Custom firmware and IDE for the VEX Cortex Microcontroller
This project has been moved to http://pros.cs.purdue.edu/ PROS is a lightweight and fast alternative operating system for the VEX Cortex Microcontroller. It features multitasking, low-level control, and Wiring compatible functions to harness the full power of the Cortex. With a real-time kernel based on FreeRTOS and a development environment built on Eclipse CDT, PROS uses proven software to increase the reliability and usability of the VEX development system across all three major computing platforms. PROS is currently under active development to make it usable for VEX high school and middle school teams. PROS is intended for advanced VEX users seeking to move beyond competing environments. Eclipse and FreeRTOS have their own licensing agreements. Please see http://www.eclipse.org/legal/epl-v10.html and http://www.freertos.org/a00114.html for details.
A special-purpose 4.4BSD-based UNIX-like operating system, designed for machine control applications. Using low-cost hardware, FabBSD can be used to control a wide array of CNC milling machines, lathes, routers, process-control and automation equipment.
Maiden-core is a Linux kernel robotics API module, extensible in Erc. The Maiden Project also documents and develops the Maiden architecture for mobile robots, a set of (optional) designs and standards for robots using the Maiden-core API.
lysis is working on a features rich home automation system that ranges from CAN-bus, 1-wire and RF up to a HTPC; both hardware and software are addressed to make the really smart home; the domotics will provide energy saving, comfort, flexibility, safety
robot-brains is a repository for diy roboticists and experimenters. It's focused on Scheme.
uGNU/RTOS (literally "micro G'Noo RTOS") is an Open Source serial Real Time OS for microcontrollers (PIC, ATMEL).