So, I'm pretty sure that somewhere in CEDET settings I can adjust the automatic styling that it helps insert, such as tabs in function definitions and the spacing of arguments to functions. Can anyone point me in the direction of how to adjust those sets of settings, perhaps provide an example? 

In my cpp files, I want my parameter lists to not continue at the level of the first (, I want them to continue at an offset calculated by the current { depth and a constant multiplier, such as 4 or 2.

It would work like this:
when in function definitions, parameter lists would be indented by one level times the constant multiplier. When in header definitions, it should be mutiplied by 2, because it is occurring in a header definition and a function definition.