The rst2latex writer places literal blocks in a quote environment. This abuse of the quote environment means that quotes cannot be styled without affecting literal blocks, which is clearly a bug in the writer.
Proposed solution: wrap literal blocks in a custom environment.
Comment: the reason literal blocks are wrapped in the quote environment is simply to force indentation of literal blocks. **Separately** from this bug, I would urge the developers to rethink this decision and leave it up to users. Forcing indentation introduces many problems. E.g., as a result of this imposition, the rst2beamer writer output is horrible when literal blocks are included. Although I have proposed a solution above that allows continuation of the current practice, I believe that a better solution is not to wrap literal blocks in an extra environment, and leave indentation decisions up to users. (Who can e.g. set the indentation of the listings environment.)