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+<!-- This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public
+   - License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed with this
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+
+#Classes and Inheritance
+A class is a blueprint from which individual objects are created. These
+individual objects are the instances of the class. Each class defines one or
+more members, which are initialized to a given value when the class is
+instantiated. Data members are properties that allow each instance to have
+their own state, whereas member functions are properties that allow instances to
+have behavior. Inheritance allows classes to inherit state and behavior from an
+existing classes, known as the base class. Unlike languages like C++ and Java,
+JavaScript does not have native support for classical inheritance. Instead, it
+uses something called prototypal inheritance. As it turns out, it is possible to
+emulate classical inheritance using prototypal inheritance, but not without
+writing a significant amount of boilerplate code.
+
+Classes in JavaScript are defined using constructor functions. Each constructor
+function has an associated object, known as its prototype, which is shared
+between all instances of that class. We will show how to define classes using
+constructors, and how to use prototypes to efficiently define member functions
+on each instance. Classical inheritance can be implemented in JavaScript using
+constructors and prototypes. We will show how to make inheritance work correctly
+with respect to constructors, prototypes, and the instanceof operator, and how
+to override methods in subclasses. The SDK uses a special constructor internally,
+known as `Class`, to create constructors that behave properly with respect to
+inheritance. The last section shows how to work with the `Class` constructor. It
+is possible to read this section on its own. However, to fully appreciate how
+`Class` works, and the problem it is supposed to solve, it is recommended that
+you read the entire article.
+
+##Constructors
+In JavaScript, a class is defined by defining a constructor function for that
+class. To illustrate this, let's define a simple constructor for a class
+`Shape`:
+
+    function Shape(x, y) {
+        this.x = x;
+        this.y = y;
+    }
+
+We can now use this constructor to create instances of `Shape`:
+
+    let shape = new Shape(2, 3);
+    shape instanceof Shape; // => true
+    shape.x; // => 2
+    shape.y; // => 3
+
+The keyword new tells JavaScript that we are performing a constructor call.
+Constructor calls differ from ordinary function calls in that JavaScript
+automatically creates a new object and binds it to the keyword this for the
+duration of the call. Moreover, if the constructor does not return a value, the
+result of the call defaults to the value of this. Constructors are just ordinary
+functions, however, so it is perfectly legal to perform ordinary function calls
+on them. In fact, some people (including the Add-on SDK team) prefer to use
+constructors this way. However, since the value of this is undefined for
+ordinary function calls, we need to add some boilerplate code to convert them to
+constructor calls:
+
+    function Shape(x, y) {
+        if (!this)
+            return new Shape(x, y);
+        this.x = x;
+        this.y = y;
+    }
+
+##Prototypes
+Every object has an implicit property, known as its prototype. When JavaScript
+looks for a property, it first looks for it in the object itself. If it cannot
+find the property there, it looks for it in the object's prototype. If the
+property is found on the prototype, the lookup succeeds, and JavaScript pretends
+that it found the property on the original object. Every function has an
+explicit property, known as `prototype`. When a function is used in a
+constructor call, JavaScript makes the value of this property the prototype of
+the newly created object:
+
+    let shape = Shape(2, 3);
+    Object.getPrototypeOf(shape) == Shape.prototype; // => true
+
+All instances of a class have the same prototype. This makes the prototype the
+perfect place to define properties that are shared between instances of the
+class. To illustrate this, let's add a member function to the class `Shape`:
+
+    Shape.prototype.draw = function () {
+        throw Error("not yet implemented");
+    }
+    let shape = Shape(2, 3);
+    Shape.draw(); // => Error: not yet implemented
+
+##Inheritance and Constructors
+Suppose we want to create a new class, `Circle`, and inherit it from `Shape`.
+Since every `Circle` is also a `Shape`, the constructor for `Circle` must be
+called every time we call the constructor for `Shape`. Since JavaScript does
+not have native support for inheritance, it doesn't do this automatically.
+Instead, we need to call the constructor for `Shape` explicitly. The resulting
+constructor looks as follows:
+
+    function Circle(x, y, radius) {
+       if (!this)
+           return new Circle(x, y, radius);
+       Shape.call(this, x, y);
+       this.radius = radius;
+    }
+
+Note that the constructor for `Shape` is called as an ordinary function, and
+reuses the object created for the constructor call to `Circle`. Had we used a
+constructor call instead, the constructor for `Shape` would have been applied to
+a different object than the constructor for `Circle`. We can now use the above
+constructor to create instances of the class `Circle`:
+
+    let circle = Circle(2, 3, 5);
+    circle instanceof Circle; // => true
+    circle.x; // => 2
+    circle.y; // => 3
+    circle.radius; // => 5
+
+##Inheritance and Prototypes
+There is a problem with the definition of `Circle` in the previous section that
+we have glossed over thus far. Consider the following:
+
+    let circle = Circle(2, 3, 5);
+    circle.draw(); // => TypeError: circle.draw is not a function
+
+This is not quite right. The method `draw` is defined on instances of `Shape`,
+so we definitely want it to be defined on instances of `Circle`. The problem is
+that `draw` is defined on the prototype of `Shape`, but not on the prototype of
+`Circle`. We could of course copy every property from the prototype of `Shape`
+over to the prototype of `Circle`, but this is needlessly inefficient. Instead,
+we use a clever trick, based on the observation that prototypes are ordinary
+objects. Since prototypes are objects, they have a prototype as well. We can
+thus override the prototype of `Circle` with an object which prototype is the
+prototype of `Shape`.
+
+    Circle.prototype = Object.create(Shape.prototype);
+
+Now when JavaScript looks for the method draw on an instance of Circle, it first
+looks for it on the object itself. When it cannot find the property there, it
+looks for it on the prototype of `Circle`. When it cannot find the property
+there either, it looks for it on `Shape`, at which point the lookup succeeds.
+The resulting behavior is what we were aiming for.
+
+##Inheritance and Instanceof
+The single line of code we added in the previous section solved the problem with
+prototypes, but introduced a new problem with the **instanceof** operator.
+Consider the following:
+
+    let circle = Circle(2, 3, 5);
+    circle instanceof Shape; // => false
+
+Since instances of `Circle` inherit from `Shape`, we definitely want the result
+of this expression to be true. To understand why it is not, we need to
+understand how **instanceof** works. Every prototype has a `constructor`
+property, which is a reference to the constructor for objects with this
+prototype. In other words:
+
+    Circle.prototype.constructor == Circle // => true
+
+The **instanceof** operator compares the `constructor` property of the prototype
+of the left hand side with that of the right hand side, and returns true if they
+are equal. Otherwise, it repeats the comparison for the prototype of the right
+hand side, and so on, until either it returns **true**, or the prototype becomes
+**null**, in which case it returns **false**. The problem is that when we
+overrode the prototype of `Circle` with an object whose prototype is the
+prototype of `Shape`, we didn't correctly set its `constructor` property. This
+property is set automatically for the `prototype` property of a constructor, but
+not for objects created with `Object.create`. The `constructor` property is
+supposed to be non-configurable, non-enumberable, and non-writable, so the
+correct way to define it is as follows:
+
+    Circle.prototype = Object.create(Shape.prototype, {
+        constructor: {
+            value: Circle
+        }
+    });
+
+##Overriding Methods
+As a final example, we show how to override the stub implementation of the
+method `draw` in `Shape` with a more specialized one in `Circle`. Recall that
+JavaScript returns the first property it finds when walking the prototype chain
+of an object from the bottom up. Consequently, overriding a method is as simple
+as providing a new definition on the prototype of the subclass:
+
+    Circle.prototype.draw = function (ctx) {
+        ctx.beginPath();
+        ctx.arc(this.x, this.y, this.radius,
+                0, 2 * Math.PI, false);
+        ctx.fill();
+    };
+
+With this definition in place, we get:
+
+    let shape = Shape(2, 3);
+    shape.draw(); // Error: not yet implemented 
+    let circle = Circle(2, 3, 5);
+    circle.draw(); // TypeError: ctx is not defined
+
+which is the behavior we were aiming for.
+
+##Classes in the Add-on SDK
+We have shown how to emulate classical inheritance in JavaScript using
+constructors and prototypes. However, as we have seen, this takes a significant
+amount of boilerplate code. The Add-on SDK team consists of highly trained
+professionals, but they are also lazy: that is why the SDK contains a helper
+function that handles this boilerplate code for us. It is defined in the module
+���core/heritage���:
+
+    const { Class } = require('sdk/core/heritage');
+
+The function `Class` is a meta-constructor: it creates constructors that behave
+properly with respect to inheritance. It takes a single argument, which is an
+object which properties will be defined on the prototype of the resulting
+constructor. The semantics of `Class` are based on what we've learned earlier.
+For instance, to define a constructor for a class `Shape` in terms of `Class`,
+we can write:
+
+    let Shape = Class({
+        initialize: function (x, y) {
+            this.x = x;
+            this.y = y;
+        },
+        draw: function () {
+            throw new Error("not yet implemented");
+        }
+    }); 
+
+The property `initialize` is special. When it is present, the call to the
+constructor is forwarded to it, as are any arguments passed to it (including the
+this object). In effect, initialize specifies the body of the constructor. Note
+that the constructors created with `Class` automatically check whether they are
+called as constructors, so an explicit check is no longer necessary.
+
+Another special property is `extends`. It specifies the base class from which
+this class inherits, if any. `Class` uses this information to automatically set
+up the prototype chain of the constructor. If the extends property is omitted,
+`Class` itself is used as the base class:
+
+    var shape = new Shape(2, 3);
+    shape instanceof Shape; // => true
+    shape instanceof Class; // => true
+
+To illustrate the use of the `extends` property, let's redefine the constructor
+for the class `Circle` in terms of `Class`:
+
+    var Circle = Class({
+        extends: Shape,
+        initialize: function(x, y, radius) {
+            Shape.prototype.initialize.call(this, x, y);
+            this.radius = radius;
+        },
+        draw: function () {
+            context.beginPath();
+            context.arc(this.x, this.y, this.radius,
+                        0, 2 * Math.PI, false);
+            context.fill();
+        }
+    });
+
+Unlike the definition of `Circle` in the previous section, we no longer have to
+override its prototype, or set its `constructor` property. This is all handled
+automatically. On the other hand, the call to the constructor for `Shape` still
+has to be made explicitly. This is done by forwarding to the initialize method
+of the prototype of the base class. Note that this is always safe, even if there
+is no `initialize` method defined on the base class: in that case the call is
+forwarded to a stub implementation defined on `Class` itself.
+
+The last special property we will look into is `implements`. It specifies a list
+of objects, which properties are to be copied to the prototype of the
+constructor. Note that only properties defined on the object itself are copied:
+properties defined on one of its prototypes are not. This allows objects to
+inherit from more than one class. It is not true multiple inheritance, however:
+no constructors are called for objects inherited via `implements`, and
+**instanceof** only works correctly for classes inherited via `extends`.