You can subscribe to this list here.
2005 
_{Jan}

_{Feb}
(2) 
_{Mar}

_{Apr}
(7) 
_{May}
(6) 
_{Jun}
(5) 
_{Jul}

_{Aug}
(3) 
_{Sep}
(22) 
_{Oct}
(13) 
_{Nov}
(6) 
_{Dec}
(2) 

2006 
_{Jan}
(10) 
_{Feb}
(11) 
_{Mar}
(8) 
_{Apr}
(5) 
_{May}
(6) 
_{Jun}
(14) 
_{Jul}
(3) 
_{Aug}

_{Sep}
(8) 
_{Oct}
(5) 
_{Nov}

_{Dec}
(6) 
2007 
_{Jan}
(6) 
_{Feb}

_{Mar}
(16) 
_{Apr}
(1) 
_{May}
(9) 
_{Jun}
(2) 
_{Jul}

_{Aug}
(6) 
_{Sep}

_{Oct}

_{Nov}
(1) 
_{Dec}

2008 
_{Jan}

_{Feb}
(2) 
_{Mar}

_{Apr}
(11) 
_{May}
(3) 
_{Jun}
(3) 
_{Jul}
(6) 
_{Aug}
(1) 
_{Sep}

_{Oct}
(3) 
_{Nov}

_{Dec}
(5) 
2010 
_{Jan}
(2) 
_{Feb}

_{Mar}

_{Apr}

_{May}

_{Jun}

_{Jul}
(2) 
_{Aug}

_{Sep}

_{Oct}

_{Nov}

_{Dec}

2011 
_{Jan}

_{Feb}
(1) 
_{Mar}

_{Apr}

_{May}

_{Jun}

_{Jul}

_{Aug}

_{Sep}

_{Oct}

_{Nov}

_{Dec}

S  M  T  W  T  F  S 





1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15
(1) 
16

17

18
(1) 
19
(2) 
20
(1) 
21
(2) 
22
(8) 
23
(1) 
24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

From: David Fletcher <D.I.Fletcher@nc...>  20070323 11:01:27

Jonas, Thank you for pointing out the table of units. I made the mistake of using time in seconds (s) in all cases rather than ms, so my simulations were running for 1000 times different length of time! I'll continue working, and see how things go. Thanks again, David. On Thu, 22 Mar 2007 19:00:05 +0100 (CET) Jonas Forssell wrote: > Have a look at the Help tab. Select Appendix  units of measurements  to get a table of units which must be used throughout. As long as you are consistent, the solution time should be the same. > > In your case for example, did you change the nodal coordinates when you changed the units? > > /Jonas > > David Fletcher skrev: Hi, > > I've been trying some simple elastic problems, and have noticed big changes in > the calculation time when I change between different units for defining the > problem. In each case the problem itself remains the same, but the size of the > numbers will change. > > For example, defining the problem in Newtons (N) and metres (m) gives: > MATERIALS OF TYPE ELASTIC > STEEL E = 200e9 NU = 0.3 RHO = 7800 > > Solution time  several hours > > kN and mm gave > MATERIALS OF TYPE ELASTIC > STEEL E = 200 NU = 0.3 RHO = 0.0000078 > > Solution time  4 minutes > > MN and mm gave > MATERIALS OF TYPE ELASTIC > STEEL E = 0.2 NU = 0.3 RHO = 0.0078 > > Solution time  1 minute > > The amount of oscillation as the solution is approached also varies between > the cases. > > I notice than most of the predefined materials have Young's modulus of (for > example) 200 for steel, suggesting a system of kN and mm, to achieve the real > value of around 200 GPa. Is this somehow a 'good' set of units to use for > defining the problem? > > Is this effect well known? Is it to do with the size of numbers being > processed, or perhaps something to do with the automatic optimisation of the > timestep? > > David. > >    Dr David Fletcher Newcastle University  
From: Jonas Forssell <jonasforssell@ya...>  20070322 18:00:35

Have a look at the Help tab. Select Appendix  units of measurements  to get a table of units which must be used throughout. As long as you are consistent, the solution time should be the same. In your case for example, did you change the nodal coordinates when you changed the units? /Jonas David Fletcher <D.I.Fletcher@...> skrev: Hi, I've been trying some simple elastic problems, and have noticed big changes in the calculation time when I change between different units for defining the problem. In each case the problem itself remains the same, but the size of the numbers will change. For example, defining the problem in Newtons (N) and metres (m) gives: MATERIALS OF TYPE ELASTIC STEEL E = 200e9 NU = 0.3 RHO = 7800 Solution time  several hours kN and mm gave MATERIALS OF TYPE ELASTIC STEEL E = 200 NU = 0.3 RHO = 0.0000078 Solution time  4 minutes MN and mm gave MATERIALS OF TYPE ELASTIC STEEL E = 0.2 NU = 0.3 RHO = 0.0078 Solution time  1 minute The amount of oscillation as the solution is approached also varies between the cases. I notice than most of the predefined materials have Young's modulus of (for example) 200 for steel, suggesting a system of kN and mm, to achieve the real value of around 200 GPa. Is this somehow a 'good' set of units to use for defining the problem? Is this effect well known? Is it to do with the size of numbers being processed, or perhaps something to do with the automatic optimisation of the timestep? David.   Dr David Fletcher Newcastle University   Take Surveys. Earn Cash. Influence the Future of IT Join SourceForge.net's Techsay panel and you'll get the chance to share your opinions on IT & business topics through brief surveysand earn cash http://www.techsay.com/default.php?page=join.php&p=sourceforge&CID=DEVDEV _______________________________________________ Impactusers mailing list Impactusers@... https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/impactusers  Stava rätt! Stava lätt! Yahoo! Mails stavkontroll tar hand om tryckfelen och mycket mer! Få den på http://se.mail.yahoo.com 
From: David Fletcher <D.I.Fletcher@nc...>  20070322 16:39:32

Hi, I've been trying some simple elastic problems, and have noticed big changes in the calculation time when I change between different units for defining the problem. In each case the problem itself remains the same, but the size of the numbers will change. For example, defining the problem in Newtons (N) and metres (m) gives: MATERIALS OF TYPE ELASTIC STEEL E = 200e9 NU = 0.3 RHO = 7800 Solution time  several hours kN and mm gave MATERIALS OF TYPE ELASTIC STEEL E = 200 NU = 0.3 RHO = 0.0000078 Solution time  4 minutes MN and mm gave MATERIALS OF TYPE ELASTIC STEEL E = 0.2 NU = 0.3 RHO = 0.0078 Solution time  1 minute The amount of oscillation as the solution is approached also varies between the cases. I notice than most of the predefined materials have Young's modulus of (for example) 200 for steel, suggesting a system of kN and mm, to achieve the real value of around 200 GPa. Is this somehow a 'good' set of units to use for defining the problem? Is this effect well known? Is it to do with the size of numbers being processed, or perhaps something to do with the automatic optimisation of the timestep? David.   Dr David Fletcher Newcastle University  
From: Alexander Rabtchevich <alexander.v.rabtchevich@ia...>  20070322 14:40:02

I think I've found the root of the problem. I guess Impact needs _the_same_ order of nodes declaration as they are defined in the element properties. I think it is not a correct approach although it may be caused by parsing. Something like NODES 1 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 5.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL 2 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 5.0 3 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 5.0 4 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 5.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL 5 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 0.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL 6 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 0.0 Load = FORCE_Y 7 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 0.0 8 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 0.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL ELEMENTS OF TYPE Solid_Iso_6 1 nodes = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8] NIP = 8 Material = Steel_EP  With respect Alexander Rabtchevich 
From: Alexander Rabtchevich <alexander.v.rabtchevich@ia...>  20070322 13:52:21

Thank you, Jens. I'm investigating it now. Jens Bomholt wrote: > HI > > The only problem I with solid elements is when I import them form Nastran: > > The element card in Nastran are like this on 2 lines: > > CHEXA 127 2 20 22 23 24 25 26 > 27 28 > > And have to be on one line: > CHEXA 127 2 20 22 23 24 25 26 > 27 28 > > But  try to run some of the test and Ver_xx files (/Impact/examples/) > to learn the input file format and make some small changes in these > files an so on. > > Regards > > JB >  With respect Alexander Rabtchevich 
From: Jens Bomholt <jens.bomholt@gm...>  20070322 13:16:57

HI The only problem I with solid elements is when I import them form Nastran: The element card in Nastran are like this on 2 lines: CHEXA 127 2 20 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 And have to be on one line: CHEXA 127 2 20 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 But  try to run some of the test and Ver_xx files (/Impact/examples/) to learn the input file format and make some small changes in these files an so on. Regards JB On 3/22/07, Alexander Rabtchevich <alexander.v.rabtchevich@...> wrote: > > When I try another simple script > > # Created Impact Pre Processor > # Thu Mar 22 13:57:18 EET 2007 > > CONTROLS > run from 0.0 to 1.0 > print every 0.01 step > > > MATERIALS OF TYPE ELASTOPLASTIC > STEEL_EP E = 210 RHO = 0.0000078 NU = 0.3 YIELD_STRESS = 0.180 EP = 0.1 > > CONSTRAINTS OF TYPE BOUNDARY_CONDITION > FIXED_ALL VX = 0 VY = 0 VZ = 0 VRX = 0 VRY = 0 VRZ = 0 AX = 0 AY = 0 AZ > = 0 ARX = 0 ARY = 0 ARZ = 0 > > > LOADS > FORCE_Y FY = 5 > > NODES > 1 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 5.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL > 2 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 0.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL > 3 X = 0.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 0.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL > 4 X = 0.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 5.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL > 5 X = 0.0 Y = 0.0 Z = 5.0 > 6 X = 0.0 Y = 0.0 Z = 0.0 Load = FORCE_Y > > > ELEMENTS OF TYPE Solid_Iso_4 > 1 nodes = [1,2,4,5] Material = STEEL_EP NIP = 1 > 2 nodes = [2,4,5,3] Material = STEEL_EP NIP = 1 > 3 nodes = [3,5,6,2] Material = STEEL_EP NIP = 1 > > > > The solver says: > *** Solver Error *** > java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Error in Solid Tetra Element 3. > Element Volume is zero or negative. Check node defintion in indata file. > > Am I wrong or solid elements are not supported? > > >  > With respect > Alexander Rabtchevich > >  > Take Surveys. Earn Cash. Influence the Future of IT > Join SourceForge.net's Techsay panel and you'll get the chance to share > your > opinions on IT & business topics through brief surveysand earn cash > http://www.techsay.com/default.php?page=join.php&p=sourceforge&CID=DEVDEV > _______________________________________________ > Impactusers mailing list > Impactusers@... > https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/impactusers > 
From: Alexander Rabtchevich <alexander.v.rabtchevich@ia...>  20070322 12:25:21

Any 4node solid element cause the exception  negative volume. Impact 0.7.2. Please, tell me, can this be solved by me or not. If solid elements are not supported (it is written they are supported), I will have to try other program :(.  With respect Alexander Rabtchevich 
From: Alexander Rabtchevich <alexander.v.rabtchevich@ia...>  20070322 12:12:30

When I try another simple script # Created Impact Pre Processor # Thu Mar 22 13:57:18 EET 2007 CONTROLS run from 0.0 to 1.0 print every 0.01 step MATERIALS OF TYPE ELASTOPLASTIC STEEL_EP E = 210 RHO = 0.0000078 NU = 0.3 YIELD_STRESS = 0.180 EP = 0.1 CONSTRAINTS OF TYPE BOUNDARY_CONDITION FIXED_ALL VX = 0 VY = 0 VZ = 0 VRX = 0 VRY = 0 VRZ = 0 AX = 0 AY = 0 AZ = 0 ARX = 0 ARY = 0 ARZ = 0 LOADS FORCE_Y FY = 5 NODES 1 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 5.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL 2 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 0.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL 3 X = 0.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 0.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL 4 X = 0.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 5.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL 5 X = 0.0 Y = 0.0 Z = 5.0 6 X = 0.0 Y = 0.0 Z = 0.0 Load = FORCE_Y ELEMENTS OF TYPE Solid_Iso_4 1 nodes = [1,2,4,5] Material = STEEL_EP NIP = 1 2 nodes = [2,4,5,3] Material = STEEL_EP NIP = 1 3 nodes = [3,5,6,2] Material = STEEL_EP NIP = 1 The solver says: *** Solver Error *** java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Error in Solid Tetra Element 3. Element Volume is zero or negative. Check node defintion in indata file. Am I wrong or solid elements are not supported?  With respect Alexander Rabtchevich 
From: Alexander Rabtchevich <alexander.v.rabtchevich@ia...>  20070322 07:53:20

I've got the next error *** Assembling the Mass Matrix *** Assembling Elements *** Solver Error *** java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Error in rod element 1. Element mass is zero or negative. Material density: 7.8E6 The model contains only one 8 nodes element and it has Steel_EP material assigned. Can anybody say what's wrong? # Created Impact Pre Processor # Thu Mar 22 09:52:18 EET 2007 CONTROLS run from 0.0 to 1.0 print every 0.01 step MATERIALS OF TYPE ElastoPlastic Steel_EP E = 210 RHO = 0.0000078 NU = 0.3 YIELD_STRESS = 0.180 EP = 0.1 MATERIALS OF TYPE Elastic Steel E = 200 NU = 0.3 RHO = 0.0000078 CONSTRAINTS OF TYPE BOUNDARY_CONDITION FIXED_ALL VX = 0 VY = 0 VZ = 0 VRX = 0 VRY = 0 VRZ = 0 AX = 0 AY = 0 AZ = 0 ARX = 0 ARY = 0 ARZ = 0 CONSTRAINTS OF TYPE BOUNDARY_CONDITION FIXED VX = 0 VY = 0 VZ = 0 VRX = 0 VRY = 0 VRZ = 0 AX = 0 AY = 0 AZ = 0 ARX = 0 ARY = 0 ARZ = 0 LOADS FORCE_Y FY = 5 NODES 1 X = 0.0 Y = 0.0 Z = 0.0 2 X = 0.0 Y = 0.0 Z = 5.0 3 X = 5.0 Y = 0.0 Z = 5.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL 4 X = 5.0 Y = 0.0 Z = 0.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL 5 X = 5.0 Y = 5.0 Z = 0.0 6 X = 5.0 Y = 5.0 Z = 5.0 7 X = 0.0 Y = 5.0 Z = 5.0 8 X = 0.0 Y = 5.0 Z = 0.0 Load = FORCE_Y ELEMENTS OF TYPE Solid_Iso_6 1 nodes = [5,8,1,4,6,7,2,3] NIP = 8 Material = Steel_EP  With respect Alexander Rabtchevich 
From: Jonas Forssell <jonasforssell@ya...>  20070321 19:42:59

David, In the examples section you have verification examples from an old version of Dyna. They are called Ver01 and so on. Before commencing your project, I would recommend you try out a few examples yourself to feel confident in the code. /Jonas David Fletcher <D.I.Fletcher@...> skrev: Hi, I found the Impact software yesterday, and it looks very useful for some materials modelling research I want to do in the railway area. Before I get too involved with the work I want to find out how well tested and validated the code is. I checked the website and also searched some academic journals, but I can't find any publications which are based on the code. Is there anything published (e.g. refereed academic journal, or large industrial user)? Have any validation cases been documented to show how well Impact agrees with other codes such as LSDyna, or perhaps some simple standard problems? Are there any shortcomings I should watch out for, beyond the list of features/bugs on the website? I've previously done a lot of work with the Franc3D modelling software from Cornell University, so I'm quite happy with the idea of downloading fairly unsupported software for modelling. They give a validation manual demonstrating the performance, and that really gives confidence that the system works. Best regards, David Fletcher.   Dr David Fletcher Newrail The University of Newcastle upon Tyne Barrow Hill Roundhouse Railway Centre Campbell Drive Barrow Hill Derbyshire S43 2PR UK Tel 01246 281634 Fax 01246 281635 Email D.I.Fletcher@...   Take Surveys. Earn Cash. Influence the Future of IT Join SourceForge.net's Techsay panel and you'll get the chance to share your opinions on IT & business topics through brief surveysand earn cash http://www.techsay.com/default.php?page=join.php&p=sourceforge&CID=DEVDEV _______________________________________________ Impactusers mailing list Impactusers@... https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/impactusers  Stava rätt! Stava lätt! Yahoo! Mails stavkontroll tar hand om tryckfelen och mycket mer! Få den på http://se.mail.yahoo.com 
From: Alexander Rabtchevich <alexander.v.rabtchevich@ia...>  20070321 17:38:47

I've created a simple test case, but it doesn't work. The nodes were created by Delphi program (stl format) and the elements were created manually (I do not know *.impact binary format). Could somebody tell me what is wrong with the test case? # Created Impact Pre Processor # Wed Mar 21 19:27:41 EET 2007 CONTROLS run from 0.0 to 1.0 print every 0.01 step MATERIALS OF TYPE ELASTOPLASTIC STEEL_EP E = 210 RHO = 0.0000078 NU = 0.3 YIELD_STRESS = 0.180 EP = 0.1 MATERIALS OF TYPE ELASTOPLASTIC STEEL E = 200 NU = 0.3 RHO = 0.0000078 CONSTRAINTS OF TYPE BOUNDARY_CONDITION FIXED_ALL VX = 0 VY = 0 VZ = 0 VRX = 0 VRY = 0 VRZ = 0 AX = 0 AY = 0 AZ = 0 ARX = 0 ARY = 0 ARZ = 0 CONSTRAINTS OF TYPE BOUNDARY_CONDITION FIXED VX = 0 VY = 0 VZ = 0 VRX = 0 VRY = 0 VRZ = 0 AX = 0 AY = 0 AZ = 0 ARX = 0 ARY = 0 ARZ = 0 LOADS ForceZ_10000 FZ=10000 NODES n.1.1 X = 10.0 Y = 0.0 Z = 0.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL n.1.2 X = 10.0 Y = 0.0 Z = 0.0 Load = ForceZ_10000 n.1.3 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 5.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL n.1.4 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 0.0 n.1.5 X = 0.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 0.0 n.1.6 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 0.0 n.1.7 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 0.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL n.1.8 X = 0.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 5.0 n.1.9 X = 0.0 Y = 0.0 Z = 0.0 n.1.10 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 5.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL n.1.11 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 5.0 n.1.12 X = 10.0 Y = 0.0 Z = 5.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL n.1.13 X = 0.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 5.0 n.1.14 X = 0.0 Y = 0.0 Z = 5.0 n.1.15 X = 10.0 Y = 0.0 Z = 5.0 n.1.16 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 5.0 n.1.17 X = 10.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 0.0 Constraint = FIXED_ALL n.1.18 X = 0.0 Y = 10.0 Z = 0.0 ELEMENTS OF TYPE Solid_Iso_6 1 nodes = [n.1.5,n.1.9,n.1.1,n.1.17,n.1.13,n.1.14,n.1.12,n.1.10] NIP = 8 Material = STEEL_EP T = 1 2 nodes = [n.1.5,n.1.9,n.1.2,n.1.6,n.1.13,n.1.14,n.1.15,n.1.16] NIP = 8 Material = STEEL_EP T = 1 3 nodes = [n.1.2,n.1.9,n.1.18,n.1.4,n.1.15,n.1.14,n.1.8,n.1.11] NIP = 8 Material = STEEL_EP T = 1 4 nodes = [n.1.18,n.1.9,n.1.1,n.1.7,n.1.8,n.1.14,n.1.12,n.1.3] NIP = 8 Material = STEEL_EP T = 1  With respect Alexander Rabtchevich 
From: Jonas Forssell <jonasforssell@ya...>  20070320 18:25:49

Have a look at the example under Impact/interfaces/gmsh/bumper.geo and impact.geo You need to define the material in the .geo file using the options available in the impact.geo /Jonas Alexander Rabtchevich <alexander.v.rabtchevich@...> skrev: Ok, the problem with elements is connected with the 2.0 version of the mesh file. But the problem with materials persists. Alexander Rabtchevich wrote: > It even writes: no elements found, although there are both nodes and > elements and the number of them matches the definitions. > > Alexander Rabtchevich wrote: >> Hello >> >> When I try to import a msh file the 0.7.2 complies there is no material >> associated and refuses due an exception. How can this be solved? >> > >  With respect Alexander Rabtchevich  Take Surveys. Earn Cash. Influence the Future of IT Join SourceForge.net's Techsay panel and you'll get the chance to share your opinions on IT & business topics through brief surveysand earn cash http://www.techsay.com/default.php?page=join.php&p=sourceforge&CID=DEVDEV _______________________________________________ Impactusers mailing list Impactusers@... https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/impactusers  Stava rätt! Stava lätt! Yahoo! Mails stavkontroll tar hand om tryckfelen och mycket mer! Få den på http://se.mail.yahoo.com 
From: Alexander Rabtchevich <alexander.v.rabtchevich@ia...>  20070319 07:33:23

Ok, the problem with elements is connected with the 2.0 version of the mesh file. But the problem with materials persists. Alexander Rabtchevich wrote: > It even writes: no elements found, although there are both nodes and > elements and the number of them matches the definitions. > > Alexander Rabtchevich wrote: >> Hello >> >> When I try to import a msh file the 0.7.2 complies there is no material >> associated and refuses due an exception. How can this be solved? >> > >  With respect Alexander Rabtchevich 
From: Alexander Rabtchevich <alexander.v.rabtchevich@ia...>  20070319 07:23:21

It even writes: no elements found, although there are both nodes and elements and the number of them matches the definitions. Alexander Rabtchevich wrote: > Hello > > When I try to import a msh file the 0.7.2 complies there is no material > associated and refuses due an exception. How can this be solved? >  With respect Alexander Rabtchevich 
From: Alexander Rabtchevich <alexander.v.rabtchevich@ia...>  20070318 16:41:10

Hello When I try to import a msh file the 0.7.2 complies there is no material associated and refuses due an exception. How can this be solved?  With respect Alexander Rabtchevich 
From: David Fletcher <D.I.Fletcher@nc...>  20070315 09:28:42

Hi, I found the Impact software yesterday, and it looks very useful for some materials modelling research I want to do in the railway area. Before I get too involved with the work I want to find out how well tested and validated the code is. I checked the website and also searched some academic journals, but I can't find any publications which are based on the code. Is there anything published (e.g. refereed academic journal, or large industrial user)? Have any validation cases been documented to show how well Impact agrees with other codes such as LSDyna, or perhaps some simple standard problems? Are there any shortcomings I should watch out for, beyond the list of features/bugs on the website? I've previously done a lot of work with the Franc3D modelling software from Cornell University, so I'm quite happy with the idea of downloading fairly unsupported software for modelling. They give a validation manual demonstrating the performance, and that really gives confidence that the system works. Best regards, David Fletcher.   Dr David Fletcher Newrail The University of Newcastle upon Tyne Barrow Hill Roundhouse Railway Centre Campbell Drive Barrow Hill Derbyshire S43 2PR UK Tel 01246 281634 Fax 01246 281635 Email D.I.Fletcher@...  