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"""Classes and methods for TurboGears controllers."""
__all__ = ['Controller', 'absolute_url',
'error_handler', 'exception_handler',
'expose', 'get_server_name', 'flash', 'redirect',
'Root', 'RootController', 'url', 'validate']
import logging
import urllib
import urlparse
import types
from itertools import izip
from inspect import isclass
import cherrypy
from cherrypy import request, response, url as cp_url
from peak.rules import abstract, NoApplicableMethods
from peak.rules.core import always_overrides, Method
import turbogears.util as tg_util
from turbogears import view, database, errorhandling, config
from turbogears.decorator import weak_signature_decorator
from turbogears.errorhandling import error_handler, exception_handler
from turbogears.validators import Invalid
log = logging.getLogger('turbogears.controllers')
if config.get('tools.sessions.on', False):
if config.get('tools.sessions.storage_type') == 'PostgreSQL':
import psycopg2
config.update(
{'tools.sessions.get_db' : psycopg2.connect(
config.get('sessions.postgres.dsn'))
})
# XXX: support for mysql/sqlite/etc here
def _process_output(output, template, format, content_type, fragment=False,
**options):
"""Produce final output form from data returned from a controller method.
See the expose() arguments for more info since they are the same.
"""
if isinstance(output, dict):
# import this here to prevent circular import in widgets.forms
from turbogears.widgets import js_location
css = tg_util.setlike()
js = dict(izip(js_location, iter(tg_util.setlike, None)))
include_widgets = {}
include_widgets_lst = config.get('tg.include_widgets', [])
if config.get('tg.mochikit_all', False):
include_widgets_lst.insert(0, 'turbogears.mochikit')
for name in include_widgets_lst:
widget = tg_util.load_class(name)
if widget is None:
log.debug("Could not load widget %s", name)
continue
if isclass(widget):
widget = widget()
if hasattr(widget, 'retrieve_resources') and hasattr(widget, 'inject'):
# it's a ToscaWidget, we register it for injection
widget.inject()
# XXX: widgets with same base name will override each other
include_widgets['tg_%s' % name.rsplit('.', 1)[-1]] = widget
output.update(include_widgets)
# collect JS/CSS resources from widgets in the output dict or
# tg.include_widgets
for value in output.itervalues():
if hasattr(value, 'retrieve_resources'):
# it's a ToscaWidget, will be injected by the ToscaWidget middleware
continue
else:
try:
css_resources = value.retrieve_css()
except (AttributeError, TypeError):
css_resources = []
try:
js_resources = value.retrieve_javascript()
except (AttributeError, TypeError):
js_resources = []
css.add_all(css_resources)
for script in js_resources:
location = getattr(script, 'location', js_location.head)
js[location].add(script)
css.sort(key=lambda obj: getattr(obj, 'order', 0))
output['tg_css'] = css
for location in iter(js_location):
js[location].sort(key=lambda obj: getattr(obj, 'order', 0))
output['tg_js_%s' % location] = js[location]
tg_flash = _get_flash()
if tg_flash:
output['tg_flash'] = tg_flash
headers = {'Content-Type': content_type}
output = view.render(output, template=template, format=format,
headers=headers, fragment=fragment, **options)
content_type = headers['Content-Type']
if content_type:
response.headers['Content-Type'] = content_type
else:
content_type = response.headers.get('Content-Type', 'text/plain')
if content_type.startswith('text/'):
if isinstance(output, unicode):
output = output.encode(tg_util.get_template_encoding_default())
return output
class BadFormatError(Exception):
"""Output-format exception."""
def validate(form=None, validators=None,
failsafe_schema=errorhandling.FailsafeSchema.none,
failsafe_values=None, state_factory=None):
"""Validate input.
@param form: a form instance that must be passed throught the validation
process... you must give a the same form instance as the one that will
be used to post data on the controller you are putting the validate
decorator on.
@type form: a form instance
@param validators: individual validators to use for parameters.
If you use a schema for validation then the schema instance must
be the sole argument.
If you use simple validators, then you must pass a dictionary with
each value name to validate as a key of the dictionary and the validator
instance (eg: tg.validators.Int() for integer) as the value.
@type validators: dictionary or schema instance
@param failsafe_schema: a schema for handling failsafe values.
The default is 'none', but you can also use 'values', 'map_errors',
or 'defaults' to map erroneous inputs to values, corresponding exceptions
or method defaults.
@type failsafe_schema: errorhandling.FailsafeSchema
@param failsafe_values: replacements for erroneous inputs. You can either
define replacements for every parameter, or a single replacement value
for all parameters. This is only used when failsafe_schema is 'values'.
@type failsafe_values: a dictionary or a single value
@param state_factory: If this is None, the initial state for validation
is set to None, otherwise this must be a callable that returns the initial
state to be used for validation.
@type state_factory: callable or None
"""
def entangle(func):
if callable(form) and not hasattr(form, 'validate'):
init_form = form
else:
init_form = lambda self: form
def validate(func, *args, **kw):
# do not validate a second time if already validated
if hasattr(request, 'validation_state'):
return func(*args, **kw)
form = init_form(args and args[0] or kw['self'])
args, kw = tg_util.to_kw(func, args, kw)
errors = {}
if state_factory is not None:
state = state_factory()
else:
state = None
if form:
value = kw.copy()
try:
kw.update(form.validate(value, state))
except Invalid, e:
errors = e.unpack_errors()
request.validation_exception = e
request.validated_form = form
if validators:
if isinstance(validators, dict):
for field, validator in validators.iteritems():
try:
kw[field] = validator.to_python(
kw.get(field, None), state)
except Invalid, error:
errors[field] = error
else:
try:
value = kw.copy()
kw.update(validators.to_python(value, state))
except Invalid, e:
errors = e.unpack_errors()
request.validation_exception = e
request.validation_errors = errors
request.input_values = kw.copy()
request.validation_state = state
if errors:
kw = errorhandling.dispatch_failsafe(failsafe_schema,
failsafe_values, errors, func, kw)
args, kw = tg_util.from_kw(func, args, kw)
return errorhandling.run_with_errors(errors, func, *args, **kw)
return validate
return weak_signature_decorator(entangle)
class First(Method):
"""Resolve ambiguousness by calling the first method."""
def merge(self, other):
return self
always_overrides(First, Method)
first = First.make_decorator('first')
def _add_rule(_expose, found_default, as_format, accept_format, template,
rulefunc):
if as_format == 'default':
if found_default:
as_format = template.split(':', 1)[0]
else:
found_default = True
ruleparts = ["kw.get('tg_format', 'default') == '%s'" % as_format]
if accept_format:
ruleparts.append("(accept == '%s'"
" and kw.get('tg_format', 'default') == 'default')" % accept_format)
rule = " or ".join(ruleparts)
log.debug("Generated rule %s", rule)
first(_expose, rule)(rulefunc)
return found_default
def _build_rules(func):
@abstract()
def _expose(func, accept, allow_json, *args, **kw):
pass
if func._allow_json:
rule = ("allow_json and (kw.get('tg_format') == 'json'"
" or accept in ('application/json', 'text/javascript'))")
log.debug("Adding allow_json rule for %s: %s", func, rule)
first(_expose, rule)(
lambda _func, accept, allow_json, *args, **kw:
_execute_func(_func, 'json', 'json', 'application/json',
False, {}, args, kw))
found_default = False
for ruleinfo in func._ruleinfo:
found_default = _add_rule(_expose, found_default, **ruleinfo)
func._expose = _expose
def expose(template=None, allow_json=None, format=None, content_type=None,
fragment=False, as_format='default', accept_format=None, **options):
"""Exposes a method to the web.
By putting the expose decorator on a method, you tell TurboGears that
the method should be accessible via URL traversal. Additionally, expose
handles the output processing (turning a dictionary into finished
output) and is also responsible for ensuring that the request is
wrapped in a database transaction.
You can apply multiple expose decorators to a method, if
you'd like to support multiple output formats. The decorator that's
listed first in your code without as_format or accept_format is
the default that is chosen when no format is specifically asked for.
Any other expose calls that are missing as_format and accept_format
will have as_format implicitly set to the whatever comes before
the ':' in the template name (or the whole template name if there
is no ':'. For example, <code>expose('json')</code>, if it's not
the default expose, will have as_format set to 'json'.
When as_format is set, passing the same value in the tg_format
parameter in a request will choose the options for that expose
decorator. Similarly, accept_format will watch for matching
Accept headers. You can also use both. expose('json', as_format='json',
accept_format='application/json') will choose JSON output for either
case: tg_format='json' as a parameter or Accept: application/json as a
request header.
Passing allow_json=True to an expose decorator
is equivalent to adding the decorator just mentioned.
Each expose decorator has its own set of options, and each one
can choose a different template or even template engine (you can
use Kid for HTML output and Cheetah for plain text, for example).
See the other expose parameters below to learn about the options
you can pass to the template engine.
Take a look at the
<a href="tests/test_expose-source.html">test_expose.py</a> suite
for more examples.
@param template: 'templateengine:dotted.reference' reference along the
Python path for the template and the template engine. For
example, 'kid:foo.bar' will have Kid render the bar template in
the foo package.
@keyparam format: format for the template engine to output (if the
template engine can render different formats. Kid, for example,
can render 'html', 'xml' or 'xhtml')
@keyparam content_type: sets the content-type http header
@keyparam allow_json: allow the function to be exposed as json
@keyparam fragment: for template engines (like Kid) that generate
DOCTYPE declarations and the like, this is a signal to
just generate the immediate template fragment. Use this
if you're building up a page from multiple templates or
going to put something onto a page with .innerHTML.
@keyparam as_format: designates which value of tg_format will choose
this expose.
@keyparam accept_format: which value of an Accept: header will
choose this expose.
All additional keyword arguments are passed as keyword args to the render
method of the template engine.
"""
if not template:
template = format
if format == 'json' or (format is None and template is None
and (allow_json is None or allow_json)):
template = 'json'
allow_json = True
if content_type is None:
content_type = config.get('tg.content_type', None)
if config.get('tg.session.automatic_lock', None):
cherrypy.session.acquire_lock()
def entangle(func):
log.debug("Exposing %s", func)
log.debug("template: %s, format: %s, allow_json: %s, "
"content-type: %s", template, format, allow_json, content_type)
if not getattr(func, 'exposed', False):
def expose(func, *args, **kw):
accept = request.headers.get('Accept', "").lower()
accept = tg_util.simplify_http_accept_header(accept)
if not hasattr(func, '_expose'):
_build_rules(func)
try:
if hasattr(request, 'in_transaction'):
output = func._expose(func, accept, func._allow_json,
*args, **kw)
else:
request.in_transaction = True
output = database.run_with_transaction(
func._expose, func, accept, func._allow_json,
*args, **kw)
except NoApplicableMethods, e:
args = e.args # args from the last generic function call
if (args and args[0] and isinstance(args[0], tuple)
and args[0][0] is func):
# The error refers to our call above. This means that
# no suitable controller method was found (probably due
# to wrong parameters). So we will raise a "not found"
# error unless a specific error status was already set
# (e.g. "unauthorized" was set by the identity provider):
status = cherrypy.request.wsgi_environ.get('identity.status')
if status and str(status) >= '400':
raise cherrypy.HTTPError(*str(status).split(None, 1))
raise cherrypy.NotFound
# If the error was raised elsewhere inside the controller,
# handle it like all other exceptions ("server error"):
raise
return output
func.exposed = True
func._ruleinfo = []
allow_json_from_config = config.get('tg.allow_json', False)
func._allow_json = allow_json_from_config or template == 'json'
else:
expose = lambda func, *args, **kw: func(*args, **kw)
func._ruleinfo.insert(0, dict(as_format=as_format,
accept_format=accept_format, template=template,
rulefunc=lambda _func, accept, allow_json, *args, **kw:
_execute_func(_func, template, format, content_type,
fragment, options, args, kw)))
if allow_json:
func._allow_json = True
return expose
return weak_signature_decorator(entangle)
def _execute_func(func, template, format, content_type, fragment, options,
args, kw):
"""Call controller method and process its output."""
if config.get('tg.strict_parameters', False):
tg_util.remove_keys(kw, ['tg_random', 'tg_format']
+ config.get('tg.ignore_parameters', []))
else:
# get special parameters used by upstream decorators like paginate
try:
tg_kw = dict([(k, v) for k, v in kw.items() if k in func._tg_args])
except AttributeError:
tg_kw = {}
# remove excessive parameters
args, kw = tg_util.adapt_call(func, args, kw)
# add special parameters again
kw.update(tg_kw)
env = config.get('environment') or 'development'
if env == 'development':
# Only output this in development mode: If it's a field storage object,
# this means big memory usage, and we don't want that in production
log.debug("Calling %s with *(%s), **(%s)", func, args, kw)
output = errorhandling.try_call(func, *args, **kw)
if str(getattr(response, 'status', '')).startswith('204'):
# HTTP status 204 indicates a response with no body
# so there should be no content type header
try:
del response.headers['Content-Type']
except (AttributeError, KeyError):
pass
return
else:
assert isinstance(output,
(basestring, dict, list, types.GeneratorType)) or (
hasattr(output, '__iter__') and hasattr(output, 'next')), (
"Method %s.%s() returned unexpected output."
" Output should be of type basestring, dict, list or generator."
% (args[0].__class__.__name__, func.__name__))
if isinstance(output, dict):
template = output.pop('tg_template', template)
format = output.pop('tg_format', format)
if isinstance(template, basestring) and template.startswith('.'):
template = func.__module__[:func.__module__.rfind('.')] + template
return _process_output(output, template, format, content_type,
fragment, **options)
def flash(message):
"""Set a message to be displayed in the browser on next page display."""
message = tg_util.to_utf8(message)
if len(message) > 4000:
log.warning('Flash message exceeding maximum cookie size!')
response.cookie['tg_flash'] = message
response.cookie['tg_flash']['path'] = '/'
def _get_flash():
"""Retrieve the flash message (if one is set), clearing the message."""
request_cookie = request.cookie
response_cookie = response.cookie
def clearcookie():
response_cookie['tg_flash'] = ''
response_cookie['tg_flash']['expires'] = 0
response_cookie['tg_flash']['path'] = '/'
if 'tg_flash' in response_cookie:
message = response_cookie['tg_flash'].value
response_cookie.pop('tg_flash')
if 'tg_flash' in request_cookie:
# New flash overrided old one sitting in cookie. Clear that old cookie.
clearcookie()
elif 'tg_flash' in request_cookie:
message = request_cookie.value_decode(request_cookie['tg_flash'].value)[0]
if 'tg_flash' not in response_cookie:
clearcookie()
else:
message = None
if message:
message = unicode(message, 'utf-8')
return message
class Controller(object):
"""Base class for a web application's controller.
It is important that your controllers inherit from this class, otherwise
``identity.SecureResource`` and ``identity.SecureObject`` will not work
correctly.
"""
is_app_root = None
class RootController(Controller):
"""Base class for the root of a web application.
Your web application must have one of these. The root of your application
is used to compute URLs used by your app.
"""
is_app_root = True
Root = RootController
class ExposedDescriptor(object):
"""Descriptor used by RESTMethod to tell if it is exposed."""
def __get__(self, obj, cls=None):
"""Return True if object has a method for HTTP method of current request
"""
if cls is None:
cls = obj
cp_methodname = cherrypy.request.method
methodname = cp_methodname.lower()
method = getattr(cls, methodname, None)
if callable(method) and getattr(method, 'exposed', False):
return True
raise cherrypy.HTTPError(405, '%s not allowed on %s' % (
cp_methodname, cherrypy.request.browser_url))
class RESTMethod(Controller):
"""Allow REST style dispatch based on different HTTP methods.
For an elaborate usage example see turbogears.tests.test_restmethod.
In short, instead of an exposed method, you define a sub-class of
RESTMethod inside the controller class and inside this class you define
exposed methods named after each HTTP method that should be supported.
Example::
class Controller(controllers.Controller):
class article(copntrollers.RESTMethod):
@expose()
def get(self, id):
...
@expose()
def post(self, id):
...
"""
exposed = ExposedDescriptor()
def __init__(self, *l, **kw):
methodname = cherrypy.request.method.lower()
self.result = getattr(self, methodname)(*l, **kw)
def __iter__(self):
return iter(self.result)
def url(tgpath, tgparams=None, **kw):
"""Computes relocatable URLs.
tgpath can be a list or a string. If the path is absolute (starts with a
"/"), the server.webpath, SCRIPT_NAME and the approot of the application
are prepended to the path. In order for the approot to be detected
properly, the root object must extend controllers.RootController.
Query parameters for the URL can be passed in as a dictionary in
the second argument and/or as keyword parameters where keyword args
overwrite entries in the dictionary.
Values which are lists or tuples will create multiple key-value pairs.
tgpath may also already contain a (properly escaped) query string seperated
by a question mark, in which case additional query params are appended.
"""
if not isinstance(tgpath, basestring):
tgpath = '/'.join(list(tgpath))
if tgpath.startswith('/'):
webpath = config.server.get('server.webpath', '')
if tg_util.request_available():
tgpath = cp_url(tgpath, relative='server')
if not request.script_name.startswith(webpath):
# the virtual path dispatcher is not running
tgpath = webpath + tgpath
elif webpath:
# the server is not running
tgpath = webpath + tgpath
if tgparams is None:
tgparams = kw
else:
try:
tgparams = tgparams.copy()
tgparams.update(kw)
except AttributeError:
raise TypeError('url() expects a dictionary for query parameters')
args = []
for key, value in tgparams.iteritems():
if value is None:
continue
if isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
pairs = [(key, v) for v in value]
else:
pairs = [(key, value)]
for k, v in pairs:
if v is None:
continue
if isinstance(v, unicode):
v = v.encode('utf-8')
args.append((k, str(v)))
if args:
query_string = urllib.urlencode(args, True)
if '?' in tgpath:
tgpath += '&' + query_string
else:
tgpath += '?' + query_string
return tgpath
def get_server_name():
"""Return name of the server this application runs on.
Respects 'Host' and 'X-Forwarded-Host' header.
See the docstring of the 'absolute_url' function for more information.
"""
get = config.get
h = request.headers
host = get('tg.url_domain') or h.get('X-Forwarded-Host', h.get('Host'))
if not host:
host = '%s:%s' % (get('server.socket_host', 'localhost'),
get('server.socket_port', 8080))
return host
def absolute_url(tgpath='/', params=None, **kw):
"""Return absolute URL (including schema and host to this server).
Tries to account for 'Host' header and reverse proxying
('X-Forwarded-Host').
The host name is determined this way:
* If the config setting 'tg.url_domain' is set and non-null, use this value.
* Else, if the 'base_url_filter.use_x_forwarded_host' config setting is
True, use the value from the 'Host' or 'X-Forwarded-Host' request header.
* Else, if config setting 'base_url_filter.on' is True and
'base_url_filter.base_url' is non-null, use its value for the host AND
scheme part of the URL.
* As a last fallback, use the value of 'server.socket_host' and
'server.socket_port' config settings (defaults to 'localhost:8080').
The URL scheme ('http' or 'http') used is determined in the following way:
* If 'base_url_filter.base_url' is used, use the scheme from this URL.
* If there is a 'X-Use-SSL' request header, use 'https'.
* Else, if the config setting 'tg.url_scheme' is set, use its value.
* Else, use the value of 'cherrypy.request.scheme'.
"""
get = config.get
use_xfh = get('base_url_filter.use_x_forwarded_host', False)
if request.headers.get('X-Use-SSL'):
scheme = 'https'
else:
scheme = get('tg.url_scheme')
if not scheme:
scheme = request.scheme
base_url = '%s://%s' % (scheme, get_server_name())
if get('base_url_filter.on', False) and not use_xfh:
base_url = get('base_url_filter.base_url').rstrip('/')
return '%s%s' % (base_url, url(tgpath, params, **kw))
def redirect(redirect_path, redirect_params=None, **kw):
"""Redirect (via cherrypy.HTTPRedirect).
Raises the exception instead of returning it, this to allow
users to both call it as a function or to raise it as an exception.
"""
if not isinstance(redirect_path, basestring):
redirect_path = '/'.join(list(redirect_path))
if not (redirect_path.startswith('/')
or redirect_path.startswith('http://')
or redirect_path.startswith('https://')):
redirect_path = urlparse.urljoin(request.path_info, redirect_path)
raise cherrypy.HTTPRedirect(url(redirect_path, redirect_params, **kw))