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From: Lukasz Kaiser <lukaszkaiser@gm...>  20130121 22:54:47

Hi. We were all thinking a lot recently about a more quantitative Toss, and I write this mail to sum up what was said so far and to open a thread for further thought and discussion. The problem starts with the fact that the world is not always discrete. We want to do vision, so we need various quantities. These can be probabilities, colors, movements and other things. Of course we support dynamics and quantities in Toss almost from the start. But it is neither efficient enough nor mature enough. Let's start with vision. Lukasz Stafiniak suggested to use an algorithm called Condensation, see e.g. the attached paper. This algorithm is based on a population of samples for which a stochastic model of dynamics is known. One uses the model to choose where to look and resample  speaking very crudely. This way the condensation works  on a very high level  looks to me to be quite similar to the cmaes algorithm for minimizing functions  the one I want to use for selection of continuous moves. A good paper that also describes the difference to particle swarm optimization is attached, but the key point is again the same: we have a number of samples, this time all gaussian, which move to minimize the function. Ok  no dynamics model or adjusting to what is observed here  but the same idea: a numer of samples used to represent a distribution that all together give a nice model. Now  to track the dynamics in condensation one needs to have some model of dynamics already. If we don't have it but want to create one, we could use some methods from another paper Lukasz Stafiniak recently linked. They show how a multimodal symbolic regression (MMRS, attached as well) can be used to derive a model from the training data. We would need to track and derive at the same time, but, except for the added computational cost which might be big, this seems to be doable  at least in principle. But MMRS internally again uses evolutional optimization methods, in some sense it is another layer on top, like a recursive call in a sense. This is another thing that made me think: maybe we need a probabilistic quantitative model of relational structures, and then we could build it all on top of this in a clear systematic way? About adding quantities: there is also an internal need in Toss for doing this in a better way. Let me just recall that we have already 12 cases in our main formula type, and another 9 in real_expr. At some point each of those things was needed, but it starts to be hard to use  and I cannot tell why And and Or are built over a list but Plus and Times are only binary. And we still lack min, max, sin, cos  some things that will be needed for dynamics. So we will need to rework this part, and I think we should first think and discuss and maybe we'll find a better universal model for all this stuff. One thing I see now, is that we could assume *every* relation in the structure to be quantitative, always. It is easy to include true and false, e.g. as true = +infty, false = infty. Then and/or will be max/min, and realvalued functions will not be needed in the structure type any more  they'll be simply predicates. This also unifies formula and real_expr to one type and I think that it would directly make quite a few things easier in our code. But I don't want to make a small restructuring only  let's try to think a bit deeper and find the right model, for both quantities like colors or positions, Boolean values, and probabilities too. One thing to watch in this context is Stuart Russell's lecture about probabilistic relational structures. It will be streamed live from Paris, tomorrow 6pm Paris time, see here. http://colloquium.lip6.fr/ It is hard to tell what the lecture will be about exactly, but attached is a paper on BLOG, a probabilistic logic over relational structures developed by Russell. I suggest to read it before the lecture :). Best! Lukasz P.S. As to time planning  I think we will do a release quite soon, before we move to implement any ideas discussed in this thread. 
From: Lukasz Stafiniak <lukstafi@gm...>  20130118 09:52:15

On Fri, Jan 18, 2013 at 12:57 AM, Lukasz Kaiser <lukaszkaiser@...> wrote: > Dear Thomas, > >> In your mini OCaml tutorial, you explain how to compile a project using >> ocamllex, menhir and js_of_ocaml using ocamlbuild but your explanations make >> the assumption that the files needed for js_of_ocaml are in >> /opt/local/lib/ocaml/sitelib. Unfortunately I installed js_of_ocaml using >> OPAM and don't know where it is installed (and don't want to because it may >> change if I switch to another version of ocaml/js_of_ocaml). > > indeed  we make some assumptions because it is very hard to > anticipate all possible ways of installing js_of_ocaml. If you are > under a POSIX system (e.g. Linux or Mac OS) then maybe it is > enough if you do "locate js_of_ocaml" in the terminal. Łukasz: This is not a principled solution... Thomas: Bear in mind that the tutorial is not intended to describe the best OCaml practices but rather to invite people to learn Toss and perhaps contribute to it. We have considered a better support for packaging but didn't have resources to pursue it yet. Regards. 
From: Lukasz Kaiser <lukaszkaiser@gm...>  20130117 23:58:17

Dear Thomas, > In your mini OCaml tutorial, you explain how to compile a project using > ocamllex, menhir and js_of_ocaml using ocamlbuild but your explanations make > the assumption that the files needed for js_of_ocaml are in > /opt/local/lib/ocaml/sitelib. Unfortunately I installed js_of_ocaml using > OPAM and don't know where it is installed (and don't want to because it may > change if I switch to another version of ocaml/js_of_ocaml). indeed  we make some assumptions because it is very hard to anticipate all possible ways of installing js_of_ocaml. If you are under a POSIX system (e.g. Linux or Mac OS) then maybe it is enough if you do "locate js_of_ocaml" in the terminal. (You must have locate installed, it often comes by default, but not always.) This should show you the path to js_of_ocaml on your system. A shorter option with locate is e.g. "locate pa_js.cmo", you can also search your system for the pa_js.cmo file in many other ways. I hope this helps to find your js_of_ocaml  I'd be happy to add a more general solution to the tutorial, but the OPAM websited so not seem to give any direct hints where the OPAM packages are placed, so I don't know how to do this for now. I still hope you will locate your packages without problems, do not hesitate to write if you need anything, Best regards! Lukasz Kaiser 
From: Thomas HUET <thomasynchrotron@gm...>  20130117 20:06:05

Hello, In your mini OCaml tutorial, you explain how to compile a project using ocamllex, menhir and js_of_ocaml using ocamlbuild but your explanations make the assumption that the files needed for js_of_ocaml are in /opt/local/lib/ocaml/sitelib. Unfortunately I installed js_of_ocaml using OPAM and don't know where it is installed (and don't want to because it may change if I switch to another version of ocaml/js_of_ocaml). How can I compile your mini tutorial with my installation of js_of_ocaml ?  Thomas HUET 
From: Lukasz Stafiniak <lukstafi@gm...>  20130108 23:52:23

"A hybrid dynamical system is a mathematical model suitable for describing an extensive spectrum of multimodal, timeseries behaviors, ranging from bouncing balls to air traffic controllers. This paper describes multimodal symbolic regression (MMSR): a learning algorithm to construct nonlinear symbolic representations of discrete dynamical systems with continuous mappings from unlabeled, timeseries data. MMSR consists of two subalgorithmsclustered symbolic regression, a method to simultaneously identify distinct behaviors while formulating their mathematical expressions, and transition modeling, an algorithm to infer symbolic inequalities that describe binary classification boundaries. These subalgorithms are combined to infer hybrid dynamical systems as a collection of apt, mathematical expressions. MMSR is evaluated on a collection of four synthetic data sets and outperforms other multimodal machine learning approaches in both accuracy and interpretability, even in the presence of noise. Furthermore, the versatility of MMSR is demonstrated by identifying and inferring classical expressions of transistor modes from recorded measurements." (I haven't looked into it yet.) http://jmlr.csail.mit.edu/papers/v13/ly12a.html 
From: Lukasz Stafiniak <lukstafi@gm...>  20130103 10:42:26

I suggest we have a look at: http://www.robots.ox.ac.uk/~misard/condensation.html http://www.robots.ox.ac.uk/~misard/abstracts/thesis.html http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1008078328650 I got there from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_tracking Happy New Year. "The problem of tracking curves in dense visual clutter is challenging. Kalman ﬁltering is inadequate because it is based on Gaussian densities which, being unimodal, cannot represent simultaneous alternative hypotheses. The Condensation algorithm uses “factored sampling”, previously applied to the interpretation of static images, in which the probability distribution of possible interpretations is represented by a randomly generated set. Condensation uses learned dynamical models, together with visual observations, to propagate the random set over time. The result is highly robust tracking of agile motion. Notwithstanding the use of stochastic methods, the algorithm runs in near realtime." 