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+## Copyright (C) 2009 Esteban Cervetto <estebancster@gmail.com>
+##
+## Octave is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+## the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at
+## your option) any later version.
+##
+## Octave is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
+## WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+## MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
+## General Public License for more details.
+##
+## You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+## along with Octave; see the file COPYING.  If not, see
+
+## -*- texinfo -*-
+## @deftypefn {Function File} {@var{ultimate} =} ultimatepanning (@var{s},@var{quotas})
+## Calculate the ultimate value by the Panning method.
+##
+## @var{s} is a mxn matrix that contains the run-off triangle, where m is the number of accident-years
+## and n is the number of periods to final development. @var{s} may contain u = m-n complete years.
+## The value @var{s}(i,k), 1<=i<=m, 0<=k<=n-1 represents the cumulative losses from accident-period i
+## settled with a delay of at most k years.
+## The values @var{s}(i,k) with i + k > m must be zero because is future time.
+## The 1xn vector @var{quotas} is a set of cumulative quotas calculated by some method.
+##
+## The Panning method asumes that exists a development pattern on the incremental ratios.
+## This means that the identity
+## @group
+## @example
+##          E[Z(i,k) ]
+## B(k) =  ------------
+##          E[Z(i,0) ]
+## @end example
+## @end group
+## holds for all k = {0,...,n-1} and for all i = {1,...,m}.
+## Z represents the incremental losses; then losses satisfy
+## Z(k) = (S(k) - S(k-1) ),Z(0) = S(0) for all i = {1,...,m}.
+##
+## @var{ultimate} returns a column vector with the ultimate values. Their values are:
+## @group
+## @example
+## @var{ultimate}(i) = Z(i,0)*quotas(0)
+## @end example
+## @end group
+##
+## @seealso {bferguson, quotapanning, quotald, quotaad}
+## @end deftypefn
+
+## Author: Act. Esteban Cervetto ARG <estebancster@gmail.com>
+##
+## Maintainer: Act. Esteban Cervetto ARG <estebancster@gmail.com>
+##
+## Created: jul-2009
+##
+## Version: 1.1.0
+##
+## Keywords: actuarial reserves insurance bornhuetter ferguson chainladder
+
+function [ultimate] = ultimatepanning (S,quotas)
+
+[m,n] = size (S);           #triangle with m years (i=1,2,u,...u+1,u+2,....m) and n periods (k=0,1,2,...n-1)
+u = m - n;                                     #rows of the upper square
+S = fliplr(triu(fliplr(S),-u));                   #ensure S is triangular
+
+if (size(quotas) ~= [1,n])
+ usage(strcat("quotas must be of size [1,",num2str(n),"]" ));
+end
+
+ultimate = S(:,1) / quotas(1);
+
+end
```