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File Date Author Commit
 .issues 2013-08-16 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [df7d48] Updates to the feature lists
 Documentation 2013-08-08 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [922f9b] Merge in quantile statistics
 Examples 2013-08-16 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [8d143b] Importing scipy.stats still doesn't work
 Libraries 2013-08-16 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [8d143b] Importing scipy.stats still doesn't work
 Utilities 2013-08-16 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [8d143b] Importing scipy.stats still doesn't work
 debian 2012-05-03 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [db5264] Merge Debian-packaging and fix a bug in the mai...
 maintainanceScripts 2013-05-22 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [852b83] Make the build print out the swak-version
 .hgchurn 2013-01-16 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [b5e0ce] Automated merge with file:///Volumes/Foam/Subve...
 .hgignore 2013-08-08 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [8c7c46] Merge
 .hgtags 2013-05-24 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [68b2ca] Added tag release2013-05-24 for changeset 88740...
 Allwclean 2013-08-09 Bernhard Gschaider Bernhard Gschaider [6e387b] Move to the end to make sure that EVERYTHING wa...
 Allwmake 2013-08-08 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [8c7c46] Merge
 COPYING 2010-12-14 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [a26d85] Adding GPL
 Doxyfile 2012-12-17 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [6500b7] Merge in foreign meshes feature
 Makefile 2012-05-03 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [db5264] Merge Debian-packaging and fix a bug in the mai...
 README 2013-08-15 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [a15dc8] Add debugging 'streams'
 gtags.conf 2011-01-02 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [667af4] Generate documentation
 swakConfiguration.debian 2012-05-03 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [db5264] Merge Debian-packaging and fix a bug in the mai...
 swakConfiguration.example 2013-04-08 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [ccfaf6] Searchable surfaces are now part of the main line 2013-08-12 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider Bernhard F.W. Gschaider [d87e73] Starting a new utility

Read Me

# -*- mode: org -*-
#+TITLE: =README= for =swak4Foam= - Version for OpenFOAM 1.x
* Description
  A collection of libraries and tools that let the user handle
  OpenFOAM-data based on expressions
* About this document
** Scope
   This file gives an overview of =swak4Foam= and a history of the
   features. It is not a canonical documentation.
** Technical
   This file is written in the mighty =org-mode= (see
   [[]]) a markup/outline-mode for (X)Emacs. Using this
   mode it can be easily (using 3 keystrokes ... it's Emacs) to PDF or
   HTML to make it more readable (and add a table of contents).

   Please don't try to "beautify" it with any other text editor as
   this will surly mess up the markup (and keeping the file
   /org-compatible/ outside of the =org-mode= is a pain in the neck.
* Contributors etc
** Original Author
   Bernhard Gschaider (
** Current Maintainer
   Bernhard Gschaider (
** Contributors
   In alphabetical order of the surname
   - Martin Beaudoin :: =trackDictionary= in =simpleFunctionObjects=
   - Martin Becker :: The =potentialPitzDaily=-case (demonstrating a
                      problem with =groovyBC=)
   - Oliver Borm :: =patchMassFlowAverage= in =simpleFunctionObjects=
   - Peter Keller :: =sprinklerInlet=-case
   - Martin Kroeger :: =mtv= surface writer in =simpleFunctionObjects=
   - Andreas Otto :: fixed the =circulatingSplash=-case
   - Alexey Petrov :: =pythonFlu=-integration
   - Bruno Santos ::
     - Compilation with Intel compiler and Mingw
     - Rewrite of =mybison= and =myflex= to allow parallel compilation
       with =WM_COMPPROCS=
   If anyone is forgotten: let me know

   According to the commits in the =mercurial=-repository (and
   the repositories of the projects from which swak emerged)
   contributors are (ordered by the year of their first contribution):
   - 2006-2013 Bernhard F.W. Gschaider <>
   - 2008 Hannes Kroeger (
   - 2008-2009, 2012 Martin Beaudoin, Hydro-Quebec (
   - 2010 Marianne Mataln <mmataln@ice-sf>
   - 2010 Oliver Borm (
   - 2011 Alexey Petrov <>
   - 2011 Petr Vita <>
   - 2012 Bruno Santos <>
   - 2013 Georg Reiss <>
** Documentation
* Installation/Compilation
** Requirements
   - Version 1.7 or 1.6-ext of OpenFOAM (1.6 should work, too)
     - The =finiteArea=-stuff will only work with version 1.6-ext
   - the compiler generators =bison= and =flex=
     - bison :: =swak4Foam= is known to work with =bison= version 2.4 and
       higher. Version 2.3 compiles but the plugin-functionality does
                not work correctly
     - flex :: since the introduction of the plugin functions at least
               a flex version of =2.5.33= is required (=2.5.35= is the
               lowest *confirmed* version)

   Both of these are mainstream packages (they are for instance needed
   to compile =gcc=) and should exist on every Linux distribution. Use
   the package manager of your distribution to install them and *only*
   if the compilation process of =swak4Foam= complains about too low
   versions try to install them from other sources.

   =swak4Foam= tries to keep the requirements on these as low as
   possible and sometimes lower versions than the ones reported *may*
   work. If they do please report so.

   The version of bison can be checked with
: bison -V
   The version of flex with
: flex -V
** Building
: wmake all
   at the base directory should build all the libraries and

   Rerun the command to make sure that there was no problem with the
   compilation (this should be quite fast and only report libraries
   being created and some administrative stuff)
*** Additional configuration
    Some features (currently only the =Python=-integration may need
    third party software. The paths to these packages can be configured
    in a file =swakConfiguration= (an example file
    =swakConfiguration.example= is provided). If that file is not
    present these unconfigured features will not be compiled.

    Environment variables that can be set in this file are:
    - SWAK_PYTHON_INCLUDE :: Path to the =Python.h= file of the used
    - SWAK_PYTHON_LINK :: Options to link the =python=-library to the
         library for the =python=-integration
    - SWAK_USER_PLUGINS :: A list of paths separated by
         semicolons. These are the directories of libraries with
         function-plugins. They are compiled in the course of the
         normal =swak=-compilation. This makes sure that they are
         consistent with the =swak=-release in the case of an update
    - SWAK_COMPILE_GRAMMAR_OPTION :: Additional compiler switches for
         the C-files generated by =bison=. Usually used if the default
         optimization switches are too aggressive and compilation
         takes to long (then a value like =-O0= would for instance
         switch off all optimizations)
*** Special versions of the python integration
    *Note*: This section is very special and won't be needed by most

    The library links against a specific
    version of the python library. In certain circumstances (for
    instance the OS of the cluster is different from the one that swak
    was compiled on) this python-version is not available on the
    target machine. While all other parts of swak will work the
    python-integration won't load on the target machine. To fix this
    problem a workaround is provided:

    The script =maintainanceScripts/
    compiles a special version of the
    that is identified by an additional suffix (for instance the
    suffix =Cluster= makes a file That script has to be run
    *on the target system* and needs 3 parameters:
    3. The suffix
    For instance
: ./maintainanceScripts/ -I/opt/local/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.5/include/python2.5 "-L/opt/local/lib -lpython2.5" Version2.5
    compiles a version for an old python.

    To enable the python-integration in =libs= in =controlDict= *both*
    python-integrations have to be specified. One of them will fail on
    each machine (because the required python-library is not there),
    the other one will provide the python-functionObjects.

    Note: the special libraries won't be updated automatically on the
    target system. Doing so is the responsibility of the user.
** Global installation
   If the libraries and utilities are considered stable and the should
   be available to everyone (without having to recompile them) the
   script in the directory
   =maintainanceScripts= can be used to copy them to the
   global site-specific directories.

   The script in the directory
   =maintainanceScripts= removes all these files
   from the global directories. The does
   the same for the user directories (this makes sure that no
   self-compiled version /shadows/ the global version (which would
   lead to strange results)

   There is a =Makefile= attached. =make globalinstall= compiles =swak4Foam=
   and installs it into the global directories

   *Note:* Due to the order in which library direcories are searched
   for with =-L= a global installation might break the
   compilation. *If you don't know what this means: don't attempt a
   global installation*
** Packaging
*** Debian
    The command =build dpkg= builds a Debian/Ubuntu package for
    the *currently enabled* OpenFOAM-package. Note:
    - it is assumed that the currently used OF-version was also
      installed by the package manager
    - the =dev= package is built but poorly maintained
    Changes in the packaging should be done in the branch
    =debianPackaging= of the Mercurial-repository and later be
    merged to the =default=-branch.

    Packaging for OpenFOAM 2.x should be done in the branch

    *Note:* Due to the problem described with the global installation
    it might be necessary to deinstall a previously installed package
    to successfully build a new package
* Contents
** Libraries
   Collection of Libraries
*** =swak4FoamParsers=
    The basis of =swak4Foam=: the expression parsers with the logic to
    access the /OpenFOAM/ data-structures.

    None of the other software pieces compile without it
*** =simpleFunctionObjects=
    A collection of function objects that was previously separately
    available at

    Provides consistent output of values (on patches and fields) and
*** =groovyBC=
    Implements the infamous =groovyBC=. A boundary condition that
    allows arbitrary expressions in the field-file
*** =swakFunctionObjects=
    Function objects that have no additional requirements. Mainly used
    for manipulating and creating fields with expressions
    - addGlobalVariable :: Adds a variable to a global
         swak-namespace. Mainly used for debugging and resolving
         issues where a variable is needed in a BC before it is defined.
    - expressionField :: Create a new field from an expression
    - clearExpressionField :: Erase a field created with
    - manipulateField :: Modify a field in memory
    - createSampledSet :: Create a sampled set that can be used by
         other swak-entities (mainly boundary conditions)
    - createSampledSurface :: Create a sampled surface that can be used by
         other swak-entities (mainly boundary conditions)
    - solveLaplacianPDE :: Solve the Poisson equation
\frac{\partial \rho T}{\partial t} - \nabla \lambda \nabla T =
S_{expl} + S_{impl} T
         for $T$ where $\rho$, $\lambda$ and $S$ can be specified
    - solveTransportPDE :: Solve the transport equation
\frac{\partial \rho T}{\partial t} + \div(\phi,T) - \nabla \lambda \nabla T =
S_{expl} + S_{impl} T
         for $T$ where $\rho$, $\lambda$ and $S$ can be
         specified. Plus the name of the field $\phi$
    - addForeignMeshes :: this allows specifying new foreign
         meshes. These can be used in subsequent function-objects or
         other swak-expressions on =internalFields=
    - foreignMeshesFollowTime :: this allows specifying a list of
         meshes whose time is set to the current time of the running
*** =simpleSwakFunctionObjects=
    Function objects based on the =simpleFunctionObjects=-library
    (which is a prerequisite for compiling it).

    Evaluate expressions and output the results
*** =swakSourceFields=
    These classes allow to manipulate the solution. To use these the
    solver has to be modified.
    - expressionSource :: Field that is calculated from an
         expression. To be used as source-term or coefficient in some
    - forceEquation :: force an equation to fixed values in selected
                       locations. Has to be used after constructing
                       the equation and before solving
    These sources are based on =basicSource= and can be used
    *without* a modification of the solver (they are only available in
    the 2.x version):
    - SwakSetValue :: sets values according to a mask or the
                      mechanism provided by =basicSource=
    - SwakExplicitSource :: Uses the calculated source term on the
         right hand side of the equation
    - SwakImplicitSource :: Uses a calculated scalar-field to add an
         implicit source term (source is *without* the actual field)

*** =swakTopoSources=
    =topoSources= for =cellSet= and =faceSet=. Can be used with the
    =cellSet= and =faceSet=-utilities
*** =swakFiniteArea=
    Implements parsers for the =finiteArea=-stuff in 1.6-ext. Also
    implements =groovyBC= for =areaField= and =expressionField= and
    other function objects
*** =groovyStandardBCs=
    Collection of boundary conditions that give standard boundary
    conditions the possibility to use expression for the coefficients

    Contributions to this library are explicitly encouraged. Please
    use the Mercurial-branch =groovyStandardBCs= to /groovyify/
    standard boundary conditions.
*** =pythonIntegration=
    Embeds a =Python=-interpreter.

    - =pythonIntegrationFunctionObject= :: Executes =Python=-code
         at the usual execution times of functionObjects. The
         interpreter keeps its state

    This library is only compiled if the paths to the Python-Headers
    are configured in the =swakConfiguration=-file (see above)
*** =simpleLagrangianFunctionObjects=
    Function objects that allow the easy addition of lagrangian
    clouds to a case. No other libraries from =swak4Foam= are needed
    for this
*** =simpleSearchableSurfaces=
    Additional =searchableSurfaces= (for use in =snappyHexMesh=)
    which include boolean operations for other surfaces and
    coordinate transformations
*** =fluFunctionObjectDriver=
    Driver for =functionObjects= that implemented entirely in =Python=
    using the =pythonFlu=-library
*** =functionPlugins=
    Directory with a number of libraries with function-plugins:
    - swakFacSchemesFunctionPlugin :: functions with selectable
         discretization schemes for FAM (only used in 1.6-ext)
    - swakFvcSchemesFunctionPlugin :: functions with selectable
         schemes for FVM
    - swakLocalCalculationsFunctionPlugin :: calculations that are
         local to a cell (Minimum of the face values or so)
    - swakMeshQualityFunctionPlugin :: calculate mesh quality criteria
         like orthogonality, skewness and ascpect ratio
    - swakRandomFunctionPlugin :: different random number
         distributions. Currently only exponential
    - swakSurfacesAndSetsFunctionPlugin :: calculates distances from
         =sampledSurfaces= and =sampledSets= and projects calculated
         values from these onto a volume field
    - swakThermoTurbFunctionPlugin :: Access functions from the
         thermophysical model and the turbulence model in the current
         region. Loads the model only if necessary
    - swakTransportTurbFunctionPlugin :: Same as above but for
         incompressible models
    - swakLagrangianCloudSourcesFunctionPlugin :: Functions that get
         informations like source terms from clouds of particles (due
         to technical reasons this works only for the regular
         /intermediate/ clouds)
    - swakVelocityFunctionPlugin :: Functions that work on the flow
         field (currently only the local Courant-number)
** Utilities
*** =funkySetFields=
    Utility that allows creation and manipulation of files with
*** =funkySetAreaFields=
    Utility like =funkySetFields= for =areaFields= (only works with
*** =funkySetBoundaryField=
    Sets any field on a boundary to a non-uniform value based on an

    Acts without deeper understanding of the underlying boundary condition
*** =replayTransientBC=
    Utility to quickly test whether a groovyBC gives the expected
    results. Writes the specified fields with the applied boundary
    condition but doesn't do anything else.

    Can be used for other BCs as well
*** =funkyDoCalc=
    Evaluates expressions that are listed in a dictionary using data
    that is found on the disc and prints summarized data (min, max,
    average, sum) to the screen
*** =calcNonUniformOffsetsForMapped=
    Calculates the =offsets=-entry in the =polyMesh/boundary=-file
    according to the specification in a dictionary. Only needed if you
    have mapped patches and the regular uniform offset is not enough
    for your purposes
** Examples
   If not otherwise noted cases are prepared by a simple

   *Note*: All the cases here are strictly for demonstration purposes and
   resemble nothing from the 'real world'
*** groovyBC
    The old =groovyBC=-Demos
**** pulsedPitzDaily
    - Solver :: pisoFoam
    - Also demonstrates :: =manipulateField=, =expressionField= and
         =clearField= from the
         =swakFunctionObjects=. =patchExpression= from
         =simpleSwakFunctionObjects=. =solveLaplacianPDE= and
         =solveTransportPDE= for solving equations,
         =pythonIntegration= with calculations using =numpy=
**** wobbler
    - Solver :: solidDisplacementFoam
**** circulatingSplash
    - Solver :: interDyMFoam
**** movingConeDistorted
    - Solver :: pimpleDyMFoam
    - Also demonstrates :: =swakExpression= with =surface=. Due to a
      problem described below this currently doesn't work
**** average-t-junction
    - Solver :: pimpleFoam
**** delayed-t-junction
    - Solver :: pimpleFoam
    - Demonstrates :: Delayed variables to simulate an inflow that
                      depends on the value of the outflow
**** multiRegionHeaterFeedback
    - Solver :: chtMultiRegionFoam
    - Mesh preparation :: Execute the script in that
    - Also demonstrated :: =patchExpression= and =swakExpression= from
**** fillingTheDam
     - Solver :: interFoam
     - Also demonstrates :: Usage of a =sampledSet= defined in the
          =controlDict= do determine the average filling height. Also
          stored variables for not switching back once the criterion
          is reached. Global variables defined by a function object
**** sprinklingInlet
     - Solver :: interFoam
     - Description :: Winner of the =swak4Foam=-competition at the 6th
                      OpenFOAM-Workshop (2011). By Peter Keller
**** potentialPitzDaily
     - Solver :: potentialFoam
     - Description :: Demonstrates the use of =groovyB= with
                      =potentialFoam= (also a problem connected with
                      that). Provided by Martin Backer
*** FunkyDoCalc
    Example dictionaries for =funkyDoCalc=
*** FunkySetFields
    Example dictionary for =funkySetFields=
*** FunkySetBoundaryFields
    Example dictionary for =funkySetBoundaryFields=. Sets nonsense
    boundary conditions for the world famous =damBreak=-case
*** InterFoamWithSources
    Demonstrates usage of =expressionSource=

    Due to differences in the original =interFoam=-solver this doesn't
    work on certain OpenFOAM-versions (most specifically

    The only modifications to the original solver are found at the end
    of =createFields.H= and in =UEqn.H= (the added source terms).
*** InterFoamWithFixed
    Demonstrates usage of =forceEquation=

    Due to differences in the original =interFoam=-solver this doesn't
    work on certain OpenFOAM-versions (most specifically

    The only modifications to the original solver are found at the end
    of =createFields.H= and in =UEqn.H= (the fixing of the velocities).
**** =interFoamWithSources=
     Slightly modified version of =interFoam=. Adds a source term to
     the momentum equation. The source term is an expression that is
     defined at run-time
**** =mixingThing=
     Demonstration case for it.
     - Preparation :: Run the script to prepare the case
*** FiniteArea
    Demonstration of the =finiteArea=-stuff that works with 1.6-ext
**** =swakSurfactantFoam=
     Variation of =surfactantFoam= that adds an =expressionSource=
**** =planeTransport=
     Demonstration case
     - Preparation :: Use =blockMesh= and =makeFaMesh=
     - Solver :: =surfactantFoam= (without source term) or
     - Demonstrates :: FAM-specific =swakExpressions= and =groovyBC=
                       (as well as the =expressionSource=)
*** other
    Cases that don't have a =groovyBC=
**** =angledDuctImplicit=
     - Solver :: rhoPorousSimpleFoam
     - Mesh preparation :: Execute the in that
          directory. If you want to run in parallel call the
 with the number of processors as
          an argument
     - Demonstrates :: Usage of the =swakTopoSources=. Compares
          different approaches to evaluating with the
          =swakExpression=-functionObject. Also an example dictionary
          that demonstrates the use of =funkyDoCalc=. Demonstrates
          "live" comparing to another case using /foreign meshes/
**** =angledDuctImplicitTransient=
     - Solver :: rhoPorousMRFPimpleFoam
     - Mesh preparation :: Execute the in that
          directory. If you want to run in parallel call the
 with the number of processors as
          an argument
     - Demonstrates :: The same as =angledDuctImplicit= but also the
                       output of temporal changes
**** =capillaryRise=
     - Solver :: interFoam
     - Case preparation :: run the supplied script
     - Demonstrates :: Usage of a sampled surface to track the
                       interface in a VOF-simulation
**** =mixingDam=
     - Solver :: interFoam
     - Case preparation :: run the supplied script
     - Demonstrates :: Emulate a "moving gravitation" by using the
                       =manipulateField=-functionObject to recalculate
                       =gh= and =ghf=
**** =counterFlowFlame2DInitialized=
     Demonstrates initializing a case with initial conditions that
     approximate the real flow.
     - Solver :: reactingFoam
     - Case preparation :: run the supplied script
 *Caution:* this has to be done *every*
          time before running the case
     - Demonstrates :: Demonstrates setting calculated initial
                       conditions with functionObjects
*** PythonIntegration
    Demonstrate the integration of =Python=. Mostly using =PyFoam= but
    also with =pythonFlu=
**** =manipulatedPitzDaily=
     - Solver :: simpleFoam
     - Demonstrates :: Usage of =PyFoam= to manipulate the
                       =fvSolution=-file during the run (possible
                       application: unphysical initial conditions
                       cause the run to fail during startup with
                       "normal" relaxation values)
**** =findPointPitzDaily=
     - Solver :: simpleFoam
     - Demonstrates :: Usage of the =pythonFlu=-integration to find
                       the point where the recirculation behind the
                       step ends. Also tries to plot the result using
                       the =matplotlib=-library
**** =bed2OfPisa=
     - Solver :: twoPhaseEulerFoam
     - Demonstrates :: Usage of =PyFoam= to read the direction of
                       gravity and feeding it into a =goovyBC= via
                       global variables
     - Case preparation :: Just call =funkySetFields -time 0=
**** =multiRegionHeaterBuildFunctionObjects=
     - Solver :: chtMultiRegionFoam
     - Demonstrates :: Building the specification of function objects
                       at run-time via a Python-script
**** =slicedPitzDaily=
     - Solver :: simpleFoam
     - Demonstrates :: Using a python-script to dynamically generate
                       multiple function objects (sampled
                       surfaces). Using stack-variables to calculate
                       the results and write them. Using a stored
                       stack-variable to monitor the pressure at a
                       point and stop the run if the pressure didn't
                       change there for the last 50 iterations
*** solvePDE
    Examples for the =functionObjects= that can solve /Partial
    Differential equations/
**** flangeWithPDE
     - Solver :: laplacianFoam
     - Demonstrates :: The usage of the =functionObject= that solves
                       the laplacian (Poisson) equation and
                       (hopefully) that it gets the same result as the
                       native solver
     - Case preparation :: =Allrun=-script is provided
**** pitzDailyWithPDE
     - Solver :: scalarTransportFoam
     - Demonstrates :: Solving additional transport equations
*** BasicSourceSubclasses
    These examples test the source terms based on =basicSource=. They
    only work with OpenFOAM 2.x and all use the =simpleFoam=-solver
**** pitzDailyWithSwirl
     - Demonstrates :: Fixing the values of the velocity in a region
                       with =SwakSetValues=
**** pitzDailyWithExplicitPoroPlug
     - Demonstrates :: Implementing a simple porous plug by adding the
                       Darcy-term as a source term with
**** pitzDailyWithImplicitPoroPlug
     - Demonstrates :: Same as =pitzDailyWithExplicitPoroPlug= but
                       with an implicit source term with
*** Lagrangian
    Tests for the functionObjects that create and evolve a cloud of
    particles (library =simpleLagrangianFunctionObjects=)
**** hotStream
     - Solver :: replayTransientBC
     - Mesh preparation ::
     - Demonstrates :: 3 clouds (kinematic, reacting,
                       solidParticle). Loading of a thermophysical
                       model with a functionObject. Plugin functions
                       for information about the clouds
**** angledDuctWithBalls
     - Solver :: rhoPimpleFoam
     - Demonstrates :: Thermo-cloud. Functions for lagrangian particles
*** SimpleSurface
    Examples for the use of the =simpleSearchableSurfaces=-library.
**** twoMotorbikesAndAWall
     - Solver :: simpleFoam (alternatively use the
     - Case preparation :: Script is provided
     - Demonstrates :: Using the same STL-file more than once in a
                       case by applying coordinate
                       transformations. *Note:* the physics of this
                       case are more than questionable as the frame
                       of reference for both motorbikes is wrong
**** littleVolcano
     - Solver :: interFoam
     - Case preparation :: Script is provided
     - Demonstrates :: Boolean operations on STL-files
**** chargedPlates
     - Solver :: electrostaticFoam
     - Case preparation :: Script is provided
     - Demonstrates :: Boolean operations with regular surfaces
     Physics of the case not as expected (charge-distribution)
*** tests
    Simple test cases for specific features. The names of the
    directories should give you a hint what is tested there. Most of
    them don't need a real solver but =replayTransientBC= or

    *Note*: for some features these cases are the only example there
     is. Sorry
**** =randomCavity=
     Testing of different seeds for the =rand=-function. Also tests
     the =randFixed=-function
*** BugCases
    These are cases provided by users to demonstrate bugs. Not
    maintained nor documented and may be removed at any time
** =maintainanceScripts=
   Undocumented scripts used for maintaining =swak4Foam=. *If you
   don't understand them, don't use them*
** Documentation
   Additional documentation. Most written in =org-mode=

   Current contents:
   - swak4FoamReference :: Reference manual of swak4Foam. Especially
        concepts like expression syntax and parameters
* Bug reporting and Development
** Bug reports
   The preferred place for bug reports is

   A sourceforge-account is required for reporting
*** Things to do before reporting bug
    If you're reporting a bug about the compilation please run
    =Allwmake= *twice* and only report the messages from the second
    run. This makes analyzing the log easier as only the unsuccessful
    commands will be reported.

    If the problem seems to be a missing library rerun the compilation
    to make sure that there wasn't a problem with that.
** Development
   Contributions to to =swak4Foam= are most welcome. If you want to
   contribute clone the Mercurial archive of the sources
: hg clone
   Change to the branch that you want to improve (usually =default=)
   and create a new branch
: hg branch <branchName>
   where =<branchname>= is an easily identifiable name that makes the
   purpose of the branch clear (for instance
   =bugfixWrongRandomFunction= or =featureHyperbolicFunctions=). Don't
   work on the =default= branch or any other branches that are not
   "yours". Such contributions will not be merged

   Once development on the branch is finished export the relevant
   changesets with
: hg export <nodeID>
   (=nodeID= being the ids of "your" changesets) and send them to the
   maintainer (or attach them to a bug report on Manits). The changes
   will be reviewed and merged into the =default= branch (do not
   attempt to do this yourself). Patches generated with =hg export=
   make sure that all changes are attributed to the original developer

   An alternative would be the =bundle= command. Just do
: hg bundle <bundlefile>
   and then send the =bundlefile=. This will include *all* commits
   that are not in the upstream repository and will allow similar
   inclusion in the upstream as =export=.

   Once you have proven by successfully submitting changesets via =hg
   export= you can ask for write access to the mercurial repository.

   Only if you got through Mercurial it can be ensured that your
   contribution is recognized (if you want to stay anonymous send
*** Suggest reading
    These topics may be "new" for the average OF-developer:
    - Mercurial :: A short tutorial on this can be found at
          If you already
                   know =git= the
                   be enough for you
    - bison/flex :: This pair of compiler generator tools generate the
                    parsers for the expressions. Google for a tutorial
                    that looks promising to you.

		    For a short example that shows how a new function
		    was added to two parsers have a look at this
		    changeset that added the =cpu()=-function to the
		    field and the the patch-parser (usually you'll
		    have to write a new method for the driver too):
: hg diff -c 8604e865cce6
*** Special branches
    Currently the main branches are:
    - default :: The *main* branch. This is the brancht that the
                 general public will receive. It compiles under 1.7
                 and 1.6-ext
    - =port_2.0.x= :: The branch that compiles under OpenFOAM 2.0. This
                    will eventually become the =default=-branch
    - debianPackaging :: Branch for generating new Debian-packages of
         =swak4Foam=. If somebody wants to "inherit" this: contact the
    - finiteArea :: In this branch the things for the
                    =finiteArea=-discretization (only present in
                    =1.6-ext=) is developed. Usually gets merged back
                    into the =default=-branch once a feature is completed
*** Distributed bug-tracking
    As an experimental feature distributed bug-tracking was introduced
    using the /Artemis/-extension for /Mercurial/ (see
    = An up-to-date version can be
    installed by
: hg clone
    somewhere and installing the plugin by editing =.hgrc=.

    This is *not* the official bug-tracker for =swak4Foam=. It is used
    for keeping track of new features that are to be introduced to
    =swak4Foam= and may be discontinued if the experiment proves to be
* Copyright
  =swak4Foam= is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
  under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
  Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your
  option) any later version.  See the file COPYING in this directory,
  for a description of the GNU General Public License terms under which
  you can copy the files.
* Known bugs
  The following list is not complete. If the Artemis extension (see
  above) is installed then
: hg ilist
  gives a more up-to-date list
** Moving meshes and =sampledSurfaces=
   It seems that with moving meshes =sampledSurfaces= don't get
   updated. This seems to be a problem with OpenFOAM itself (the
   regular =surfaces=-functionObject doesn't get updated. This is
   currently investigated
** Missing support for interpolation and point-Fields
   Apart from patches and internal fields the support for
   interpolation from cells to faces (and vice versa) is incomplete as
   well as point fields (although they are supported in the grammar)
** Caching of loaded fields not working
   This is especially evident for the =funkyDoCalc=-example
** Possible enhancements of the code
   Not really bugs, but stuff that bugs me
*** Pointers in the driver code
    This is necessary because of =bison=. Investigate possibilities to
    replace these by =tmp= and =autoPtr=
** Possible memory loss
   =valgrind= reports some lost memory for stuff that is not directly
   allocated by =swak4Foam= (in OpenFOAM-sources)

   Will investigate. Relevant places are marked by comments in the
   code. Also the construction of =sampledSet= seems to loose memory

   Currenly problematice parts seem to be:
   - update and =magSf=-calculation of =SampledSurface= (marked in
   - Python interpreter (but no calls in swak were found in the
     stack-trace that could be responsible)
** No point-vector construction for Subsets
   The same problem that was mentioned in
   is also true for subsets. But as the interpolation is not
   implemented for most subsets this will be postponed
* History
** 2010-09-13 - version number : 0.1
   First Release
** 2010-12-18 - version number : 0.1.1
   New release
   Most important changes
*** Parser for =sampledSurfaces=
    Now expressions for the field on a sampled surface can be
    evaluated. All =sampledSurfaces= offered by OpenFOAM now can be
*** Multiline =variables=
    The =variables= entry (most notably used in =groovyBC= and
    =swakExpression=) now can be a list of strings. This allows some
    kind of "formatting" (one expression per line) and should improve
*** Two maintainance-scripts were added
    These can copy the libraries and utilities to the global
    installation (for those who think that the swak4Foam-stuff is
    stable enough and want to 'bless' all users at their site with
    it). Note that any local installation still takes precedence
    (because =$FOAM_USER_APPBIN= is before =$FOAM_APPBIN= in the
*** Parsers using 'external variables' are now run-time selectable
    This allows the inclusion of other parsers with the regular
    =swak4Foam= parsers and include them seamlessly with the
    =variables=-mechanism for 'externals' (in other words: you can add
    your own parser in a separate library without having to change
    anything about the overall =swak4Foam=, but it behaves as if it
    was part of it)
** 2011-01-30 - version number : 0.1.2
*** Support for /Finite Area/-stuff
    Now there is support for the =finiteArea=-library found in
    1.6-dev. The support is found in a separate library
    =swakFiniteArea=. It has
    - a parser =faField= for =areaFields=
    - a parser =faPatch= for patches of =areaFields=
    - a variant of =groovyBC= for these patches
    - a computed source =faExpressionSource=
    - Function-object-variants for =areaFields=: =clearExpression=,
      =expressionField= and =manipulateField=. These work the same as
      their =volField=-counterparts
*** Bugfix for compiling in single precision
*** New function =nearDist=
** 2011-04-20 - version number : 0.1.3
   New features and changes are (this list is not complete):
*** New utility =funkySetAreaField=
    Like =funkySetFields= for /finiteArea/. Also writes out a volume
    field for easier post-processing
*** Refactoring of =groovyBC= and groovified boundary conditions
    Makes it easier to use the =groovyBC=-machinery for other boundary
    conditions. Two standard boundary conditions were
    /groovified/. Others may follow
*** Easier deployment
    If no =simpleFunctionObjects= are present they can be downloaded
    by a script.
    Also scripts to handle global installations of =swak4Foam=
*** Force equations
    A class to force equations to certain values according to
*** New utility =funkyDoCalc=
    Utility does calculations on saved results and outputs single
    numbers (min, max, sum, average) to the terminal. Can be used for
    reporting or validity checks
*** Debian packaging
    Crude packaging for Debian
*** Lookup-tables
    A single-argument function can be specified as a piecewise linear
    function. Basically works like timelines but the argument can be
    something else (not only the time)
*** Stored variables
    Variables that store their values between time-steps. Applications
    are statistics or switches
*** Sampled sets
    Sampled sets can now also be used as en entity on which
    calculation is possible.
** 2011-07-26 - version number : 0.1.4
*** New features:
**** Rewrite of =rand= and =randNormal=
     - These two functions now can receive an integer seed that
       determines the pseudo-randooom sequence generated by  these functions
     - Two functions =randFixed= and =randNormalFixed= were
       added. While the usual =rand= functions generate a different
       result at every time-steps for these functions the pseudo-random
       sequence is determined *only* by the seed (not by the timestep)
**** Binary =min= and =max=
     Take the bigger/smaller of two fields. Helps avoid =?:=-operations
**** Allow writing of only volume-fields in =funkySetAreaFields=
     Application: If the results of the calculation are only needed in
**** Internal changes
     - Use =autoPtr= for sets
     - Update sets that change in memory or on disc
*** Bug-fixes
**** =funkySetAreaFields= did not check for the correct fields
     Fixed by Petr Vita
**** =surfaceProxy= uses the wrong geometric data
**** Avoid floating point exceptions with division of fields
     Calculated boundaries were $0$ and caused a division by zero
*** Packaging
**** Update Debian packaging
     - Packaging information for the currently used OF-version is
       generated (allows a separate =swak=-package for every OF-version
     - Submission to launchpad added
**** Deployment scripts
     Now install to =FOAM_SITE_APPBIN/LIBBIN=
** 2011-10-03 - version number : 0.1.5
*** New features
**** =replayTransientBC= now supports multiple regions
     Uses the usual =-region=-option. Looks for a separate dictionary
     in the =system=-directory of that region
**** =replayTransientBC= allows execution of functionObjects
     This can be switched on using the =allowFunctionObjects=-option
**** =Python=-embedding
     Allows the execution of Python-Code in a functionObject

     This feature is still experimental and the organization of the
     libraries is subject to change
**** Global variables
     It is now possible to define variables that are 'global': They
     can be read in any entity.

     Currently these variables can only be uniform.

     To access global variables the specification-dictionary has to
     have a =wordList= named =globalScopes=. The scopes are searched
     in that order for the names of global variables. Having scopes
     allows some kind of separation of the variables
**** Simplified boundary condition =groovyBCFixedValue=
     Added a boundary condition than allows to only fix the
     values. This should help to avoid problems with cases that don't
     like =mixed= (on which the regular =groovyBC= is based)
**** Function objects to solve PDEs
     Two function objects that solve /Partial Differential Equations/
     during a run have been added:
     - one that solves a laplacian (Poisson) equation
     - one that solves the transport equation for a scalar
     The relevant coefficients (including explicit and implicit source
     terms) can be specified using expressions
*** Administrative and packaging
**** Inject =swak4Foam= into a distro
     Added a script that takes the current sources, copies them into
     the appropriate places of a =OpenFOAM=-installation and slightly
     rewrites them to compile in this place. What happens then
     (committing them into the repository or just plain compilation)
     is up to the maintainer
**** Absorb =simpleFunctionObjects=
     As many parts of =swak4Foam= depend on it the
     =simpleFunctionObjects= have now been absorbed into
     =swak4Foam=. They can still be compiled on their own
*** Bugfixes
**** Variables not working for parallel computations
     If a variable is defined and the patch which it is defined on
     doesn't have any faces the variable is reported on that processor
     as /not existing/ and the whole run fails
** 2012-01-04 - version number : 0.1.6
*** Cases changed
**** =circulatingSplash=
     Fixed according to a suggestion by Andreas Otto. Now runs again
     (used to crash some time-steps into the beginning)
*** Infrastructure
**** Check for correct =bison=-version
     The =Allwmake=-script now checks for the correct bison-version
     (and the existence of =bison=) and fails if it doesn't seem to be
     the right one
**** Supply a header with preprocessor-symbols about the used OF-version
     To allow distinguishing different OF-versions as discussed in the
     bug report
     the =Allwmake=-script now generates a header file
     =foamVersion4swak.H= that defines the symbols
*** Technical
**** Refactoring of the FieldDriver
     - now can also produce surfaceFields
     - full support of =tensor=, =symmTensor= and =sphericalTensor=
**** Refactoring of the FaFieldDriver
     - now can also produce edgeFields
     No support for tensors yet
**** Writing of =storedVariables=
     If necessary (for instance =swakExpression=-functionObject) the
     =storedVariables= are written to disc (into a subdirectory
     =swak4Foam= of the timestep) and are reread at the start. This
     allows consistent restarts (for instance if a flow was summed
     using the variable) *if the expressions stay the same*.
**** =simpleFunctionObjects= now write vectors and tensors without brackets
     Data files can now be written without brackets but each component on
     its own. The number of entries in the header is not adjusted
*** New features
**** General =phi= in =solveTransportPDE=
     Due to the refactoring of the =FieldDriver= now =phi= can be
     specified by a general expression (instead of 'only' a
**** =funkySetFields= now also writes surfaceFields
     Can write =surfaceVector= and =surfaceScalar=-Fields. Condition
     has to be consistent
**** Function objects now =surfaceField=-aware
     =expressionField= and =manipulateField= now can create or modify
**** =funkySetFields= and function objects support tensors
     =funkySetFields= and the function objects =expressionField= and
     =manipulateField=  now also work with the three tensor-types
**** Extension of the =expressionToFace= =topoSet=
     If the expression evaluates to a =surfaceField= then this is used
     as a flag whether or not the face is in the =faceSet=. If the
     expression evaluates to a =volScalarField= then the old semantic
     applies (faces are in the set if one cell is =true= and the other
     is =false=).

     This only works for internal faces
**** =addGlobalVariable= allows setting more than one value
     If there is an entry =globalVariables= then this dictionary is
     used to set the variables
**** Function object =calculateGlobalVariables=
     Calculates variables and then pushes them to a global namespace
**** Generate a dummy =phi= in =replayTransientBC=
     New option added that generates a =phi= field with value $0$ to
     keep boundary conditions like =inletOutlet= happy
**** Function object to dump expression results
     The functionObject =dumpSwakExpression= dumps the complete
     results of a swakExpression to file at each timestep. This
     produces huge files and is therefor not endorsed
**** Additional options for =funkySetFields=
     Add the options =allowFunctionObjects= and =addDummyPhi= to
     execute functionObjects and add a =phi=-field (for fields that
     require these)
**** =simpleFunctionObjects= write CSV-files
     Setting the option =outputFileMode= to =csv= writes
     CSV-files. The option-value =foam= is the default (old style). The
     option-value =raw= writes the values delimited by spaces (no
     brackets for vectors and tensors)
**** Submeshes automatically read if =searchOnDisc= specified
     If a submesh is not yet in memory and the option =searchOnDisc=
     is set, the mesh is automatically read into memory and kept there
**** Conditional =functionObjects=
     The =simpleFunctionObjects=-library now has a number of
     functionObjects that allow the conditional execution of a list of
     function objects.

     These are
     - executeIfExecutableFits :: if the name of the executable fits a
          regular expression the function objects are executed
     - executeIfObjectExists :: if a named object exists (or
          alternatively: doesn't exist) in the registry execute the
          function objects. Type checking also implemented
     - executeIfEnvironmentVariable :: execute if an environment
          variable satisfies a certain condition (exists, doesn't
          exist, fits a regular expression)
     - executeIfFunctionObjectPresent :: execute if a specific
          functionObject is present. This can help prevent failures if
          a functionObject is missing for technical reasons
     In addition the =simpleSwakFunctionObjects=-library has
     - executeIfSwakObject :: Evaluates a logical swak-expression. The
          results are either accumulated using logical /or/ (if *one*
          value is true the result will be true) or logical /and/ (all
          values have to be true)
     The =pythonIntegration=-library has
     - executeIfPython :: Evaluates a Python-code-snipplet that
          returns a value. If this value is "true" in Pythons
          standards then the functionObjects are executed
**** =functionObject= that reads gravitation
     =simpleFunctionObjects= has an additional function object that
     reads the direction of gravitation. The purpose is to assist
     boundary conditions like =buoyantPressure= that rely on it to
     work. Best used together with conditional function objects ("If
     =g= is missing ....")
**** PDE-functionObjects for =finiteArea=
     Solve transport and laplacian equation
**** =funkySetAreaField= now also writes edgeFields
     Similar to the =surfaceFields= in =funkySetFields=
*** Bug fixes
**** Compilation with Intel-Compiler possible
     The =Utilities= failed with the Intel-compiler. Compilation now
     falls back to good old =g++=
**** Access to tensor-components not working
     Because the tokens were not defined in the =flex=-files getting
     tensor components with =tensor.xx= did not work. Fixed
**** Constants for surfaceFields not working
     Because surfaceFields know no =zeroGradient= the template
     =makeConstant= did not work
**** =snGrad= does not work for patches if the file is on disc
     Change so that the field gets temporarily loaded to calculate the
     gradient on the patch. Same for =internalField= and
**** =potentialFoam= does not correctly use a =groovyBC=
     The reason is that =groovyBC= usually doesn't get evaluated
     during construction. The reason is that it is hard to tell
     whether all required fields are already in memory. The current
     fix is a workaround: setting =evaluateDuringConstruction= to
     =true= forces the BC to be evaluated during construction
**** Extra evaluation of boundary conditions causes failure
     Extra evaluation of boundary condition that should fix the
     problem with =calculated= patches causes =funkySetFields= to fail
     with stock boundary conditions if not all fields are present in
** 2012-04-13 - version number : 0.2.0 Friday the 13th
*** New features
**** Region name in =simpleFunctionObject=.outputs
     To distinguish the output of various instances of
     =functionObjects= from the =simpleFunctionObjects=-library in
     multi-region cases the screen-output is prefixed with the region
     name. For the default region nothing changes. Directory names
     stay the same as they are unambiguous anyway (they contain the
     name of the functionObject)
**** Temporal operators =ddt= and =oldTime=
     For fields (not expressions!) the value at a previous timestep
     can be gotten via =oldTime(field)= if that information exists
     (also for =funkySetFields= if the corresponding file =field_0=

     For fields that support it (basically volume-fields) there is
     also a =ddt=-operator that calculates the explicit
     time-derivative (if information about the last timestep exists)

     Currently implemented for
     - internalFields :: =oldTime= and =ddt=
     - patch :: only =oldTime=
     - cellSet,cellZone :: only =oldTime=
     - sampledSurface,sampledSet :: only =oldTime=
     - faceSet,faceZone :: =oldTime=
     - internalFaFields :: =oldTime= and =ddt=
     - faPatch :: only =oldTime=

     If there is no old time value stored and in the parser dictionary
     the parameter =prevIterIsOldTime= is set, then the previous
     iteration value is used as the old time.
**** Boundary condition =groovcBCDirection=
     Based on the =directionMixed= boundary condition this allows to
     set a boundary condition as a Dirichlet-condition only in certain
     directions while in the other directions it is a

     *Note*: this should have been in the last release but was
      forgotten to merge into the default branch
**** Boundary condition =groovyBCJump=
     Boundary condition that imposes a jump in the value on a cyclic
     boundary condition pair (based on =jumpCyclic=). Only works for
     scalar values

     *Note*: this should have been in the last release but was
      forgotten to merge into the default branch
**** Function to return the position of minimum and maximum
     The functions =minPosition= and =maxPosition= return the position
     of the minimum or the maximum of a scalar field

     This is implemented for all field types
**** Support for =pointFields= in the field-parsers
     Now can read and generate pointFields.

     Detailed features (apart from the standard symbols) are:
     - Function =point= generates a constant =pointScalarField=
     - Function =pts()= returns a =pointVectorField= with the point
     - Functions =pzone= and =pset= generate logical fields according
       to existing pointZones or pointSets
     - Functions =interpolateToCell= and =interpolateToPoint=
       interpolate from pointFields to volFields and from volFields to

     Utilities and functionObjects affected by this are
     - =funkySetFields=
     - new topoSource =expressionToPoint=
     - =expressionField= and =manipulateField= now can deal with pointFields
**** Support for tensors in the =finiteArea=-field parser
     The =faField=-parser now supports tensors, symmetric tensors and
     spherical tensors.

     Not all operators are supported because the are not instantiated
     in 1.6-ext
**** New convenience-variables for the Python-Integration
     These variables are added in the namespace to ease the writing of
     Python-code whose output is consistent with OF
     - timeName :: Name of the current time as a string. Allows the
                   construction of directory names
     - outputTime :: Boolean that indicates whether this is a timestep
                     where OpenFOAM will write output
**** Additional operators from the =fvc=-namespace
     The missing operators from the =fvc=-namespace have been added to
     the Field-parser. These are
     - =d2dt2= :: for all volumeFields
     - =flux= :: for all volumFields. Needs a surfaceField as a first
     - =meshPhi= :: for volume-vector-fields. Optional with a
                    scalar-field that acts as the density as the first
                    argument. Only works in the context of a solver
                    with a dynamic mesh and hasn't been tested yet
     The only missing operators from the =fvc=-namespace are
     =volumeIntegrate=/=domainIntegrate=. These have been omitted as
     they are trivial to implement using other functions
*** Infrastructure
**** Full parallel compilation
     Thanks to patches supplied by Bruno Santos (see
     compilation of the libraries is now possible in parallel
**** Version numbers and version number reporting
     Releases up to now got a version number. Utilities now report the
     version number. This should make it easier to find out whether
     problems are due to an old version

     Still looking for a way to do that for the libraries (so that
     they will report it if dynamically loaded)
*** Packaging
**** Update of the Debian-Packaging
     =make dpkg= now genrates also a valid package if the current
     OpenFOAM-installation is *not* installed using the =dpkg=.
*** Changes in the behavior
**** Directory variables in Python-integration
     For parallel runs the content of the =caseDir=-variable changed
     and a few variables have been added
     - caseDir :: in parallel runs now points to the =FOAM_CASE=
                  instead of the processor subdirectory
     - systemDir :: points to the global =system=-directory
     - constantDir :: points to the global =constant=-directory
     - procDir :: in parallel runs points to the
                  processor-subdirectory of the current CPU
     - meshDir :: The mesh data (of the current processor in parallel
     - timeDir :: Directory where data would be written to at the
                  current time (processor dependent)
**** User must acknowledge parallelization in Python-integration
     In parallel runs the user must set the =isParallelized= to =true=
     if the =parallelMasterOnly= is set to =false=.

     With that he indicates that in his opinion the Python-code has no
     bad side-effects in parallel runs and that he doesn't blame
     swak4Foam if anyting bad happens
*** Bug fixes
**** Field itself can not be used in =funkySetBoundaryField=
     Bug reported:

     An expression like =2*U= did not work for the field =U=. Reason
     was that the registry already held an object called =U= (the
     dictionary representation of the field) and therefor refused to
     load/register another =U=.

     Has been fixed by de-registering the dictionary =U= immediately
     after loading.
**** No gradient for vectors in FieldParser
     The gradient for a vector field (result: a tensor field) was not
     calculated. It is now part of the grammar
**** Some operators for tensors not working in 1.6-ext
     =tr=, =inv= and =det= were not working for some tensort types in
     1.6-ext. The parser now fails if such a combination is
     used. Works OK for other OF-versions

     Also introduced a workaround for certain operators not being
     properly defined for pointFields (by using the internal fields)
**** =x=, =y=, =z= and =xy= etc not available as field names
     These symbols could not be used as field names because they were
     used for the components of vectors and tensors

     Now these names are only used if the =.=-operator asks for a
     component. This is implemented for these parsers
     - FieldValues
     - PatchValues
     - SubsetValues (all Zones, sets and samples)
     - finiteArea-Parsers: faPatch and faField
**** Missing tensor components for point-Fields in some parsers
     All parsers except the field-parser were missing the access to
     tensor components in the grammar
**** No vector construction possible for point-vectors (and tensors) in PatchField
     As mentioned in
     it was not possible to construct a point-vector field using
     =vector(toPoint(1),toPoint(1),toPoint(1))=. Same for tensors
**** Incomprehensible error message in =funkySetFields= if the field is missing
     The error message in =funkySetFields= that was issued when a
     field is supposed to be created was not very helpful (something
     about the field currently being an =IOobject=)
**** Missing =magSqr= in parsers
     This function was reported missing on the message board
**** Wrong size when composing vectors and tensors for point-fields
     The composed objects got their size from the current parser, not
     the components. This resulted in a segmentation-fault for
**** =icc= does not compile =executeIfExecutableFitsFunctionObject= on Linux
     Preprocessor symbol =linux= unknown. Replaced with =__linux__=
**** Enhancement to the =trackDictionary=-functionObject
     Now handles bad or non-existent filenames for dictionaries to

     Fix provided by Martin Beaudoin
** 2012-10-18 - version number : 0.2.1
*** Requirements
**** =flex 2.5.35=
     This version is needed for the reentrant parsers. =2.5.33= *may*
     work but is untested. Version =2.5.4= which is on some old
     systems definitely does not work
**** =bison 2.4=
     Version 2.3 compiles but there is an offset-problem with the
     locations that breaks the Plugin-functionality

     Mac-users will have to install =bison= from another source (for
     instance =MacPorts=)
*** Bug fixes
**** Make sure that =Allwmake= always uses the =bash=
     On Ubuntu =/bin/sh= is something else and the scripts fail.
     Hardcode to =/bin/bash=
**** still in Makefile
     This script (which was removed long ago) was still referenced in
     the =Makefile=.
**** =grad= in fields added dimensions
     =grad= and other operators from =fvc= added dimensions to values
     that were supposed to be dimensionless. This has been fixed
**** Default =condition= for surface fields wrong size in =funkySetFields=
     Due to a typo the constructed condition field was too short for
     surface-fields (too long for volume-fields, but that didn't matter)
**** =flip()= for =faceSet= not correctly calculated
     A =SortableList= was used which meant that the vector with the
     flip values was not in the correct order
**** =fset()= crashes when =faceSet= has boundary faces
     This problem was due to a non-special treatment of faces on the
     boundary. Fixed (for =faceZone= as well).

     Also boundary faces are now honored in =expressionToFace= if the
     expression is a surface-field (for the volume-field logic
     boundary faces will never work)
**** =groovyBC= produced incorrect results with =wallHeatFlux= etc
     The reason was that during construction =refGradient=, =refValue=
     etc were not read correctly (if present).

     This is now fixed in =groovyBC= and the other BCs (=groovyBC= for
     pointFields and =groovyBCDirection=)
**** Global variables not found in =faField=
     The Lexer correctly identified the variable but the =getField=
     method did not know how to get it.

**** Wrong type of condition field in =funkySetAreaFields=
     If no condition was evaluated the utility generated a
     pseudo-field of the wrong length
**** =calculated=-patches $0$ for some operations
     For some operations in the =Field=-driver the
     =calculated=-patches had the value $0$ instead of the number of
     the next cell. This caused certain calculations to fail (give

     The =FaField=-driver did no fixing of the =calculated=-patches at

     This is fixed
**** =sqr= of a =vector= should produce a =symmTensor=
     Reported in

     Added the =sqr= at the right place to the grammars. Also some
     other missing tensor operations (=dev= and =symm=).
**** =funkySetFields= produced wrong values on processor patches
     Patch fields were not copied any no =correctBoundaryField= was
     called for technical reasons.

     Fix: values copied by hand
**** =sortedToc= does not exist for =1.6-ext=
     Introduced a preprocessor symbol that allows using sortedToc on
     newer versions
**** Wrong =size()= and =pointSize()= reported for =FaField=-driver
     This was due to a strange () (still don't know what happened
**** Memory leak in the field drivers
     The strings of parsed IDs were not properly deleted. Funnily this
     was done correctly in the Patch and the Subset-driver. Also for

     Also fixed a leak with the labels of plugin-functions that was
     present with all drivers
**** Maintenance scripts not working with non-=bash= =/bin/sh=
     Reported by Oliver Krueger that on systems where =/bin/sh= is not
     a =bash= anymore (newer Ubuntu and SuSE) the sourcing of doesn't work anymore.

     Fixed and moved all the files to the =maintainanceScripts=-folder
**** =cof= and =diag= undefined
     Added. Diag had to be reprogrammed as it is not implemented for
     fields (probably for performance reasons).

     Also some tensor operators were missing (probably lost during copy/paste)
****  No new file created if number of patches for patchAverage changes
      Reported in

      Fixed by removing all file pointers if the number of patches changes
**** =variables= intolerant on spaces
     Spaces in the list of variables made the reading
     fail because words can't contain spaces. For instance
: "var =T*2;"
     Now all the spaces are removed before assigning to
     variables. This will also remove spaces on the "inside" thus
: "v ar =T*2;"
     the same as the above expression. But it is unlikely that the
     call will be used in this way
**** Missing =div=-operations
     These valid =div=-operations were missing from the grammar:
     - Divergence of a volume-tensor (all three kinds) producing a
     - Divergence of a surface-tensor (all three kinds) producing a
**** Fields created by =expressionField= written too late
     Fields created by that function object were written with the
     value from the timestep before because the regular write occurs
     before the execution of the function objects.

**** =storedVariables= did not require a =initialValue=
     Now an initial value is required (instead of the default empty
     string which caused parser failure)
**** Dimension checking makes =expressionField= fail
     Reason is that during the calculation of the variables dimensions
     are checked.

     Now the functionObject switches the checking off. But a more
     general solution is desirable
**** =expressionField= at last timestep not written
     The functionObject does not write (and calculate) the field at
     the last timestep.

     Fixed with an one-liner
**** =groovyBC= makes =interFoam=-runs fail unpredictably
     Reason was an uninitialized =valueFraction= which sometimes has
     values that cause a floating point exception. Fixed
**** Global variables of different sizes break parallel runs
     Because =size()= was equal to the expected size on some
     processors. Not on all. Now the branch is taken if the size is
     equal on *all* processors
**** Fields treated with =readAndUpdateFields= were written one timestep too late
     Fields were not written after the boundary condition was
     updated. Now they are
*** Enhancements
**** Topology-operators now support =variables= etc
     The topology operators =expressionToCell=, =expressionToFace= and
     =expressionToPoint= now support =variables= and the other
     supporting keywords if being constructed with a dictionary (for
     instance from the =topoSet=-utility)
**** Fields touched by =manipulateField= being written
     Usually the manipulated version of the fields is not written as
     the manipulation happens *after* writing. The option
     =writeManipulated= enforces writing.

     Writing is not the default behavior to avoid side-effects
**** Indicator functions =onPatch= and =internalFace= added to field-expressions
     The function =onPatch(name)= returns a surface-field that is $1$
     on all faces that belong to patch =name=.

     The function =internalFace()= is $1$ on all internal faces and
     $0$ on all patches
**** Non-uniform second argument for =pow=
     Now the second argument to the =pow=-function can be a
**** Added transpose to the tensors
     The expression =A.T()= transposes the tensor =A= (for symmetrical
     and spherical tensors it leaves them untouched)
**** Added unit tensor =I= to parsers
     If no field =I= is defined then this is used as the unit-tensor
**** Added the /Hodge dual/ operator
     The unary operator =*= calculates for tensors and symmetrical
     tensors the hodge dual
**** =replayTransientBC= can now switch on function-objects via dictionary
     The optional entry =useFunctionObjects= switches on the execution
     of function objects during the calculation
**** =replayTransientBC= can now create a =phi=-field via dictionary
     The optional entry =addDummyPhi= creates a =phi=-field
**** =expressionField= now allows the specification of a dimension
     The =dimensions=-entry is now read at the same time the variables
     are read (this should work for all programs/functionObjects where
     the parser is not constructed using a dictionary but the
     dictionary is later searched for the =variables=-entry)
*** New features
**** Allow dynamically loaded plugins that add new functions to parsers
     This allows easy extension of the functionality of =swak4Foam=
     without modifying the grammar files.

     The way it works is that new functions are added to a
     runtime-selection table. If the grammar can not resolve a symbol
     as a built-in function or a field (but only then) it looks up the
     name in this table and evaluates the function. Parameters are
     parsed separately and can be:
     - primitive data types :: integer, float, string and word
     - swak-expression :: an expression parsed by one of the
          swak-parsers. The type of this expression does not
          necessarily have to be the same as the one of the 'main'
     The first time a plugin function is searched =swak4Foam= prints a
     list of all the available functions of this type. Information
     included is the return type and the types of the parameters
     (these include the parser used, the expected type and a parameter

     Libraries with plugin-functions are added via the =libs=-entry in
     the =system/controlDict=

     A number of plugin-libraries are already included covering these
     - Evaluation of functions of the turbulence, transport or thermo
     - Different random number distributions
     - Functions to "project" =sampledSets= and =sampledSurfaces= onto
       a volume-field
     - Execute explicit discretization functions (like =grad=) but
       select the used scheme in the function instead of using the
       value from =fvSchemes=
     - Calculations of the mesh quality (same way =checkMesh= does)
       and return as fields
     - Do calculations locally on a cell (like the maximum on its
     - Get the source fields and other properties from lagrangian
       clouds based on the basic intermediate cloud classes
       (Kinematic, Thermo, Reacting, ReactingMultiphase)

     It has been tried to make the names unique instead of
     short. Usually function names from one library are prefixed with
     the same short string.
**** Dynamically generated lists of =functionObjects=
     The new =dynamicFunctionObjectListProxy= in the
     =simpleFunctionObjects= can generate a =functionObjectList= from
     a string and execute them during the run like regular

     The string is provided by a special class (the so called
     =dictionaryProvider=). Current implementations for the provider are:
     - fromFileDictionaryProvider :: reads the text from a dictionary
     - stdoutFromCommandProvider :: executes a program and takes the
          standard output as the dictionary text
     - stdoutFromPythonScriptProvider :: executes a python-script and
          takes the stdout as the dictionary text
     The string must be in the format o a regular OpenFOAM-dictionary
     with an entry =functions= from which the functionObjects are
**** Function object =readAndUpdateFields=
     This FO in the =simpleFunctionObjects= reads a number of fields
     and updates their boundary conditions at every timestep.

     Main purpose is to let =groovyBC= do calculations and use the
     results for post-processing purposes

     Does not support surface-fields as these don't have a

     Example of the usage in the =angledDuctImplicit=-case (the
     results are of limited value because of the temperature boundary
**** Source terms based on =basicSource=
     Three source terms were added. These source terms are in the
     =swakSourceFields=-library and can be used with solvers that use
     the =sourcesProperties=-dictionary. The sources are
     - SwakSetValue :: sets values according to a mask or the
                       mechanism provided by =basicSource=
     - SwakExplicitSource :: Uses the calculated source term on the
          right hand side of the equation
     - SwakImplicitSource :: Uses a calculated scalar-field to add an
          implicit source term (source is *without* the actual field)
     These fields are only implemented in the 2.x-version of =swak=
     because the interface of =basicSource= is very different in 1.7
     and a backport was unnecessary
**** Function objects that stop a run gracefully
     =simpleFunctionObjects= now has a function object
     =writeAndEndFieldRange= that stops a run (and writes the last
     time) if a field is outside a specified range.

     A similar function object =writeAndEndSwakExpression= is in the
     =simpleSwakFunctionObjects= that stops if a swak-expression
     evaluates to true. =writeAndEndPython= does the same in

     Note: after the run is written one more timestep is calculated
     (this seems to be due to the fact that FOs are calculated at the
     start of a timestep). Also there are issues if the next timestep
     is a scheduled write-time
**** Function-objects to load thermophysical and turbulence models
     New function objects in the =simpleFunctionObjects= allow the
     loading of such models for solvers/utilities that don't have such
     models but where some functionObject (for instance) needs such a
     model to be in memory
**** Function-objects that create and evolve clouds of lagrangian particles
     Added as part of the =simpleFunctionObjects= some functionObjects
     that create a cloud of particles and evolve them at every

     The appropriate fields needed by every cloud have to be present
     (either supplied by the solver or via a =functionObject=)
**** Function-object =manipulatePatchField= to manipulate the field on patches
     This function objects allows the manipulation of patch fields
     like =manipulateField= allows the manipulation of the internal
     field. Only use if desperate
**** Delayed variables to simulate responses
     If a variable is declared in the =delayedVariables=-list then its
     behavior changes: when a value is assigned to that variable then
     the value is not immediately used but after the time specified in
     =delay=. Values are stored at intervals =storeInterval= and
     interpolated linearly. If no stored data is available then the
     value of the expression =startupValue= is used.

     This feature allows the modeling of boundary conditions that
     react with a delay to flow conditions
**** Allow preloading of fields in =funkySetFields=
     To satisfy the requirements of certain boundary conditions
     =funkySetFields= now allows the preloading of fields. This is
     only available in dictionary mode with the =preloadFields=-entry
     (for each entry in the =expressions=-list separately)
*** Infrastructure
**** =Allwmake= creates symbolic links in =swakFiniteArea=
     The links to =mybison= and =myflex= are missing when the sources
     are downloaded as a tarball. The =Allwmake=-script now creates
     these links if they are missing
**** Reformatting of the parser sources
     Sources of the parsers have been completely reformatted to make
     them more readable and maintainable
**** Move non-parser sources in =swak4FoamParsers= into sub-directories
     Make the directory a little bit cleaner
** 2013-02-28 - version number : 0.2.2
*** Incompatibilities to previous versions
**** Python-integration library renamed
     To avoid clashes with other similar efforts (not that I know of
     any) the library has been renamed to

     Usually only the =libs=-entry in the controlDict has to be
     changed (if the library is used at all). Names of the function
     objects stay the same
**** Change in write behaviour of =expressionField= and =manipulateField=
     Now the =outputControl=-entry is honored. If set wrong the field
     is *no longer* calculated/manipulated at every time-step
*** Bug fixes
**** =groovyBC=: =value= reset to $0$ during construction
     If no =refValue= is given during construction then a value of $0$
     is assumed for this and during a preliminary update the value is
     reset to this value.

     Fixed by using the =value= as the =refValue= if no =refValue= is
**** Unspecified =value= in =addGlobalVariables= produces obscure error message
     The error message occured much later when a =tmp= tried to copy a
     =NULL=-pointer and was not obvious at all for the general
     user. Fixed
**** Did not compile on =1.6-ext=
     1.6-ext does not consider the product of two symmetrical tensors
     to be symmetrical. Fixed
**** Python integration did not get global variables
     Change in the interface of the =ExpressionResult=-class
     broke the access of global variables from a
     Python-functionObject. Fixed
**** =maintainanceScripts/ failed when no Mercurial is installed
     This didn't influence the compilation (as there is already a
     current version file there) but confused people.
**** Non-uniform variables for =internalField= only worked correctly for volume fields
     Face and point fields did not propagate the information correctly
     and were treated as non-uniform volume fields of the wrong
     size. This should now be fixed
**** Division of =faceFields= causes division by zero
     The reason was that the patches of the divisor had a value of
     zero. This has been fixed by only dividing the
     =internalFields()=. Same for =pointFields=.
**** =valuePatches= did not work for mapped patches
     This kind of patch was not identified as something that could
     have the value fixed
**** =expressionField= and =manipulateField= did not honor the =outputControl=-entry
     =expressionFields= were calculated at every time-step, even if
     the computational cost was high. Now if =outputControl= is
     =outputTime= the field is only calculated if it is going to be
**** Double =namespace Foam= makes compilation of =groovyJump= fail with =icc=
     Seems like this one was overlooked because =gcc= is more
     tolerant towards stupidity.

     Reported by Edo Frederix
*** New features
**** Access fields from different cases
     It is now possible for expression on =internalFields= to access
     fields from different cases. These fields are always read from
     disk when being accessed for the first time and stay cached in
     memory until the time is changed. The data is interpolated to the
     current mesh with the =meshToMesh=-class (which is the workhorse
     of the =mapFields=-utility)

     The meshes are stored in a repository and are accessed via a
     name. If for instance the mesh is known under the name
     =otherMesh= then in an expression the term =otherMesh(T)= is the
     field =T= from that other mesh at the specified time interpolated
     to the current mesh.

     Certain function objects and parser instances allow specifying
     foreign meshes in a subdictionary =foreignMeshes=.
**** Patch-expressions now support mapped-patches
     This is the long asked for feature to "get non-uniform values
     from other patches". It only works if the patches are specified
     as =mapped= (or =directMapped= for 1.x). Therefor a patch can
     only access one other patch with this.

     On a mapped patch =mapped(T)= gets field =T= from whatever this
     patch maps from (other patch, cells, faces). =mappedInternal(T)=
     gets the values from the internal cells on the other patch (this
     only works for patches).

     On a mapped patch an external variable expression for patches now
     changes its meaning: if =other= is the patch that the current
     patch maps from (and only then) then =var{patch'other}=expr=
     evaluates =expr= on the other patch and then maps the values to
     the current patch (=var= may be non-uniform). In all other
     circumstances =var= will get a uniform value which is derived
     from whatever =expr= evaluates to.

     To allow non-uniform =offsets= in the specification of mapped
     patches in =polyMesh/boundary= a utility
     =calcNonUniformOffsetsForMapped= was developed.
**** Function objects that manipulate time
     The framework for function objects that manipulate the =runTime=
     were added. The concrete implementations are
     - setDeltaTByTimeline :: set the timestep from a data file
     - setDeltaTWithPython :: set the timestep by evaluating a
          Python-snipplet that should return a floating point number
     - setEndTimeWithPython :: set the end time from the evaluation of
          a Python-snipplet
**** Plugin-functions for chemical model
     The library =libswakChemistryModelFunctionPlugin= adds the
     possibility to calculate properties of the chemistry like
     reaction rates, chemical timescale and released energy.

     Currently only implemented for =psiChemistryModel=

     If there is no chemistry model in memory it will be loaded and
     the reaction rates are calculated.

     There is a function =psiChem_updateChemistry= that forces the
     chemistry to be recalculated with a specified timestep. For
     technical reasons this returns a scalar field with the value
     $0$. So an expression like
     =psiChem_updateChemistry(0.0001)+psiChem_RR(CH4)= calculates the
     reaction rate assuming that the timestep is $0.0001$.

     Two additional functions that sum up all the reaction rates (this
     *should* be $0$) and sum up only positive reaction rates (giving
     an impression on what is going on)
**** Plugin-functions for radiation model
     The library =libswakRadiationModelFunctionPlugin= adds the
     possibility to calculate properties of the radiation like
     parts of the source terms =Rp= and =Ru= and the current
     radiation source

     If there is no radiation model in memory it will be loaded and
     the reaction rates are calculated. Assumes the presence of a
     temperature field called =T=.
*** Enhancements
**** Python-Integration now supports numpy-arrays
     If the =numpy=-library is found then global variables which are
     fields are being transformed to =numpy=-arrays. These arrays can
     be accessed with the usual =numpy=-array access like =a[i,j]= or
     =a[i,:]=. Global variables are made accessible *by
     reference*. This means that writing a value changes the global
     variable. Setting the whole variable has to be done by slicing
     =a[:]=3= (=a=3= removes it from the workspace). Vectors and
     tensors are two-dimensional arrays. They have
     convenience-attributes that return the whole vector of a
     component (like =a.x= for vectors or =a.xx= for tensors). To
     overwrite these they have to be sliced: =a.x[:]=0= (=a.x=0= only
     changes the attribute)

     If a variable that is going to a global namespace is a
     =numpy=-array then it is translated by the following rules:
     vectors are transformed to =scalarField=. Arrays with 3 columns
     to =vectorField=, 9 columns to =tensorField= and 6 columns to
     =symmTensorField=. Different column-numbers produce errors
**** Optional parameter =writeCode=/=writeFile= for =pythonIntegrationFunctionObject=
     If this is set then this Python-code is executed every time a
     time-step was written to disk
**** Python-integration has convenience-functions to create data files
     Python-integration now has two conventience-functions that return
     a filename with the full path and create the directories if
     necessary. The file is *not* created (that is the responsibility
     of the Python-code).

     The functions are (=name= is the name of the function object)
     - dataFile(fname) :: creates a directory
          =<case>/<name>_data/<time>=. To be used for data that is
          written at times that differ from write-time
     - timeDataFile(fname) :: creates a directory
          =<case>/<time>/<name>_data=. Should only be used for data
          that is written only at write-time
**** Switch off dimension checking in =funkyDoCalc=
     A command lione switch =-noDimensionChecking= is added that
     allows switching off the checking of dimensions if this makes
     expressions fail
**** =funkySetFields= allows accessing fields from another mesh
     If another case (with time and region) is specified via command
     line options (no dictionary) then in the expressions the other
     mesh can be accessed under the name =other=

     Main application for this is comparing to other cases (but also
     comparing different timesteps of the same case with each other).

     Used time is either fixed or set to the currently used (this can
     be selected via the command line)
**** =funkyDoCalc= allows specifying foreign meshes
     Each expression can specify foreign meshes with a
**** Function objects to load and update foreign meshes
     There are two new function objects:
     - addForeignMeshes :: this allows specifying new foreign
          meshes. These can be used in subsequent function-objects or
          other swak-expressions on =internalFields=
     - foreignMeshesFollowTime :: this allows specifying a list of
          meshes whose time is set to the current time of the running
**** =replaxTransientBC= outputs timestep
     This helps debugging timestepping-strategies
**** New accumulation =weightedAverage=
     A new possible entry for the =accumulations= calculates an
     average that is weighted by a facetor that depends on the entity:
     - cell volume if applicable
     - face area for surfaces etc
     - $1$ if there is no appropriate weight (usually values defined
       on points). The result is equivalent to =average=.
**** =expressionField= reports name and type of the created field
     The title says it all. Should give the user additional feedback
     about what is happening
**** New boundary condition =groovyPartialSlip= in =groovyStandardBCs=
     This boundary allows specifying the partial slip fraction of the
     regular =partialSlip=-BC with an expression.
**** =funkySetFields= allows switching off the correction of BCs
     This is sometimes necessary to allow calculations with fields
     where the boundary conditions have a lot of dependencies
     (turbulence model, other mesh etc)
**** Allow selection of additional regions in =funkySetFields=
     The option =-additionalRegions= allows selecting additional mesh
     regions for boundary conditions that require it (usually used
     together with =-preloadFields=).

     For the other case there is an additional option
**** Adding a =-preloadFields=-option to =funkySetFields=
     This option allows specifying additional field names to be
     preloaded in command line mode. If multiple mesh regions are
     specified (including another mesh)it will try to preload the
     field there too
**** =replayTransientBC= now supports all volume types
     Support for tensor-types has been added
**** =replayTransientBC= preloads fields
     For boundary conditions that require other fields these can be
     loaded into memory
**** =replayTransientBC= allows selection of time-steps
     The utility now allows the selection of timesteps. In that case
     it acts fundamentally different: instead of doing a timeloop it
     jumps to those times, calculates the boundary conditions and
     writes. The purpose of this mode is generating boundary fields
     for postprocessing.
*** Infrastructure
**** =Allwmake= stops if building of =swak4FoamParsers= fails
     As the majority of installation problems were actually problems
     with the compilation of the library =swak4FoamParsers= and as
     this library is central for all other things in =swak4Foam= the
     compilation terminates if this library is not built
**** Header =swak.H= with version information and macros
     This new header includes information about the
     =swak4Foam=-version, the =OpenFOAM=-version and macros for
     workarounds that depend on the OpenFOAM-version
**** =accumulations=-entries converted to =NamedEnums=
     This forces the entries to be checked while being read. Allowing
     more consistent treatment
**** Additional maintenance script for special python-versions
     This script allows compiling additional versions of
     =swakPythonIntegration= for cases where the version on the
     development machine is different from the version on the
     simulation machine (see installation chapter)
*** Cosmetics
    Changes without consequences for the user
**** Change type of =name= in parsers to =word=
     The valid characters for an identifier were the same as in =word=
     (was =string= before)
**** Updated contributor lists in =README= and sources
     The list of contributors to each file have been added (mostly by
     script with the information from the repository)
**** Rewritten methods that return pointers
     This abomination from the early days of =funkySetFields= has been
*** Documentation
    Changes to the documentation
**** Start of the reference-manual
     A first version of a reference manual is added. Only the first
     part about expressions and parameters is written.
** 2013-03-18 - version number : 0.2.3
*** Bug fixes
**** Compiles on =1.6-ext= again
     The last release (0.2.2) did not compile on =1.6-ext=. This is
*** New features
**** Writing of sampled surfaces and sampled sets
     With the options =autoWriteSurface= and =autoWriteSets= sampled
     surfaces and sets are automatically written at each write
     time. With =writeSurfaceOnConstruction= and
     =writeSetOnConstruction= both are written when they are
     created. A format has to be specified. No values are written.
*** Enhancements
**** Parsers now support =eigenValues= and =eigenVectors=
     These function and some other minor ones (=sph=, =dev2=,
     =twoSymm=) are now supported by the parsers
**** Extract rows from tensors with component operator
     The component operators =.x=, =.y= and =.z= now extract the rows
     from a tensor
**** Variable names that are identical to fields trigger a Warning
     As this situation (like a variable named =p= for the position
     that shadows the pressure field =p=) leads to weird errors a
     warning is given. The warning can be switched of with the option
** 2013-05-24 - version number : 0.2.4
*** Incompatibilities to previous versions
**** Data directories now generated in folder =postProcessing= instead of case folder
     According to the convention introduced in OpenFOAM 2.2 now the
     data directories generated by functionObjects based on
     =simpleFunctionObjects= (that is almost all) and
     =swakPythonIntegration= (if the Python-code uses the
     =dataFile=-function) are generated as sub-directories of
     =postProcessing= in the case directory.

     Scripts that rely on the location of these files will have to be adapted
**** =ExpressionResult= from old versions are not correctly read
     This is due to a fix that now allows reading/writing these in
     binary mode. Only occurs if reading old data that either
     - uses a delayed variable
     - has global variables written in timesteps
*** Infrastructure
**** Additional flags for the compilation of the parsers
     The C-files generated by =bison= become very big and some
     compilers need quite long when aggressive optimization is
     used. An additional environment variable
     =SWAK_COMPILE_GRAMMAR_OPTION= allows the specification of
     additional compiler switches (like =-O1=) that will appear
     *after* the regular switches and should alter the behavior of
     the compiler. Set in =swakConfiguration= if you want to set this
**** Use =bash= instead of =sh= in maintainance scripts
     Some distributions don't use good old =bash= as the default
     shell. This breaks some scripts in subtle and not so subtle ways
**** Build-script prints swak-version in the beginning
     To filter bug-reports with outdated versions
*** Cosmetics
    Changes without consequences for the user
**** Methods use =word= for names instead of =string=
     Methods that look for fields now use the appropriate data type
*** Bug fixes
**** Compilation on Fujitsu (and probably Intel) compilers
     There were template specializations for =pTraits= in
     =ExpressionResult.C= that had to be moved to =ExpressionResult.H=
     to allow compilation on these non-=gcc=-compilers
**** =executeIf=-function objects are executed if =readDuringConstruction= is set to =true=
     Even if the condition evaluates to =false= the function objects
     in the list are executed. This makes the run fail if the purpose
     of the condition was to guard from such a situation. Fixed
**** Expression results are not correctly read from binary file
     This was fixed by writing the fields properly with
     =writeValue=. This may introduce a little incompatibility when
     reading files written by old versions
**** Generated fields like =vol()= were registered
     These fields were registered with the mesh which might have
     disturbed similar named /real/ fields. Also did the fields
     generated for variables get registered
**** Missing files in =potentialPitzDaily=-case
     Missing initial conditions made this case a bit pointless
**** =log(vol())= gives floating point exception
     This was due to the boundaries being set to 0. Fixed. Also for
     the =dist()= function
*** New features
**** Library with additional =searchableSurfaces=
     The library =simpleSearchableSurfaces= adds more searchable
     surfaces to be used in =snappyHexMesh=. Types of surfaces in
     that library are
     - some objects that duplicate existing surfaces and are only
       there for historical reasons (except the cylinder which
       distinguishes between different sides). Others wrap existing
       surfaces and expose the different sides
     - wrappers for other surfaces that do coordinate transformations
       with it: rotation, translation, scaling
     - wrappers that take two surfaces and do boolean operations with
       them: union, intersection, difference, exclusive difference
     - Some wrappers that manipulate the regions of a surface: rename
       them, collect them into one region
**** New variable type =StackedExpressionResult=
     This type is used to collect multiple values. If it is assigned
     a value then the *uniform* value of the right hand side is
     appended to the variable. Useful for collecting multiple values
     for output.

     Variant =StoredStackExpresionResult= keeps the values between
     timesteps and allows the collection of timeline data
**** Function object =dumpGlobalVariable=
     Dumps the value of a global variable into a line of a file
**** Function object =removeGlobalVariable=
     Removes a global variable (mainly used to preserve memory)
**** Optional entry =aliases= for parser specifications
     This dictionary allows the specification of alias names and
     their real names. If an alias name is found in an expression
     then it is replaced by the real name when looking for
     fields. The application for this is that OpenFOAM allows
     characters in field names that are not valid in swak-names and
     would break the grammar if they were (for instance =-= or
     =:=). By setting an alias such fields can still be accessed.
**** Function object to dump registered objects
     The function object =listRegisteredObjects= in the
     =simpleFunctionObjects= lists all the objects currently
     registered with the mesh. Mainly used for debugging ("Which
     fields are currently available?")
**** Function object that only executes its children if the run is serial/parallel
     The new functionObject =executeIfParallelSerial= allows
     specifying if a list of function objects should only be run if
     the simulation is running in serial or parallel.
**** Function objects to calculate distributions
     There are now four function objects that calculate distributions
     of fields. Distributions are calculated based on the
     =Distribution=-class that is part of OpenFOAM starting from
     version 2.0 and uses a weighting for added values. There are two
     kinds of output
     - a timeline with the key characteristics of the distribution
     - directories with the distributions at specific times. These
       are written "raw" and accumulated
     For tensors and vectors these are output separately for every
     component.  These outputs can be switched on and off
     separately. The user has to specify the bin-width for the
     classification. If the bin-width is too small and the
     distribution becomes too small it is scaled down.

     The two function-objects in the =simpleFunctionObjects= are:
     - fieldDistribution :: distribution of field values weighted by
          the cell volume
     - patchFieldDistribution :: distribution of a field on a number
          of patches weighted by the face area
     In =swakSimpleFunctionObjects= the two functionObjects are:
     - swakExpressionDistribution :: distribution of an =expression=
          on some entity. The user also has to specify and expression
          =weight= with the weight of each value and a logical
          expression =mask=. Values are only used if =mask= is =true=
          at the place
     - patchExpressionDistribution :: distribution of =expression= on
          a number of patches. As the weight the face-area is used
*** Enhancements
**** Global variables now can be subclasses of =ExpressionResult=
     This allows other variable types like stored variables to be
     inserted there. They are also now saved for restarting
**** =endTime= now added to Python-wrapper
     All classes using the python interpreter now have a variable
     =endTime= with the current end-time value
**** Force write if =endTime= set by time-manipulation is reached
     If one of the functionObjects for time-manipulation set the
     end-time and it is reached and this is no time for output a
     complete output of the fields is forced
**** Function-objects based on =patch= from the =simpleFunctionObjects= now accept regular expression
     This includes the =patchExpression=-functionObject. The supplied
     list is now interpreted as a list of regular expressions and all
     patches that match are included and processed
**** More flexible output control for functionObjects based on =simpleFunctionObjects=
     An optional parameter =outputControlMode= now allows control on
     when the function object will be executed. Possible values are:
     - timestep :: Every =outputInterval= timesteps the object will
                   be executed. This is the default behaviour with an
                   interval $1$
     - deltaT :: Approximately every =outputDeltaT= times it will be
                 executed. The nearest possible timestep is used
     - outputTime :: Executed whenever a regular output is scheduled
** Next release - version number : 0.2.5
*** Infrastructure
**** Make error messages in =Allwmake= more verbose
     The error messages where already quite verbose. But people
     didn't understand them and asked the same questions over and
     over ...
**** =simpleFunctionObjects= no longer considered an independent project
     As there are going to be more cross-dependencies the
     =simpleFunctionObjects= now have to be part of swak. Changes to
     the compile-scripts reflect this.
**** =Allwmake= makes sure that swak is compiled for the same installation
     The script writes the version it is used with to disk and at
     later compiles that this is the same (this makes sure that not a
     wrong version is used inadvertently to compile)
**** Additional macros for Debugging output
     There are two macros defined that inside an object write the name
     of the class and the address of the object (if debug is
     enabled). This makes the output easier distinguishable from the
     output from other classes/objects. The two macros are:
     - Dbug :: Writes the debug information *only* on the master processor
     - Pbug :: Writes the output on all processors and for parallel
               runs prefixes the processor number
     Both macros are to be used like regular streams and don't have
     to be enclosed in =if(debug){}= (this is part of the macro)
*** Incompatibilities to previous versions
**** =outputControlMode= =timestep= renamed to =timeStep=
     Because of report
     to be consistent with the nomenclature in the 'regular'
*** Bug fixes
**** =sourceImplicit= unstable
     For some reason using =SuSp= gave unstable results for the
     PDE-functionObjects. Changed to =Sp=
**** No logical variables found by most parsers
     Reported as

     Only the field parser correctly found logical variables (although
     they were stored). Added a method to pick up the variables (the
     reason why this part was commented out is that there is no such
     thing as a =volBoolField= and that is what the regular mechanism
**** =sampledSurface= not correctly updated at time of write
     Reported as

     In that case the driver was written before the surface was
     updated thus generating fields of size $0$. Now =update= is
     called at various places (to make sure it is called in any instance)
**** =sumMag=-accumulation now working
     This accumulation was available but not implemented. Now implemented.

     For non-scalar types it is calculated separately for each component
**** Calculation of weight fields failed if size on one processor was $0$
     This was due to a logical error that was propagated through
     mindless copy/paste (only the Field-driver got it right). Fixed
**** =groovyTotalPressure= does not read =value=
     Because it is not initialized from the superclass when the
     dictionary constructor is used. Fixed
*** New features
**** Function object that executes if the OpenFOAM-version is right
     The functionObject =executeIfOpenFOAMVersionBiggerEqual= only
     executes if the OpenFOAM-version is bigger or equal to a
     specified version. The arguments =majorVersion= and
     =minorVersion= are required. If =patchVersion= is not specified
     it will match any version. A =git= version (=.x=) will match any
**** Function object that is only executed if the current time is the =startTime=
     The function object =executeIfStartTime= executes its children
     if the current time is the =startTime= from the =controlDict=
     (which isn't necessarily the first time step in a restarted case)
**** Function object that calculates the potential flow
     To be used on an existing field to set reasonable initial
**** Function object that forces a recalculation of =phi=
     Named =recalcPhi= in the simpleFunctionObjects. Usually needed
     when some other functionObject manipulates velocity or density
**** Function object that corrects thermophysical model
     Name =correctThermo=. Recalculates the thermophysical
     model. To be used after manipulating temperature etc
**** Function objects that recalculate the energy of a thermophysical model
     Recalculate enthalpy, sensible enthalpy or internal energy
     according to the current temperature. This allows making this
     consistent if the temperature has been manipulated
**** Function object that calculates the average of one variable as a function of another
     The function object =swakExpressionAverageDistribution=
     calculates the average of one function (the =expression=) as a
     distribution over another (the =abscissa=). An example would be
     the average pressure in x-direction with =abscissa= being
     =pos().x=, =expression= being just =p= and the =weight=
     being =vol()=. The weight has to be a scalar. All other
     expressions can be any data-type
**** New utility =fieldReport=
     This utility prints some quantitative statistics about a
     specified field. Optionally these statistics can also be printed
     for patches, sets and zones. The data can be written to a
     CSV-file. Also the distributions of the field can be written.
**** New utility =funkyPythonPostproc=
     This utility needs a dictionary and a specification of
     times. For each time it
     - loads a list of fields specified in the dictionary
     - executes a list of function objects specified in the dictionary
     - executes python-scripts
     The idea is that the function objects pass data to the
     python-scripts via global variables and the python-scripts do
     whatever they like
*** Enhancements
**** Function objects that calculate PDEs can use fields from memory
     If the field is found in memory this is used instead of a file
     read from disc.
**** Function objects that calculate PDEs can write fields before solving
     An additional switch =writeBeforeAfter= allows writing the field
     before and after solving
**** simpleFunctionObjects have addition =outputControlMode=
     Mode =startup= executes the FO only during construction
**** Conditional functionObjects now have optional =else=
     It is now possible to add a sub-dictionary =else= that is used
     to initialize a =functionObjectProxy= that is executed if the
     condition is *not* fulfilled. The sub-dictionary inherits all
     settings that are not set from the parent-dictionary
**** Parsers in =swakFiniteArea= no also have complete tensor-operations
     The two parsers in that library now also support the complete
     set of tensor operations (like =eigenValues= etc)
**** =swakExpressionDistribution= now allows non-scalar weights
     For expressions whose results is not a scalar now the weight
     function can either be a scalar or of the same type as the
     expression (so every component can have a separate weight)
**** More options for =accumulations=
     A number of possible accumulations have been added. Most of
     these are based on distributions. If the =weighted= variant is
     chosen then the meaning is the more physical one (for =weighted=
     the 'natural' weight of the quantity is used. For instance for
     cells the cell volume. Otherwise the weight $1$ is used). Some
     of these accumulations need a single floating point number as a
     parameter. This is simply added to the name. The added
     accumulations are:
     - weightedSum :: sum of the quantity times the weight. There is
                      an alias =integrate= for this
     - median :: The value for which 50% of the distribution are
                 smaller than this. More robust alternative to
     - quantile :: =quantile0.25= for instance is the value for which
                   25% of the distribution are smaller than it
     - range :: The difference of the quantile of $\frac{1+f}{2}$ and
                $\frac{1-f}{2}$. For instance =range0.9= gives the
                range in which 90% of the values are (from the quantile
                5% to 95%)
     - smaller :: The fraction of the distribution that is smaller
                  than a given value
     - bigger :: The inverse of =smaller=
     - size :: The size of the underlying entity (usually number of
               cells, faces, points). For types with more than one
               components all the components have the same value
     - weightSum :: Sum of the weights of the underlying
                    entity. Usually the volume oder the area of it.
**** Python code files are now searched more flexible
     If a file specified with an option like =startFile= in a
     Python-functionObject (or similar) is not found in the current
     directory the path of the dictionary it is specified in is
     prepended and the file is searched there
**** Python integration no uses =IPython= if possible
     The interactive shell of the python integration now uses
     =IPython= if it is installed. This improves tab-completion etc