For the question about autogenerating code. I have some experience with this. If you have $3-5k lying around you can pick up Matlab + Simulink + Embedded Coder, which will allow you to write software in Simulink (a graphical programming language like Labview) and generate generic C code for a variety of CPUs. I had to do this with some Simulink code someone else wrote and we ran it on a Verdex Pro just fine at 50 Hz. I haven't looked into cheaper alternatives than Simulink/Embedded Coder, but I imagine it'd be hard to find something similar for cheap/free that does a good job and generates code you can trust. The generated code we had probably could have been optimized a bit, but it was spot on for reproducing the Simulink code functionality.
To answer your first question, I think you can achieve what you want with
http://www.ros.org ROS . Assuming you can trans-receive the floating point
PWM values from your laptop to Robovero, you can use ROS libraries to
directly output to Robovero's PWM pins (or do a conversion to +/- 1.0 values
like you want). I haven't done this myself, and I don't know how well the
Robovero API works with ROS, but this is how I would do it.
HOWEVER, if you only have Windows development environment, you can't use ROS
as it only runs on Linux.
In regards to your 5th question, what kind of transmitter are you using? I
know the wifi that comes with Robovero
(or any 802.11 wifi protocol..) wouldn't reach 1 KM radius.
In regards to your 6th question, 15Hz loop time is ok in my opinion. Of
course, it depends on what you do, but I have flown RC helicopters using an
Overo with main loop running at 100 Hz and remote control signals coming in
at about 20 Hz I believe.
I think the following two tutorials may give you some pointers:
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