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(* Title: Instances of Schneider's generalized protocol of clock synchronization
ID: $Id: LynchInstance.thy,v 1.12 2008-06-12 06:57:16 lsf37 Exp $
Author: Damiรกn Barsotti <damian at hal.famaf.unc.edu.ar>, 2006
Maintainer: Damiรกn Barsotti <damian at hal.famaf.unc.edu.ar>
*)
header {* Fault-tolerant Midpoint algorithm *}
theory LynchInstance imports Complex_Main begin
text {* This algorithm is presented in \cite{lynch_cs}. *}
subsection {* Model of the system *}
text {* The main ideas for the formalization of the system were
obtained from \cite{shankar92mechanical}. *}
subsubsection {* Types in the formalization *}
text {* The election of the basics types was based on
\cite{shankar92mechanical}. There, the process are natural numbers and
the real time and the clock readings are reals. *}
types
process = nat
time = real -- "real time"
Clocktime = real -- "time of the clock readings (clock time)"
subsubsection {* Some constants *}
text{* Here we define some parameters of the algorithm that we use:
the number of process and the number of lowest and highest readed
values that the algorithm discards. The defined constants must satisfy
this axiom. If not, the algorithm cannot obtain the maximum and
minimum value, because it will have discarded all the values. *}
axiomatization
np :: nat -- "Number of processes" and
khl :: nat -- "Number of lowest and highest values" where
constants_ax: "2 * khl < np"
text {* We define also the set of process that the algorithm
manage. This definition exist only for readability matters. *}
definition
PR :: "process set" where
[simp]: "PR = {..<np}"
subsubsection {* Convergence function *}
text {* This functions is called ``Fault-tolerant Midpoint''
(\cite{schneider87understanding})*}
text {* In this algorithm each process has an array where it store the
clocks readings from the others processes (including itself). We
formalise that as a function from processes to clock time as
\cite{shankar92mechanical}. *}
text {* First we define two functions. They take a function of clock
readings and a set of processes and they return a set of @{term khl}
processes which has the greater (smaller) clock readings. They were
defined with the Hilbert's $\varepsilon$-operator (the indefinite
description operator @{text SOME} in Isabelle) because in this way the
formalization is not fixed to a particular eleccion of the processes's
readings to discards and then the modelization is more general. *}
definition
kmax :: "(process \<Rightarrow> Clocktime) \<Rightarrow> process set \<Rightarrow> process set" where
"kmax f P = (SOME S. S \<subseteq> P \<and> card S = khl \<and>
(\<forall> i\<in>S. \<forall> j\<in>(P-S). f j <= f i))"
definition
kmin :: "(process \<Rightarrow> Clocktime) \<Rightarrow> process set \<Rightarrow> process set" where
"kmin f P = (SOME S. S \<subseteq> P \<and> card S = khl \<and>
(\<forall> i\<in>S. \<forall> j\<in>(P-S). f i <= f j))"
text {* With the previus functions we define a new one @{term
reduce}\footnote{The name of this function was taken from
\cite{lynch_cs}.}. This take a function of clock readings and a set of
processes and return de set of readings of the not dicarded
processes. In order to define this function we use the image operator
(@{term "op `"}) of Isabelle.*}
definition
reduce :: "(process \<Rightarrow> Clocktime) \<Rightarrow> process set \<Rightarrow> Clocktime set" where
"reduce f P = f ` (P - (kmax f P \<union> kmin f P))"
text {* And finally the convergence function. This is defined with the
builtin @{term Max} and @{term Min} functions of Isabelle.
*}
definition
cfnl :: "process \<Rightarrow> (process \<Rightarrow> Clocktime) \<Rightarrow> Clocktime" where
"cfnl p f = (Max (reduce f PR) + Min (reduce f PR)) / 2"
subsection {* Translation Invariance property.*}
subsubsection {* Auxiliary lemmas *}
text {* These lemmas proves the existence of the maximum and minimum
of the image of a set, if the set is finite and not empty. *}
(* The proofs are almost the same one that those of the lemmas @{thm *)
(* [source] ex_Max} and @{thm [source] ex_Min} in the Isabelle's standard *)
(* theories. *)
lemma ex_Maxf:
fixes S and f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> ('b::linorder)"
assumes fin: "finite S"
shows "S \<noteq> {} ==> \<exists>m\<in>S. \<forall>s \<in> S. f s \<le> f m"
using fin
proof (induct)
case empty thus ?case by simp
next
case (insert x S)
show ?case
proof (cases)
assume "S = {}" thus ?thesis by simp
next
assume nonempty: "S \<noteq> {}"
then obtain m where m: "m\<in>S" "\<forall>s\<in>S. f s \<le> f m"
using insert by blast
show ?thesis
proof (cases)
assume "f x \<le> f m" thus ?thesis using m by blast
next
assume "~ f x \<le> f m" thus ?thesis using m
by(simp add:linorder_not_le order_less_le)
(blast intro: order_trans)
qed
qed
qed
lemma ex_Minf:
fixes S and f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> ('b::linorder)"
assumes fin: "finite S"
shows "S \<noteq> {} ==> \<exists>m\<in>S. \<forall>s \<in> S. f m \<le> f s"
using fin
proof (induct)
case empty thus ?case by simp
next
case (insert x S)
show ?case
proof (cases)
assume "S = {}" thus ?thesis by simp
next
assume nonempty: "S \<noteq> {}"
then obtain m where m: "m\<in>S" "\<forall>s\<in>S. f m \<le> f s"
using insert by blast
show ?thesis
proof (cases)
assume "f m \<le> f x" thus ?thesis using m by blast
next
assume "~ f m \<le> f x" thus ?thesis using m
by(simp add:linorder_not_le order_less_le)
(blast intro: order_trans)
qed
qed
qed
text {* This trivial lemma is needed by the next two. *}
lemma khl_bound: "khl < np"
using constants_ax by arith
text {* The next two lemmas prove that de functions kmin and kmax
return some values that satisfy their definition. This is not trivial
because we need to prove the existence of these values, according to
the rule of the Hilbert's operator. We will need this lemma many
times because is the only thing that we know about these functions. *}
lemma kmax_prop:
fixes f :: "nat \<Rightarrow> Clocktime"
shows
"(kmax f PR) \<subseteq> PR \<and> card (kmax f PR) = khl \<and>
(\<forall>i\<in>(kmax f PR). \<forall>j\<in>PR - (kmax f PR). f j \<le> f i)"
proof-
have "khl <= np \<longrightarrow>
(\<exists> S. S \<subseteq> PR \<and> card S = khl \<and> (\<forall>i\<in>S. \<forall>j\<in>PR - S. f j \<le> f i))"
( is "khl <= np \<longrightarrow> ?P khl" )
proof(induct (khl))
have "?P 0" by force
thus "0 <= np \<longrightarrow> ?P 0" ..
next
fix n
assume asm: "n <= np \<longrightarrow> ?P n"
show "Suc n <= np \<longrightarrow> ?P (Suc n)"
proof
assume asm2: "Suc n <= np"
with asm have "?P n" by simp
then obtain S where
SinPR : "S\<subseteq>PR" and
cardS: "card S = n" and
HI: "(\<forall>i\<in>S. \<forall>j\<in>PR - S. f j \<le> f i)"
by blast
let ?e = "SOME i. i\<in>PR-S \<and>
(\<forall>j\<in>PR-S. f j \<le> f i)"
let ?S = "insert ?e S"
have "\<exists>i. i\<in>PR-S \<and> (\<forall>j\<in>PR-S. f j \<le> f i)"
proof-
from SinPR and finite_subset
have "finite (PR-S)"
by auto
moreover
from cardS and asm2 SinPR
have "S\<subset>PR" by auto
hence "PR-S \<noteq> {}" by auto
ultimately
show ?thesis using ex_Maxf by blast
qed
hence
ePRS: "?e \<in> PR-S" and maxH: "(\<forall>j \<in> PR-S. f j \<le> f ?e)"
by (auto dest!: someI_ex)
from maxH and HI
have "(\<forall>i\<in>?S. \<forall>j\<in>PR - ?S. f j \<le> f i)"
by blast
moreover
from SinPR and finite_subset
cardS and ePRS
have "card ?S = Suc n"
by (auto dest: card_insert_disjoint)
moreover
have "?S \<subseteq> PR" using SinPR and ePRS by auto
ultimately
show "?P (Suc n)" by blast
qed
qed
hence "?P khl" using khl_bound by auto
then obtain S where
"S\<le>PR \<and> card S = khl \<and> (\<forall>i\<in>S. \<forall>j\<in>PR - S. f j \<le> f i)" ..
thus ?thesis by (unfold kmax_def)
(rule someI [where P="\<lambda>S. S \<subseteq> PR \<and> card S = khl \<and> (\<forall>i\<in>S. \<forall>j\<in>PR - S. f j \<le> f i)"])
qed
lemma kmin_prop:
fixes f :: "nat \<Rightarrow> Clocktime"
shows
"(kmin f PR) \<subseteq> PR \<and> card (kmin f PR) = khl \<and>
(\<forall>i\<in>(kmin f PR). \<forall>j\<in>PR - (kmin f PR). f i \<le> f j)"
proof-
have "khl <= np \<longrightarrow>
(\<exists> S. S \<subseteq> PR \<and> card S = khl \<and> (\<forall>i\<in>S. \<forall>j\<in>PR - S. f i \<le> f j))"
( is "khl <= np \<longrightarrow> ?P khl" )
proof(induct (khl))
have "?P 0" by force
thus "0 <= np \<longrightarrow> ?P 0" ..
next
fix n
assume asm: "n <= np \<longrightarrow> ?P n"
show "Suc n <= np \<longrightarrow> ?P (Suc n)"
proof
assume asm2: "Suc n <= np"
with asm have "?P n" by simp
then obtain S where
SinPR : "S\<subseteq>PR" and
cardS: "card S = n" and
HI: "(\<forall>i\<in>S. \<forall>j\<in>PR - S. f i \<le> f j)"
by blast
let ?e = "SOME i. i\<in>PR-S \<and>
(\<forall>j\<in>PR-S. f i \<le> f j)"
let ?S = "insert ?e S"
have "\<exists>i. i\<in>PR-S \<and> (\<forall>j\<in>PR-S. f i \<le> f j)"
proof-
from SinPR and finite_subset
have "finite (PR-S)"
by auto
moreover
from cardS and asm2 SinPR
have "S\<subset>PR" by auto
hence "PR-S \<noteq> {}" by auto
ultimately
show ?thesis using ex_Minf by blast
qed
hence
ePRS: "?e \<in> PR-S" and minH: "(\<forall>j \<in> PR-S. f ?e \<le> f j)"
by (auto dest!: someI_ex)
from minH and HI
have "(\<forall>i\<in>?S. \<forall>j\<in>PR - ?S. f i \<le> f j)"
by blast
moreover
from SinPR and finite_subset and
cardS and ePRS
have "card ?S = Suc n"
by (auto dest: card_insert_disjoint)
moreover
have "?S \<subseteq> PR" using SinPR and ePRS by auto
ultimately
show "?P (Suc n)" by blast
qed
qed
hence "?P khl" using khl_bound by auto
then obtain S where
"S\<le>PR \<and> card S = khl \<and> (\<forall>i\<in>S. \<forall>j\<in>PR - S. f i \<le> f j)" ..
thus ?thesis by (unfold kmin_def)
(rule someI [where P="\<lambda>S. S \<subseteq> PR \<and> card S = khl \<and> (\<forall>i\<in>S. \<forall>j\<in>PR - S. f i \<le> f j)"])
qed
text {* The next two lemmas are trivial from the previous ones *}
lemma finite_kmax:
"finite (kmax f PR)"
proof-
have "finite PR" by auto
with kmax_prop and finite_subset show ?thesis
by blast
qed
lemma finite_kmin:
"finite (kmin f PR)"
proof-
have "finite PR" by auto
with kmin_prop and finite_subset show ?thesis
by blast
qed
text {* This lemma is necesary because the definition of the
convergence function use the builtin Max and Min. *}
lemma reduce_not_empty:
"reduce f PR \<noteq> {}"
proof-
from constants_ax have
"0 < (np - 2 * khl)" by arith
also
{
from kmax_prop kmin_prop
have "card (kmax f PR) = khl \<and> card (kmin f PR) = khl"
by blast
moreover
from finite_kmax and finite_kmin card_Un_Int[THEN sym]
have "card (kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR) +
card (kmax f PR \<inter> kmin f PR) =
card (kmax f PR) + card (kmin f PR)"
by auto
ultimately
have "card (kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR) <= 2 * khl"
by auto
}
hence
"... <= card PR - card (kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR)"
by simp
also
{
from kmax_prop and kmin_prop have
"(kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR) \<subseteq> PR" by blast
}
hence
"... = card (PR-(kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR))"
apply (intro card_Diff_subset[THEN sym])
apply (rule finite_subset)
by auto
(* by (intro card_Diff_subset,auto) *)
finally
have "0 < card (PR-(kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR))" .
hence "(PR-(kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR)) \<noteq> {}"
by (intro notI, simp only: card_0_eq, simp)
thus ?thesis
by (auto simp add: reduce_def)
qed
text {* The next three are the main lemmas necessary for prove the
Translation Invariance property.*}
lemma reduce_shift:
fixes f :: "nat \<Rightarrow> Clocktime"
shows
"f ` (PR - (kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR)) =
f ` (PR - (kmax (\<lambda> p. f p + c) PR \<union> kmin (\<lambda> p. f p + c) PR))"
apply (unfold kmin_def kmax_def)
by simp
lemma max_shift:
fixes f :: "nat \<Rightarrow> Clocktime" and S
assumes notEmpFin: "S \<noteq> {}" "finite S"
shows
"Max (f`S) + x = Max ( (\<lambda> p. f p + x) ` S) "
proof-
from notEmpFin have "f`S \<noteq> {}" and "(\<lambda> p. f p + x) ` S \<noteq> {}"
by auto
with notEmpFin have
"Max (f`S) \<in> f ` S " "Max ((\<lambda> p. f p + x)`S) \<in> (\<lambda> p. f p + x) ` S "
"(\<forall>fs \<in> (f`S). fs \<le> Max (f`S))"
"(\<forall>fs \<in> ((\<lambda> p. f p + x)`S). fs \<le> Max ((\<lambda> p. f p + x)`S))"
by auto
thus ?thesis by force
qed
lemma min_shift:
fixes f :: "nat \<Rightarrow> Clocktime" and S
assumes notEmpFin: "S \<noteq> {}" "finite S"
shows
"Min (f`S) + x = Min ( (\<lambda> p. f p + x) ` S) "
proof-
from notEmpFin have "f`S \<noteq> {}" and "(\<lambda> p. f p + x) ` S \<noteq> {}"
by auto
with notEmpFin have
"Min (f`S) \<in> f ` S " "Min ((\<lambda> p. f p + x)`S) \<in> (\<lambda> p. f p + x) ` S "
"(\<forall>fs \<in> (f`S). Min (f`S) <= fs)"
"(\<forall>fs \<in> ((\<lambda> p. f p + x)`S). Min ((\<lambda> p. f p + x)`S) <= fs)"
by auto
thus ?thesis by force
qed
subsubsection {* Main theorem *}
theorem trans_inv:
fixes f :: "nat \<Rightarrow> Clocktime"
shows
"cfnl p f + x = cfnl p (\<lambda> p. f p + x)"
proof-
have "cfnl p (\<lambda> p. f p + x) =
(Max (reduce (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR) + Min (reduce (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR)) / 2"
by (unfold cfnl_def, simp)
also
have "... =
(Max ((\<lambda> p. f p + x) `
(PR - (kmax (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR \<union> kmin (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR))) +
Min ((\<lambda> p. f p + x) `
(PR - (kmax (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR \<union> kmin (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR)))) / 2"
by (unfold reduce_def, simp)
also
have
"... =
(Max (f `
(PR - (kmax (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR \<union> kmin (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR))) + x +
Min (f `
(PR - (kmax (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR \<union> kmin (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR))) + x ) / 2"
proof-
have "finite (PR - (kmax (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR \<union> kmin (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR))"
by auto
moreover
from reduce_not_empty have
"PR - (kmax (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR \<union> kmin (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR) \<noteq> {}"
by (auto simp add: reduce_def)
ultimately
have
"Max ((\<lambda> p. f p + x) `
(PR - (kmax (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR \<union> kmin (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR)))
=
Max (f `
(PR - (kmax (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR \<union> kmin (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR))) + x"
and
"Min ((\<lambda> p. f p + x) `
(PR - (kmax (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR \<union> kmin (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR)))
=
Min (f `
(PR - (kmax (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR \<union> kmin (\<lambda> p. f p + x) PR))) + x"
using max_shift and min_shift
by auto
thus ?thesis by auto
qed
also
from reduce_shift
have
"... =
(Max (f `
(PR - (kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR))) + x +
Min (f `
(PR - (kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR))) + x ) / 2"
by auto
also
have "... = ((Max (reduce f PR)+ x) + (Min (reduce f PR) + x)) / 2"
by (auto simp add: reduce_def)
also
have "... = (Max (reduce f PR) + Min (reduce f PR)) / 2 + x"
by auto
finally
show ?thesis by (auto simp add: cfnl_def)
qed
subsection {* Precision Enhancement property *}
text {* An informal proof of this theorem can be found in \cite{miner93} *}
subsubsection {* Auxiliary lemmas *}
text {* This first lemma is most important for prove the
property. This is a consecuence of the @{thm [source] card_Un_Int}
lemma *}
lemma pigeonhole:
assumes
finitA: "finite A" and
Bss: "B \<subseteq> A" and Css: "C \<subseteq> A" and
cardH: "card A + k <= card B + card C"
shows "k <= card (B \<inter> C)"
proof-
from Bss Css have "B \<union> C \<subseteq> A" by blast
with finitA have "card (B \<union> C) <= card A"
by (simp add: card_mono)
with cardH have
h: "k <= card B + card C - card (B \<union> C)"
by arith
from finitA Bss Css and finite_subset
have "finite B \<and> finite C" by auto
thus ?thesis
using card_Un_Int and h by force
qed
text {*This lemma is a trivial consecuence of the previous one. With
only this lemma we can prove the Precision Enhancement property with
the bound $\pi(x,y) = x + y$. But this bound not satisfy the property
\[ \pi(2\Lambda + 2 \beta\rho, \delta_S + 2\rho(r_{max}+\beta) +
2\Lambda) \leq \delta_S
\] that is used in \cite{shankar92mechanical} for prove the
Schneider's schema. *}
lemma subsets_int:
assumes
finitA: "finite A" and
Bss: "B \<subseteq> A" and Css: "C \<subseteq> A" and
cardH: "card A < card B + card C"
shows
"B \<inter> C \<noteq> {}"
proof-
from finitA Bss Css cardH
have "1 <= card (B \<inter> C)"
by (auto intro!: pigeonhole)
thus ?thesis by auto
qed
text {* This lemma is true because @{term "reduce f PR"} is the image
of @{term "PR-(kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR)"} by the function @{term f}. *}
lemma exist_reduce:
"\<forall> c \<in> reduce f PR. \<exists> i\<in> PR-(kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR). f i = c"
proof
fix c assume asm: "c \<in> reduce f PR"
thus "\<exists> i\<in> PR-(kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR). f i = c"
by (auto simp add: reduce_def kmax_def kmin_def)
qed
text {* The next three lemmas are consequence of the definition of
@{term reduce}, @{term kmax} and @{term kmin} *}
lemma finite_reduce:
"finite (reduce f PR)"
proof(unfold reduce_def)
show "finite (f ` (PR - (kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR)))"
by auto
qed
lemma kmax_ge:
"\<forall> i\<in> (kmax f PR). \<forall> r \<in> (reduce f PR). r <= f i "
proof
fix i assume asm: "i \<in> kmax f PR"
show "\<forall>r\<in>reduce f PR. r \<le> f i"
proof
fix r assume asm2: "r \<in> reduce f PR"
show "r \<le> f i"
proof-
from asm2 and exist_reduce have
"\<exists> j \<in> PR-(kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR). f j = r" by blast
then obtain j
where fjr:"j \<in> PR-(kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR) \<and> f j = r"
by blast
hence "j \<in> (PR - kmax f PR)"
by blast
from this fjr asm
show ?thesis using kmax_prop
by auto
qed
qed
qed
lemma kmin_le:
"\<forall> i\<in> (kmin f PR). \<forall> r \<in> (reduce f PR). f i <= r "
proof
fix i assume asm: "i \<in> kmin f PR"
show "\<forall>r\<in>reduce f PR. f i \<le> r"
proof
fix r assume asm2: "r \<in> reduce f PR"
show "f i <= r"
proof-
from asm2 and exist_reduce have
"\<exists> j\<in> PR-(kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR). f j = r" by blast
then obtain j
where fjr:"j \<in> PR-(kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR) \<and> f j = r"
by blast
hence "j \<in> (PR - kmin f PR)"
by blast
from this fjr asm
show ?thesis using kmin_prop
by auto
qed
qed
qed
text {* The next lemma is used for prove the Precision Enhancement
property. This has been proved in ICS. The proof is in the appendix
\ref{sec:abs_distrib_mult}. This cannot be prove by a simple @{text
arith} or @{text auto} tactic. *}
text{* This lemma is true also with @{text "0 <= c"} !! *}
lemma abs_distrib_div:
"0 < (c::real) \<Longrightarrow> \<bar>a / c - b / c\<bar> = \<bar>a - b\<bar> / c"
proof-
assume ch: "0<c"
{
fix d :: real
assume dh: "0<=d"
have "a * d - b * d = (a - b) * d "
by (auto simp add: left_distrib real_diff_def)
hence "\<bar>a * d - b * d\<bar> = \<bar>(a - b) * d\<bar>"
by simp
also with dh have
"... = \<bar>a - b\<bar> * d"
by (simp add: abs_mult)
finally
have "\<bar>a * d - b * d\<bar> = \<bar>a - b\<bar> * d"
.
(* This sublemma is solved by ICS, file: abs_distrib_mult.ics *)
(* It is not solved nor
by (auto simp add: left_distrib real_diff_def)(arith)
in Isabelle *)
}
with ch and divide_inverse show ?thesis
by (auto simp add: divide_inverse)
qed
text {* The next three lemmas are about the existence of bounds of the
values @{term "Max (reduce f PR)"} and @{term "Min (reduce f PR)"}. These
are used in the proof of the main property. *}
lemma uboundmax:
assumes
hC: "C \<subseteq> PR" and
hCk: "np <= card C + khl"
shows
"\<exists> i\<in>C. Max (reduce f PR) <= f i"
proof-
from reduce_not_empty and finite_reduce
have maxrinr: "Max (reduce f PR) \<in> reduce f PR"
by simp
with exist_reduce
have "\<exists> i\<in> PR-(kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR). f i = Max (reduce f PR)"
by simp
then obtain pmax where
pmax_in_reduc: "pmax \<in> PR-(kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR)" and
fpmax_ismax: "f pmax = Max (reduce f PR)" ..
hence "C \<inter> insert pmax (kmax f PR) \<noteq> {}"
proof-
from kmax_prop and pmax_in_reduc
and finite_kmax and hCk have
"card PR < card C + card (insert pmax (kmax f PR))"
by simp
moreover
from pmax_in_reduc and kmax_prop
have "insert pmax (kmax f PR) \<subseteq> PR" by blast
moreover
note hC
ultimately
show ?thesis
using subsets_int[of PR C "insert pmax (kmax f PR)"]
by simp
qed
hence res: "\<exists> i\<in>C. i=pmax \<or> i \<in> kmax f PR" by blast
then obtain i where
iinC: "i\<in>C" and altern: "i=pmax \<or> i \<in> kmax f PR" ..
thus ?thesis
proof(cases "i=pmax")
case True
with iinC fpmax_ismax show ?thesis by force
next
case False
with altern maxrinr fpmax_ismax kmax_ge
have "f pmax <= f i" by simp
with iinC fpmax_ismax show ?thesis by auto
qed
qed
lemma lboundmin:
assumes
hC: "C \<subseteq> PR" and
hCk: "np <= card C + khl"
shows
"\<exists> i\<in>C. f i <= Min (reduce f PR)"
proof-
from reduce_not_empty and finite_reduce
have minrinr: "Min (reduce f PR) \<in> reduce f PR"
by simp
with exist_reduce
have "\<exists> i\<in> PR-(kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR). f i = Min (reduce f PR)"
by simp
then obtain pmin where
pmin_in_reduc: "pmin \<in> PR-(kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR)" and
fpmin_ismin: "f pmin = Min (reduce f PR)" ..
hence "C \<inter> insert pmin (kmin f PR) \<noteq> {}"
proof-
from kmin_prop and pmin_in_reduc
and finite_kmin and hCk have
"card PR < card C + card (insert pmin (kmin f PR))"
by simp
moreover
from pmin_in_reduc and kmin_prop
have "insert pmin (kmin f PR) \<subseteq> PR" by blast
moreover
note hC
ultimately
show ?thesis
using subsets_int[of PR C "insert pmin (kmin f PR)"]
by simp
qed
hence res: "\<exists> i\<in>C. i=pmin \<or> i \<in> kmin f PR" by blast
then obtain i where
iinC: "i\<in>C" and altern: "i=pmin \<or> i \<in> kmin f PR" ..
thus ?thesis
proof(cases "i=pmin")
case True
with iinC fpmin_ismin show ?thesis by force
next
case False
with altern minrinr fpmin_ismin kmin_le
have "f i <= f pmin" by simp
with iinC fpmin_ismin show ?thesis by auto
qed
qed
lemma same_bound:
assumes
hC: "C \<subseteq> PR" and
hCk: "np <= card C + khl" and
hnk: "3 * khl < np"
shows
"\<exists> i\<in>C. Min (reduce f PR) <= f i \<and> g i <= Max (reduce g PR) "
proof-
have b1: "khl + 1 <= card (C \<inter> (PR - kmin f PR))"
proof(rule pigeonhole)
show "finite PR" by simp
next
show "C \<subseteq> PR" by fact
next
show "PR - kmin f PR \<subseteq> PR" by blast
next
show "card PR + (khl + 1) \<le> card C + card (PR - kmin f PR)"
proof-
from hnk and hCk have
"np + khl < np + card C - khl" by arith
also
from kmin_prop
have "... = np + card C - card (kmin f PR)"
by auto
also
have "... = card C + (card PR - card (kmin f PR))"
proof-
from kmin_prop have
"card (kmin f PR) <= card PR"
by (intro card_mono, auto)
thus ?thesis by (simp)
qed
also
from kmin_prop
have "... = card C + card (PR - kmin f PR)"
proof-
from kmin_prop and finite_kmin have
"card PR - card (kmin f PR) = card (PR - kmin f PR)"
by (intro card_Diff_subset[THEN sym])(auto)
thus ?thesis by auto
qed
finally
show ?thesis
by (simp)
qed
qed
have "C \<inter> (PR - kmin f PR) \<inter> (PR - kmax g PR) \<noteq> {}"
proof(intro subsets_int)
show "finite PR" by simp
next
show "C \<inter> (PR - kmin f PR) \<subseteq> PR"
by blast
next
show "PR - kmax g PR \<subseteq> PR"
by blast
next
show "card PR <
card (C \<inter> (PR - kmin f PR)) + card (PR - kmax g PR)"
proof-
from kmax_prop and finite_kmax
have "card (PR - kmax g PR)= card PR - card (kmax g PR) "
by (intro card_Diff_subset, auto)
with kmax_prop have
"card (PR - kmax g PR) = card PR - khl" by simp
with b1
show ?thesis by arith
qed
qed
hence
"\<exists> i. i \<in> C \<and> i \<in> (PR - kmin f PR) \<and> i \<in> (PR - kmax g PR)"
by blast
then obtain i where
in_C: "i \<in> C" and
not_in_kmin: "i \<in> (PR - kmin f PR)" and
not_in_kmax: "i \<in> (PR - kmax g PR)" by blast
have "Min (reduce f PR) <= f i"
proof(cases "i \<in> kmax f PR")
case True
from reduce_not_empty and finite_reduce have
" Min (reduce f PR) \<in> reduce f PR" by auto
with True show ?thesis
using kmax_ge by blast
next
case False
with not_in_kmin
have "i \<in> PR - (kmax f PR \<union> kmin f PR)"
by blast
with reduce_def have "f i \<in> reduce f PR"
by auto
with reduce_not_empty and finite_reduce
show ?thesis by auto
qed
moreover
have "g i <= Max (reduce g PR)"
proof(cases "i \<in> kmin g PR")
case True
from reduce_not_empty and finite_reduce have
" Max (reduce g PR) \<in> reduce g PR" by auto
with True show ?thesis
using kmin_le by blast
next
case False
with not_in_kmax
have "i \<in> PR - (kmax g PR \<union> kmin g PR)"
by blast
with reduce_def have "g i \<in> reduce g PR"
by auto
with reduce_not_empty and finite_reduce
show ?thesis by auto
qed
moreover
note in_C
ultimately
show ?thesis by blast
qed
subsubsection {* Main theorem *}
text {* The most part of this theorem can be proved with CVC-lite
using the three previous lemmas (appendix \ref{sec:bound_prec_enh}).*}
theorem prec_enh:
assumes
hC: "C \<subseteq> PR" and
hCF: "np - nF <= card C" and
hFn: "3 * nF < np" and
hFk: "nF = khl" and
hbx: "\<forall> l\<in>C. \<bar>f l - g l\<bar> <= x" and
hby1: "\<forall> l\<in>C. \<forall> m\<in>C. \<bar>f l - f m\<bar> <= y" and
hby2: "\<forall> l\<in>C. \<forall> m\<in>C. \<bar>g l - g m\<bar> <= y" and
hpC: "p\<in>C" and
hqC: "q\<in>C"
shows "\<bar> cfnl p f - cfnl q g \<bar> <= y / 2 + x"
proof-
from hCF and hFk
have hCk: "np <= card C + khl" by arith
from hFn and hFk
have hnk: "3 * khl < np" by arith
let ?maxf = "Max (reduce f PR)"
and ?minf = "Min (reduce f PR)"
and ?maxg = "Max (reduce g PR)"
and ?ming = "Min (reduce g PR)"
from abs_distrib_div
have "\<bar>cfnl p f - cfnl q g\<bar> =
\<bar>?maxf + ?minf + - ?maxg + - ?ming\<bar> / 2"
by (unfold cfnl_def, auto simp add: real_diff_def)
moreover
have "\<bar>?maxf + ?minf + - ?maxg + - ?ming\<bar> <= y + 2 * x"
-- {* The rest of the property can be proved by CVC-lite
(see appendix \ref{sec:bound_prec_enh}) *}
proof ( cases "0 <= ?maxf + ?minf + - ?maxg + - ?ming")
case True
hence
"\<bar>?maxf + ?minf + - ?maxg + - ?ming\<bar> =
?maxf + ?minf + - ?maxg + - ?ming" by arith
moreover
from uboundmax hC hCk
obtain mxf
where mxfinC: "mxf\<in>C" and
maxf: "?maxf <= f mxf" by blast
moreover
from lboundmin hC hCk
obtain mng
where mnginC: "mng\<in>C" and
ming: "g mng <= ?ming" by blast
moreover
from same_bound hC hCk hnk
obtain mxn
where mxninC: "mxn\<in>C" and
mxnf: "?minf \<le> f mxn" and
mxng: "g mxn \<le> ?maxg" by blast
ultimately
have
"\<bar> ?maxf + ?minf + - ?maxg + - ?ming\<bar> <=
(f mxf + - g mng) + (f mxn + - g mxn)" by arith
also
from mxninC hbx abs_le_D1
have
"... <= (f mxf + - g mng) + x"
by (auto simp add: real_diff_def)
also
have
"... = (f mxf + - f mng ) + ( f mng + - g mng) + x"
by arith
also
have "... <= y + ( f mng + - g mng) + x"
proof-
from mxfinC mnginC hby1 abs_le_D1
have "f mxf + - f mng <= y"
by (auto simp add: real_diff_def)
thus ?thesis
by (auto simp add: real_diff_def)
qed
also
from mnginC hbx abs_le_D1
have "... <= y + 2 * x"
by (auto simp add: real_diff_def)
finally
show ?thesis .
next
case False
hence
"\<bar>?maxf + ?minf + - ?maxg + - ?ming\<bar> =
?maxg + ?ming + - ?maxf + - ?minf" by arith
moreover
from uboundmax hC hCk
obtain mxg
where mxginC: "mxg\<in>C" and
maxg: "?maxg <= g mxg" by blast
moreover
from lboundmin hC hCk
obtain mnf
where mnfinC: "mnf\<in>C" and
minf: "f mnf <= ?minf" by blast
moreover
from same_bound hC hCk hnk
obtain mxn
where mxninC: "mxn\<in>C" and
mxnf: "?ming \<le> g mxn" and
mxng: "f mxn \<le> ?maxf" by blast
ultimately
have
"\<bar> ?maxf + ?minf + - ?maxg + - ?ming\<bar> <=
(g mxg + - f mnf) + (g mxn + - f mxn)" by arith
also
from mxninC hbx
have "... <= (g mxg + - f mnf) + x"
by (auto dest!: abs_le_D2)
also
have
"... = (g mxg + - g mnf ) + ( g mnf + - f mnf) + x"
by arith
also
have "... <= y + ( g mnf + - f mnf) + x"
proof-
from mxginC mnfinC hby2 abs_le_D1
have "g mxg + - g mnf <= y"
by (auto simp add: real_diff_def)
thus ?thesis
by (auto simp add: real_diff_def)
qed
also
from mnfinC hbx
have "... <= y + 2 * x"
by (auto dest!: abs_le_D2)
finally
show ?thesis .
qed
ultimately
show ?thesis
by simp
qed
subsection {* Accuracy Preservation property *}
text {* No new lemmas are needed for prove this property. The bound
has been found using the lemmas @{thm [source] uboundmax} and @{thm
[source] lboundmin} *}
text {* This theorem can be proved with ICS and CVC-lite assuming
those lemmas (see appendix \ref{sec:accur_pres}). *}
theorem accur_pres:
assumes
hC: "C \<subseteq> PR" and
hCF: "np - nF <= card C" and
hFk: "nF = khl" and
hby: "\<forall> l\<in>C. \<forall> m\<in>C. \<bar>f l - f m\<bar> <= y" and
hqC: "q\<in>C"
shows "\<bar> cfnl p f - f q \<bar> <= y"
proof-
from hCF and hFk
have npleCk: "np <= card C + khl" by arith
show ?thesis
proof(cases "f q <= cfnl p f")
case True
from npleCk hC and uboundmax
have "\<exists> i\<in>C. Max (reduce f PR) <= f i"
by auto
then obtain pi where
hpiC: "pi \<in> C" and
fpiGeMax: "Max (reduce f PR) <= f pi" by blast
from reduce_not_empty
have "Min (reduce f PR) <= Max (reduce f PR)"
by (auto simp add: reduce_def)
with fpiGeMax have
cfnlLefpi: "cfnl p f <= f pi"
by (auto simp add: cfnl_def)
with True have
"\<bar> cfnl p f - f q \<bar> <= \<bar> f pi - f q \<bar>"
by arith
with hpiC and hqC and hby show ?thesis
by force
next
case False
from npleCk hC and lboundmin
have "\<exists> i\<in>C. f i <= Min (reduce f PR)"
by auto
then obtain qi where
hqiC: "qi \<in> C" and
fqiLeMax: "f qi <= Min (reduce f PR)" by blast
from reduce_not_empty
have "Min (reduce f PR) <= Max (reduce f PR)"
by (auto simp add: reduce_def)
with fqiLeMax
have "f qi <= cfnl p f"
by (auto simp add: cfnl_def)
with False have
"\<bar> cfnl p f - f q \<bar> <= \<bar> f qi - f q \<bar>"
by arith
with hqiC and hqC and hby show ?thesis
by force
qed
qed
end

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