the <guilabel>insert</guilabel> option).</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="panToolCorrect">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Correct</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<sect3 id="panToolCorOverview">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Overview</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>The correct filter consists of several tools. All of
these tools have various options which can be set by clicking
on the associated <guibutton>Options</guibutton>. These
options can also be saved by clicking the
<guibutton>Save</guibutton> button and loaded later by using
the <guibutton>Load</guibutton> button. These options are by
default saved to a file named
<filename>Corrections</filename>.</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="corRadial">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Radial</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>Radial shifts all pixelpositions radially as specified by a
third order polynomial. The coefficients are entered in the options
submenu for each individual color. This enables correction of barrel
and pincussion distortions as well as many chromatic errors. d=1 and
c=b=a=0 leaves all positions as they are. It may also be used to
correct the radial mapping of fisheye-lenses, which often don't follow
the theoretical angle dependence (see below). Once you have determined
the optimum coefficients for your lens (either by trial and error, or
by some fitting process) you can save them. The radial distance r_src
for each point in the source image is computed by the formula:</para>
<para>r_src = (a * r_dest^3 + b * r_dest^2 + c * r_dest + d) *
r_dest</para>
<para>Units for r_src and r_dest are <quote>image width /
2</quote>, i.e. the edge of the image corresponds to r_src =
1.</para>
<para>If you check the option <guibutton>vertical</guibutton>,
only the vertical axis is affected by the shift, and the unit
is relative to <quote>image height/2</quote>. This can be used
to correct lens distortions in Panoramic cameras. Finally, the
option <guibutton>horizontal</guibutton> shifts each pixel
horizontally by an amount determined by its vertical distance
from the center line. This can be used to correct
deregistration errors in scanning cameras, and will be
described in a separate documentation at my website.</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="corVertHorShift">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Vertical and Horizontal shift</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>Shift pixel positions linearly by a constant amount which can be
set for each color. This corrects scanner errors, which are often
misalignments by a fraction of a point between each color
channel</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="corShear">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Shear</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>This does what you expect, as does scale. The GIMP has
its own scaling tool, but this one uses another algorithm. It
is somewhat better when enlarging images but may exhibit
problems when reducing image size by more than a factor of 2
(see Changes). All parameters are measured in
screenpoints. You can preserve aspect ratio upon scaling by
setting one of width or height to 0.</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="corRadLum">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Radial Luminance</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>This is a center gradient filter, which compensates
light fall off at the edges of your image, also known as
<quote>vignetting</quote>. Specify an amplitude value between
-255 and +255. Half of that amount will be subtracted from the
center pixels of the image, whereas the other half will be
added to the edge pixels.</para>
<note>
<para>There are mainly two types of vignetting. One caused
by the lens housing sometimes called artificial vignetting
and one caused by optical reasons (cosine-in-4th-power law)
sometimes called natural vignetting. Only the last one can
be easily corrected by this filter. Note also that
vignettting is often not centered either.</para>
</note>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="corCutFrame">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Cut Frame</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>This is an automatic cropping tool. By clicking on
<guibutton>Options</guibutton>, you can select a rectangle
size by setting width and height in the dialog. The tool
<guimenuitem>Cut Frame</guimenuitem> will then search the
whole image for the brightest rectangle with these dimensions,
and removes the frame around it.</para>
<para>It automates the tedious task of cropping frames around
scanned images, especially around circular fisheye images. If
you are scanning negatives, the frame may be white. To crop
this frame, invert the colours of the image, then run it
through <guimenuitem>Cut Frame</guimenuitem>, and invert it
back. This can be easily automated.</para>
<note>
<para>Please set the preferences options to (<xref
linkend="prefOpt2" />), since this tool changes the size of
the image!</para>
</note>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="corFourier">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Fourier Filter</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>This filter will be documented separately.</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="panToolPerspective">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Perspective</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>This tool is essentially a shift lens. It enables you to
change viewing direction. </para>
<para>Specify the desired new direction either by entering
horizontal and vertical tilt angles (in degrees) or by entering
the screen coordinates of the new direction. Specify the format
of your image (rectilinear or fisheye). </para>
<para>In most cases you also have to specify the horizontal
field of view of the source image in degrees (HFoV) to get
meaningful results. Look into the specs of your lens to
determine this value (see also <link linkend="tblHFoV">HFoV
Table</link>). This is not required if you just want to rotate
the image. </para>
<para>Finally you can specify the dimensions of the destination
image: Pushing <guibutton>source</guibutton> sets height and
width to the values of the source image. You may also specify it
seperately. Notice, that this does not change the scaling of the
image but rather changes the field of view of the destination
image.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="panToolRemap">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Remap</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>Various mappings are available:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para><emphasis role="bold">normal</emphasis>, i.e. rectilinear. This is what
most lenses deliver.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para><emphasis role="bold">QTVR-panorama</emphasis>, which is a cylindrical
projection employed by many panoramic cameras (most rotating lens
designs). The horizontal axis is proportional to viewing angle, and
the vertical axis is identical to the rectilinear format. This
format is also required for Apple's QTVR movies, and for
LivePicture's cylindrical panos.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para><emphasis role="bold">PSphere</emphasis>, i.e. equirectangular, which is
another cylindrical projection often used in maps. The vertical axis
is angle-proportional. This format is used for LivePicture's RealVR
movies in 'Sphere' mode.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para><emphasis role="bold">Spherical</emphasis>, which is the format of fisheye
lenses. Two modes are available: Fisheye-vertical is an image shot
with the camera held vertically up. The panorama is extracted from
the circumpherence of the image. Fisheye-Horizontal is an image shot
with the camera held horizontally. The equator is now in the center
of the image.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para><emphasis role="bold">Convex mirror</emphasis>. This is the reflection of
a convex, spherical image. The horizontal field of view is
calculated using the formula</para>
<para>HFov = 2*arcsin(radius of mirror/radius of curvature of
mirror)</para>
<para>This format is used to convert images from the BeHere and
Cyclovision systems. A single step panorama set-up can be easily
constructed using a spherical mirror and this transformation.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
<para>Not all possible conversions are implemented (yet). See the table
below for implemented formats. Most transformations can be performed in
a single step and all in two steps:</para>
<informaltable frame="all">
<tgroup cols="8">
<tbody>
<row>
<entry></entry>
<entry>To ���</entry>
<entry align="center">Rectilinear</entry>
<entry align="center">QTVR-panorama</entry>
<entry align="center">PSphere</entry>
<entry align="center">Fisheye horizontal</entry>
<entry align="center">Fisheye vertical</entry>
<entry align="center">Convex mirror</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>From ���</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>Rectilinear</entry>
<entry></entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>QTVR-panorama</entry>
<entry></entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>PSphere</entry>
<entry></entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>Fisheye horizontal</entry>
<entry></entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>Fisheye vertical</entry>
<entry></entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>Convex mirror</entry>
<entry></entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
<entry align="center">X</entry>
<entry align="center">-</entry>
</row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</informaltable>
<para>Notice that you have to provide the horizontal field of
view (<acronym>HFoV</acronym>) of the source image (in degrees)
for most conversions to get meaningful results. The vertical
field of view for the destination image
(<acronym>VFoV</acronym>) is only required for the conversion
<quote>Fisheye vertical</quote> to
<quote>QTVR-panorama</quote>. It is ignored in all other
cases. See the following table for HFoV values of lenses for
35mm equipment. Actual lens paramters may vary somewhat:</para>
<informaltable frame="all" id="tblHFoV">
<tgroup align="center" cols="3">
<colspec colname="c1" colnum="1" />
<colspec colname="c2" colnum="2" />
<colspec colname="c3" colnum="3" />
<thead>
<row>
<entry nameend="c3" namest="c1">Field of View Table</entry>
</row>
</thead>
<tbody>
<row>
<entry>Focal Length</entry>
<entry>HFoV Landscape</entry>
<entry>HFoV Portrait</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>8mm Fisheye</entry>
<entry>180</entry>
<entry>180</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>15mm Fisheye</entry>
<entry>130</entry>
<entry>90</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>15mm Rectilinear</entry>
<entry>100</entry>
<entry>77</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>17mm Rectilinear</entry>
<entry>93</entry>
<entry>70</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>20mm Rectilinear</entry>
<entry>84</entry>
<entry>62</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>24mm Rectilinear</entry>
<entry>74</entry>
<entry>53</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>28mm Rectilinear</entry>
<entry>65</entry>
<entry>46</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>35mm Rectilinear</entry>
<entry>54</entry>
<entry>38</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>50mm Rectilinear</entry>
<entry>40</entry>
<entry>27</entry>
</row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</informaltable>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="panControls">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Pan Controls</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<sect2 id="panOverview">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Overview</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>Internally, all 'Pan Controls' are special front ends to
the 'adjust' tool. Externally they act like the tool bar of a
WWW-viewer.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="panViewport">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Setting the Initial Viewport</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>To start a session, load the panoramic image to be edited
into the GIMP, and open
<menuchoice>
<guimenu>Filters</guimenu>
<guisubmenu>Panorama Tools</guisubmenu>
<guimenuitem>Adjust</guimenuitem>
</menuchoice>. Select the Action <quote>Extract from
Panorama</quote> and the Parameters <quote>Use
Options</quote>. Then click <guibutton>Set</guibutton> to set
the initial viewport. The dialog window that appears has entries
for the viewport (<quote>Image:</quote>) and the panorama
(<quote>Panorama:</quote>). The size of the viewing window can
be arbitrarily set (it can be changed later at any time during
the interactive session). The camera type is also settable (most
likely <quote>Rectilinear</quote>). The field of view must also
be set. The direction of the initial viewport is settable via
the three angles yaw, pitch and roll in
<quote>Position:</quote>. Leave them at 0 if you want to start
in the center.</para>
<para>Select the panorama characteristics under
<quote>Panorama:</quote>. Required is <quote>Format:</quote> and
<quote>HFoV:</quote> (most likely <quote>QTVR-Panorama</quote> and 360
degrees). Width and size is read from the source image and need not be
set. Also select <quote>Save to Buffer</quote> since this saved image
becomes the internally saved representation of the pano.</para>
<para>Click <guibutton>OK</guibutton> once. Back in the Adjust
dialog select <guibutton>Prefs</guibutton> and set only option
(<xref linkend="prefOpt2" />). This is required since the newly
created image (the viewport) is likely to be of different size
than the original (the panorama). Now click
<guibutton>OK</guibutton> twice, and let Panorama Tools create
the partial view. After this appears, you can close the original
panorama: All further work is done using the newly created
viewport-window.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="panPanning">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Panning</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>To turn your viewport, select <menuchoice>
<guimenu>Filters</guimenu>
<guimenuitem>Pan Controls</guimenuitem>
</menuchoice> and click <guibutton>Move Right</guibutton> or
<guibutton>Move left</guibutton> or <guibutton>Tilt Up</guibutton> or
<guibutton>Tilt Down</guibutton>. The viewing direction changes each
time by an amount of 15 degrees. You can change this amount by pressing
the <guibutton>Increment</guibutton> button.</para>
<para>Zooming is accomplished using the respective <quote>Pan
Controls</quote> and occurs by an amount of 30%. This is also settable
in the 'Increment' dialog.</para>
<para>It may be more convenient to use the supplied actions instead of
the filter menu. You can bind function keys to any of the
commands.</para>
<para>You can change the size of your viewport at any time through
The GIMP's resizing commands.</para>
<para>You can set and monitor the current position of the viewport by
opening the <menuchoice>
<guisubmenu>adjust </guisubmenu>
<guimenuitem>options</guimenuitem>
</menuchoice> dialog. Don't run <guimenuitem>adjust</guimenuitem>
since this will open a new viewport!</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="panEditing">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Editing</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>Edit your viewport like any other GIMP image. All tools you
normally use to work with images are available to you now.</para>
<para>Your editing changes are normally not applied to the saved buffer
and get lost as soon as you pan away or zoom. You have to apply them by
clicking <guibutton>Apply Changes</guibutton> in the <guisubmenu>Pan
Controls</guisubmenu> plug-in (Or use the respective action). This
command warps and inserts the current viewport back into the (invisible)
buffer, and makes your changes permanent.</para>
<para>Each <quote>Apply</quote> step causes a lengthy warp-insert
operation. Since the image gets re-sampled, it will lead to image
degradation if you apply changes frequently to the same region of your
panorama. That is the reason to not <quote>apply</quote> changes
automatically when panning.</para>
<para>To minimize image degradation, the viewport to be inserted should
have similar resolution as the original panoramic image.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="panGetting">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Getting Your Panoramic Image</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>All editing acts upon the saved buffer panoramic image, not on the
original! To get this buffer, <guisubmenu>Pan Controls</guisubmenu>
provides the command <guimenuitem>Get Panorama</guimenuitem> which loads
and displays this image to let you save it in any format you
like.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="feedback">
<title>
<phrase lang="en">Feedback</phrase>
<phrase lang="de">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="fr">FIXME</phrase>
<phrase lang="pl">FIXME</phrase>
</title>
<para>Please send feedback concerning this document to
<email>dwilkins42@users.sf.net</email></para>
</sect1>
</article>

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