## [93fe1b]: tmux.1 Maximize Restore History

### tmux.1    3851 lines (3844 with data), 93.6 kB

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3822 3823 3824 3825 3826 3827 3828 3829 3830 3831 3832 3833 3834 3835 3836 3837 3838 3839 3840 3841 3842 3843 3844 3845 3846 3847 3848 3849 3850 .\" $Id$ .\" .\" Copyright (c) 2007 Nicholas Marriott .\" .\" Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any .\" purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above .\" copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies. .\" .\" THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES .\" WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF .\" MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR .\" ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES .\" WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF MIND, USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER .\" IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING .\" OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. .\" .Dd $Mdocdate: March 25 2013$ .Dt TMUX 1 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm tmux .Nd terminal multiplexer .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm tmux .Bk -words .Op Fl 2lCquvV .Op Fl c Ar shell-command .Op Fl f Ar file .Op Fl L Ar socket-name .Op Fl S Ar socket-path .Op Ar command Op Ar flags .Ek .Sh DESCRIPTION .Nm is a terminal multiplexer: it enables a number of terminals to be created, accessed, and controlled from a single screen. .Nm may be detached from a screen and continue running in the background, then later reattached. .Pp When .Nm is started it creates a new .Em session with a single .Em window and displays it on screen. A status line at the bottom of the screen shows information on the current session and is used to enter interactive commands. .Pp A session is a single collection of .Em pseudo terminals under the management of .Nm . Each session has one or more windows linked to it. A window occupies the entire screen and may be split into rectangular panes, each of which is a separate pseudo terminal (the .Xr pty 7 manual page documents the technical details of pseudo terminals). Any number of .Nm instances may connect to the same session, and any number of windows may be present in the same session. Once all sessions are killed, .Nm exits. .Pp Each session is persistent and will survive accidental disconnection (such as .Xr ssh 1 connection timeout) or intentional detaching (with the .Ql C-b d key strokes). .Nm may be reattached using: .Pp .Dl $tmux attach .Pp In .Nm , a session is displayed on screen by a .Em client and all sessions are managed by a single .Em server . The server and each client are separate processes which communicate through a socket in .Pa /tmp . .Pp The options are as follows: .Bl -tag -width "XXXXXXXXXXXX" .It Fl 2 Force .Nm to assume the terminal supports 256 colours. .It Fl C Start in control mode (see the .Sx CONTROL MODE section). Given twice .Xo ( Fl CC ) Xc disables echo. .It Fl c Ar shell-command Execute .Ar shell-command using the default shell. If necessary, the .Nm server will be started to retrieve the .Ic default-shell option. This option is for compatibility with .Xr sh 1 when .Nm is used as a login shell. .It Fl f Ar file Specify an alternative configuration file. By default, .Nm loads the system configuration file from .Pa @SYSCONFDIR@/tmux.conf , if present, then looks for a user configuration file at .Pa ~/.tmux.conf . .Pp The configuration file is a set of .Nm commands which are executed in sequence when the server is first started. .Nm loads configuration files once when the server process has started. The .Ic source-file command may be used to load a file later. .Pp .Nm shows any error messages from commands in configuration files in the first session created, and continues to process the rest of the configuration file. .It Fl L Ar socket-name .Nm stores the server socket in a directory under .Ev TMUX_TMPDIR , .Ev TMPDIR if it is unset, or .Pa /tmp if both are unset. The default socket is named .Em default . This option allows a different socket name to be specified, allowing several independent .Nm servers to be run. Unlike .Fl S a full path is not necessary: the sockets are all created in the same directory. .Pp If the socket is accidentally removed, the .Dv SIGUSR1 signal may be sent to the .Nm server process to recreate it. .It Fl l Behave as a login shell. This flag currently has no effect and is for compatibility with other shells when using tmux as a login shell. .It Fl S Ar socket-path Specify a full alternative path to the server socket. If .Fl S is specified, the default socket directory is not used and any .Fl L flag is ignored. .It Fl u .Nm attempts to guess if the terminal is likely to support UTF-8 by checking the first of the .Ev LC_ALL , .Ev LC_CTYPE and .Ev LANG environment variables to be set for the string "UTF-8". This is not always correct: the .Fl u flag explicitly informs .Nm that UTF-8 is supported. .Pp If the server is started from a client passed .Fl u or where UTF-8 is detected, the .Ic utf8 and .Ic status-utf8 options are enabled in the global window and session options respectively. .It Fl v Request verbose logging. This option may be specified multiple times for increasing verbosity. Log messages will be saved into .Pa tmux-client-PID.log and .Pa tmux-server-PID.log files in the current directory, where .Em PID is the PID of the server or client process. .It Fl V Report the .Nm version. .It Ar command Op Ar flags This specifies one of a set of commands used to control .Nm , as described in the following sections. If no commands are specified, the .Ic new-session command is assumed. .El .Sh KEY BINDINGS .Nm may be controlled from an attached client by using a key combination of a prefix key, .Ql C-b (Ctrl-b) by default, followed by a command key. .Pp The default command key bindings are: .Pp .Bl -tag -width "XXXXXXXXXX" -offset indent -compact .It C-b Send the prefix key (C-b) through to the application. .It C-o Rotate the panes in the current window forwards. .It C-z Suspend the .Nm client. .It ! Break the current pane out of the window. .It \&" Split the current pane into two, top and bottom. .It # List all paste buffers. .It$ Rename the current session. .It % Split the current pane into two, left and right. .It & Kill the current window. .It ' Prompt for a window index to select. .It , Rename the current window. .It - Delete the most recently copied buffer of text. .It . Prompt for an index to move the current window. .It 0 to 9 Select windows 0 to 9. .It : Enter the .Nm command prompt. .It ; Move to the previously active pane. .It = Choose which buffer to paste interactively from a list. .It \&? List all key bindings. .It D Choose a client to detach. .It \&[ Enter copy mode to copy text or view the history. .It \&] Paste the most recently copied buffer of text. .It c Create a new window. .It d Detach the current client. .It f Prompt to search for text in open windows. .It i Display some information about the current window. .It l Move to the previously selected window. .It n Change to the next window. .It o Select the next pane in the current window. .It p Change to the previous window. .It q Briefly display pane indexes. .It r Force redraw of the attached client. .It s Select a new session for the attached client interactively. .It L Switch the attached client back to the last session. .It t Show the time. .It w Choose the current window interactively. .It x Kill the current pane. .It { Swap the current pane with the previous pane. .It } Swap the current pane with the next pane. .It ~ Show previous messages from .Nm , if any. .It Page Up Enter copy mode and scroll one page up. .It Up, Down .It Left, Right Change to the pane above, below, to the left, or to the right of the current pane. .It M-1 to M-5 Arrange panes in one of the five preset layouts: even-horizontal, even-vertical, main-horizontal, main-vertical, or tiled. .It M-n Move to the next window with a bell or activity marker. .It M-o Rotate the panes in the current window backwards. .It M-p Move to the previous window with a bell or activity marker. .It C-Up, C-Down .It C-Left, C-Right Resize the current pane in steps of one cell. .It M-Up, M-Down .It M-Left, M-Right Resize the current pane in steps of five cells. .El .Pp Key bindings may be changed with the .Ic bind-key and .Ic unbind-key commands. .Sh COMMANDS This section contains a list of the commands supported by .Nm . Most commands accept the optional .Fl t argument with one of .Ar target-client , .Ar target-session .Ar target-window , or .Ar target-pane . These specify the client, session, window or pane which a command should affect. .Ar target-client is the name of the .Xr pty 7 file to which the client is connected, for example either of .Pa /dev/ttyp1 or .Pa ttyp1 for the client attached to .Pa /dev/ttyp1 . If no client is specified, the current client is chosen, if possible, or an error is reported. Clients may be listed with the .Ic list-clients command. .Pp .Ar target-session is the session id prefixed with a $, the name of a session (as listed by the .Ic list-sessions command), or the name of a client with the same syntax as .Ar target-client , in which case the session attached to the client is used. When looking for the session name, .Nm initially searches for an exact match; if none is found, the session names are checked for any for which .Ar target-session is a prefix or for which it matches as an .Xr fnmatch 3 pattern. If a single match is found, it is used as the target session; multiple matches produce an error. If a session is omitted, the current session is used if available; if no current session is available, the most recently used is chosen. .Pp .Ar target-window specifies a window in the form .Em session Ns \&: Ns Em window . .Em session follows the same rules as for .Ar target-session , and .Em window is looked for in order: as a window index, for example mysession:1; as a window ID, such as @1; as an exact window name, such as mysession:mywindow; then as an .Xr fnmatch 3 pattern or the start of a window name, such as mysession:mywin* or mysession:mywin. An empty window name specifies the next unused index if appropriate (for example the .Ic new-window and .Ic link-window commands) otherwise the current window in .Em session is chosen. The special character .Ql \&! uses the last (previously current) window, .Ql ^ selects the highest numbered window, .Ql$ selects the lowest numbered window, and .Ql + and .Ql - select the next window or the previous window by number. When the argument does not contain a colon, .Nm first attempts to parse it as window; if that fails, an attempt is made to match a session. .Pp .Ar target-pane takes a similar form to .Ar target-window but with the optional addition of a period followed by a pane index, for example: mysession:mywindow.1. If the pane index is omitted, the currently active pane in the specified window is used. If neither a colon nor period appears, .Nm first attempts to use the argument as a pane index; if that fails, it is looked up as for .Ar target-window . A .Ql + or .Ql - indicate the next or previous pane index, respectively. One of the strings .Em top , .Em bottom , .Em left , .Em right , .Em top-left , .Em top-right , .Em bottom-left or .Em bottom-right may be used instead of a pane index. .Pp The special characters .Ql + and .Ql - may be followed by an offset, for example: .Bd -literal -offset indent select-window -t:+2 .Ed .Pp When dealing with a session that doesn't contain sequential window indexes, they will be correctly skipped. .Pp .Nm also gives each pane created in a server an identifier consisting of a .Ql % and a number, starting from zero. A pane's identifier is unique for the life of the .Nm server and is passed to the child process of the pane in the .Ev TMUX_PANE environment variable. It may be used alone to target a pane or the window containing it. .Pp .Ar shell-command arguments are .Xr sh 1 commands. This may be a single argument passed to the shell, for example: .Bd -literal -offset indent new-window 'vi /etc/passwd' .Ed .Pp Will run: .Bd -literal -offset indent /bin/sh -c 'vi /etc/passwd' .Ed .Pp Additionally, the .Ic new-window , .Ic new-session , .Ic split-window , .Ic respawn-window and .Ic respawn-pane commands allow .Ar shell-command to be given as multiple arguments and executed directly (without .Ql sh -c ) . This can avoid issues with shell quoting. For example: .Bd -literal -offset indent $tmux new-window vi /etc/passwd .Ed .Pp Will run .Xr vi 1 directly without invoking the shell. .Pp .Ar command .Op Ar arguments refers to a .Nm command, passed with the command and arguments separately, for example: .Bd -literal -offset indent bind-key F1 set-window-option force-width 81 .Ed .Pp Or if using .Xr sh 1 : .Bd -literal -offset indent$ tmux bind-key F1 set-window-option force-width 81 .Ed .Pp Multiple commands may be specified together as part of a .Em command sequence . Each command should be separated by spaces and a semicolon; commands are executed sequentially from left to right and lines ending with a backslash continue on to the next line, except when escaped by another backslash. A literal semicolon may be included by escaping it with a backslash (for example, when specifying a command sequence to .Ic bind-key ) . .Pp Example .Nm commands include: .Bd -literal -offset indent refresh-client -t/dev/ttyp2 rename-session -tfirst newname set-window-option -t:0 monitor-activity on new-window ; split-window -d bind-key R source-file ~/.tmux.conf \e; \e display-message "source-file done" .Ed .Pp Or from .Xr sh 1 : .Bd -literal -offset indent $tmux kill-window -t :1$ tmux new-window \e; split-window -d $tmux new-session -d 'vi /etc/passwd' \e; split-window -d \e; attach .Ed .Sh CLIENTS AND SESSIONS The .Nm server manages clients, sessions, windows and panes. Clients are attached to sessions to interact with them, either when they are created with the .Ic new-session command, or later with the .Ic attach-session command. Each session has one or more windows .Em linked into it. Windows may be linked to multiple sessions and are made up of one or more panes, each of which contains a pseudo terminal. Commands for creating, linking and otherwise manipulating windows are covered in the .Sx WINDOWS AND PANES section. .Pp The following commands are available to manage clients and sessions: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Xo Ic attach-session .Op Fl dr .Op Fl c Ar working-directory .Op Fl t Ar target-session .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic attach ) If run from outside .Nm , create a new client in the current terminal and attach it to .Ar target-session . If used from inside, switch the current client. If .Fl d is specified, any other clients attached to the session are detached. .Fl r signifies the client is read-only (only keys bound to the .Ic detach-client or .Ic switch-client commands have any effect) .Pp If no server is started, .Ic attach-session will attempt to start it; this will fail unless sessions are created in the configuration file. .Pp The .Ar target-session rules for .Ic attach-session are slightly adjusted: if .Nm needs to select the most recently used session, it will prefer the most recently used .Em unattached session. .Pp .Fl c will set the session working directory (used for new windows) to .Ar working-directory . .It Xo Ic detach-client .Op Fl P .Op Fl a .Op Fl s Ar target-session .Op Fl t Ar target-client .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic detach ) Detach the current client if bound to a key, the client specified with .Fl t , or all clients currently attached to the session specified by .Fl s . The .Fl a option kills all but the client given with .Fl t . If .Fl P is given, send SIGHUP to the parent process of the client, typically causing it to exit. .It Ic has-session Op Fl t Ar target-session .D1 (alias: Ic has ) Report an error and exit with 1 if the specified session does not exist. If it does exist, exit with 0. .It Ic kill-server Kill the .Nm server and clients and destroy all sessions. .It Xo Ic kill-session .Op Fl a .Op Fl t Ar target-session .Xc Destroy the given session, closing any windows linked to it and no other sessions, and detaching all clients attached to it. If .Fl a is given, all sessions but the specified one is killed. .It Xo Ic list-clients .Op Fl F Ar format .Op Fl t Ar target-session .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic lsc ) List all clients attached to the server. For the meaning of the .Fl F flag, see the .Sx FORMATS section. If .Ar target-session is specified, list only clients connected to that session. .It Ic list-commands .D1 (alias: Ic lscm ) List the syntax of all commands supported by .Nm . .It Ic list-sessions Op Fl F Ar format .D1 (alias: Ic ls ) List all sessions managed by the server. For the meaning of the .Fl F flag, see the .Sx FORMATS section. .It Ic lock-client Op Fl t Ar target-client .D1 (alias: Ic lockc ) Lock .Ar target-client , see the .Ic lock-server command. .It Ic lock-session Op Fl t Ar target-session .D1 (alias: Ic locks ) Lock all clients attached to .Ar target-session . .It Xo Ic new-session .Op Fl AdDP .Op Fl c Ar start-directory .Op Fl F Ar format .Op Fl n Ar window-name .Op Fl s Ar session-name .Op Fl t Ar target-session .Op Fl x Ar width .Op Fl y Ar height .Op Ar shell-command .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic new ) Create a new session with name .Ar session-name . .Pp The new session is attached to the current terminal unless .Fl d is given. .Ar window-name and .Ar shell-command are the name of and shell command to execute in the initial window. If .Fl d is used, .Fl x and .Fl y specify the size of the initial window (80 by 24 if not given). .Pp If run from a terminal, any .Xr termios 3 special characters are saved and used for new windows in the new session. .Pp The .Fl A flag makes .Ic new-session behave like .Ic attach-session if .Ar session-name already exists; in the case, .Fl D behaves like .Fl d to .Ic attach-session . .Pp If .Fl t is given, the new session is .Em grouped with .Ar target-session . This means they share the same set of windows - all windows from .Ar target-session are linked to the new session and any subsequent new windows or windows being closed are applied to both sessions. The current and previous window and any session options remain independent and either session may be killed without affecting the other. Giving .Fl n or .Ar shell-command are invalid if .Fl t is used. .Pp The .Fl P option prints information about the new session after it has been created. By default, it uses the format .Ql #{session_name}: but a different format may be specified with .Fl F . .It Xo Ic refresh-client .Op Fl S .Op Fl t Ar target-client .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic refresh ) Refresh the current client if bound to a key, or a single client if one is given with .Fl t . If .Fl S is specified, only update the client's status bar. .It Xo Ic rename-session .Op Fl t Ar target-session .Ar new-name .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic rename ) Rename the session to .Ar new-name . .It Xo Ic show-messages .Op Fl IJT .Op Fl t Ar target-client .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic showmsgs ) Show client messages or server information. Any messages displayed on the status line are saved in a per-client message log, up to a maximum of the limit set by the .Ar message-limit server option. With .Fl t , display the log for .Ar target-client . .Fl I , .Fl J and .Fl T show debugging information about the running server, jobs and terminals. .It Ic source-file Ar path .D1 (alias: Ic source ) Execute commands from .Ar path . .It Ic start-server .D1 (alias: Ic start ) Start the .Nm server, if not already running, without creating any sessions. .It Xo Ic suspend-client .Op Fl t Ar target-client .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic suspendc ) Suspend a client by sending .Dv SIGTSTP (tty stop). .It Xo Ic switch-client .Op Fl lnpr .Op Fl c Ar target-client .Op Fl t Ar target-session .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic switchc ) Switch the current session for client .Ar target-client to .Ar target-session . If .Fl l , .Fl n or .Fl p is used, the client is moved to the last, next or previous session respectively. .Fl r toggles whether a client is read-only (see the .Ic attach-session command). .El .Sh WINDOWS AND PANES A .Nm window may be in one of several modes. The default permits direct access to the terminal attached to the window. The other is copy mode, which permits a section of a window or its history to be copied to a .Em paste buffer for later insertion into another window. This mode is entered with the .Ic copy-mode command, bound to .Ql \&[ by default. It is also entered when a command that produces output, such as .Ic list-keys , is executed from a key binding. .Pp The keys available depend on whether emacs or vi mode is selected (see the .Ic mode-keys option). The following keys are supported as appropriate for the mode: .Bl -column "FunctionXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX" "viXXXXXXXXXX" "emacs" -offset indent .It Sy "Function" Ta Sy "vi" Ta Sy "emacs" .It Li "Append selection" Ta "A" Ta "" .It Li "Back to indentation" Ta "^" Ta "M-m" .It Li "Copy to named buffer" Ta \&" Ta "" .It Li "Bottom of history" Ta "G" Ta "M-<" .It Li "Clear selection" Ta "Escape" Ta "C-g" .It Li "Copy selection" Ta "Enter" Ta "M-w" .It Li "Cursor down" Ta "j" Ta "Down" .It Li "Cursor left" Ta "h" Ta "Left" .It Li "Cursor right" Ta "l" Ta "Right" .It Li "Cursor to bottom line" Ta "L" Ta "" .It Li "Cursor to middle line" Ta "M" Ta "M-r" .It Li "Cursor to top line" Ta "H" Ta "M-R" .It Li "Cursor up" Ta "k" Ta "Up" .It Li "Delete entire line" Ta "d" Ta "C-u" .It Li "Delete/Copy to end of line" Ta "D" Ta "C-k" .It Li "End of line" Ta "$" Ta "C-e" .It Li "Go to line" Ta ":" Ta "g" .It Li "Half page down" Ta "C-d" Ta "M-Down" .It Li "Half page up" Ta "C-u" Ta "M-Up" .It Li "Jump forward" Ta "f" Ta "f" .It Li "Jump to forward" Ta "t" Ta "" .It Li "Jump backward" Ta "F" Ta "F" .It Li "Jump to backward" Ta "T" Ta "" .It Li "Jump again" Ta ";" Ta ";" .It Li "Jump again in reverse" Ta "," Ta "," .It Li "Next page" Ta "C-f" Ta "Page down" .It Li "Next space" Ta "W" Ta "" .It Li "Next space, end of word" Ta "E" Ta "" .It Li "Next word" Ta "w" Ta "" .It Li "Next word end" Ta "e" Ta "M-f" .It Li "Other end of selection" Ta "o" Ta "" .It Li "Paste buffer" Ta "p" Ta "C-y" .It Li "Previous page" Ta "C-b" Ta "Page up" .It Li "Previous word" Ta "b" Ta "M-b" .It Li "Previous space" Ta "B" Ta "" .It Li "Quit mode" Ta "q" Ta "Escape" .It Li "Rectangle toggle" Ta "v" Ta "R" .It Li "Scroll down" Ta "C-Down or C-e" Ta "C-Down" .It Li "Scroll up" Ta "C-Up or C-y" Ta "C-Up" .It Li "Search again" Ta "n" Ta "n" .It Li "Search again in reverse" Ta "N" Ta "N" .It Li "Search backward" Ta "?" Ta "C-r" .It Li "Search forward" Ta "/" Ta "C-s" .It Li "Start of line" Ta "0" Ta "C-a" .It Li "Start selection" Ta "Space" Ta "C-Space" .It Li "Top of history" Ta "g" Ta "M->" .It Li "Transpose characters" Ta "" Ta "C-t" .El .Pp The next and previous word keys use space and the .Ql - , .Ql _ and .Ql @ characters as word delimiters by default, but this can be adjusted by setting the .Em word-separators session option. Next word moves to the start of the next word, next word end to the end of the next word and previous word to the start of the previous word. The three next and previous space keys work similarly but use a space alone as the word separator. .Pp The jump commands enable quick movement within a line. For instance, typing .Ql f followed by .Ql / will move the cursor to the next .Ql / character on the current line. A .Ql \&; will then jump to the next occurrence. .Pp Commands in copy mode may be prefaced by an optional repeat count. With vi key bindings, a prefix is entered using the number keys; with emacs, the Alt (meta) key and a number begins prefix entry. For example, to move the cursor forward by ten words, use .Ql M-1 0 M-f in emacs mode, and .Ql 10w in vi. .Pp Mode key bindings are defined in a set of named tables: .Em vi-edit and .Em emacs-edit for keys used when line editing at the command prompt; .Em vi-choice and .Em emacs-choice for keys used when choosing from lists (such as produced by the .Ic choose-window command); and .Em vi-copy and .Em emacs-copy used in copy mode. The tables may be viewed with the .Ic list-keys command and keys modified or removed with .Ic bind-key and .Ic unbind-key . One command accepts an argument, .Ic copy-pipe , which copies the selection and pipes it to a command. For example the following will bind .Ql C-q to copy the selection into .Pa /tmp as well as the paste buffer: .Bd -literal -offset indent bind-key -temacs-copy C-q copy-pipe "cat >/tmp/out" .Ed .Pp The paste buffer key pastes the first line from the top paste buffer on the stack. .Pp The synopsis for the .Ic copy-mode command is: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Xo Ic copy-mode .Op Fl u .Op Fl t Ar target-pane .Xc Enter copy mode. The .Fl u option scrolls one page up. .El .Pp Each window displayed by .Nm may be split into one or more .Em panes ; each pane takes up a certain area of the display and is a separate terminal. A window may be split into panes using the .Ic split-window command. Windows may be split horizontally (with the .Fl h flag) or vertically. Panes may be resized with the .Ic resize-pane command (bound to .Ql C-up , .Ql C-down .Ql C-left and .Ql C-right by default), the current pane may be changed with the .Ic select-pane command and the .Ic rotate-window and .Ic swap-pane commands may be used to swap panes without changing their position. Panes are numbered beginning from zero in the order they are created. .Pp A number of preset .Em layouts are available. These may be selected with the .Ic select-layout command or cycled with .Ic next-layout (bound to .Ql Space by default); once a layout is chosen, panes within it may be moved and resized as normal. .Pp The following layouts are supported: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Ic even-horizontal Panes are spread out evenly from left to right across the window. .It Ic even-vertical Panes are spread evenly from top to bottom. .It Ic main-horizontal A large (main) pane is shown at the top of the window and the remaining panes are spread from left to right in the leftover space at the bottom. Use the .Em main-pane-height window option to specify the height of the top pane. .It Ic main-vertical Similar to .Ic main-horizontal but the large pane is placed on the left and the others spread from top to bottom along the right. See the .Em main-pane-width window option. .It Ic tiled Panes are spread out as evenly as possible over the window in both rows and columns. .El .Pp In addition, .Ic select-layout may be used to apply a previously used layout - the .Ic list-windows command displays the layout of each window in a form suitable for use with .Ic select-layout . For example: .Bd -literal -offset indent $tmux list-windows 0: ksh [159x48] layout: bb62,159x48,0,0{79x48,0,0,79x48,80,0}$ tmux select-layout bb62,159x48,0,0{79x48,0,0,79x48,80,0} .Ed .Pp .Nm automatically adjusts the size of the layout for the current window size. Note that a layout cannot be applied to a window with more panes than that from which the layout was originally defined. .Pp Commands related to windows and panes are as follows: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Xo Ic break-pane .Op Fl dP .Op Fl F Ar format .Op Fl t Ar target-pane .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic breakp ) Break .Ar target-pane off from its containing window to make it the only pane in a new window. If .Fl d is given, the new window does not become the current window. The .Fl P option prints information about the new window after it has been created. By default, it uses the format .Ql #{session_name}:#{window_index} but a different format may be specified with .Fl F . .It Xo Ic capture-pane .Op Fl aepPq .Op Fl b Ar buffer-name .Op Fl E Ar end-line .Op Fl S Ar start-line .Op Fl t Ar target-pane .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic capturep ) Capture the contents of a pane. If .Fl p is given, the output goes to stdout, otherwise to the buffer specified with .Fl b or a new buffer if omitted. If .Fl a is given, the alternate screen is used, and the history is not accessible. If no alternate screen exists, an error will be returned unless .Fl q is given. If .Fl e is given, the output includes escape sequences for text and background attributes. .Fl C also escapes non-printable characters as octal \exxx. .Fl J joins wrapped lines and preserves trailing spaces at each line's end. .Fl P captures only any output that the pane has received that is the beginning of an as-yet incomplete escape sequence. .Pp .Fl S and .Fl E specify the starting and ending line numbers, zero is the first line of the visible pane and negative numbers are lines in the history. .Ql - to .Fl S is the start of the history and to .Fl E the end of the visible pane. The default is to capture only the visible contents of the pane. .It Xo .Ic choose-client .Op Fl F Ar format .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Op Ar template .Xc Put a window into client choice mode, allowing a client to be selected interactively from a list. After a client is chosen, .Ql %% is replaced by the client .Xr pty 7 path in .Ar template and the result executed as a command. If .Ar template is not given, "detach-client -t '%%'" is used. For the meaning of the .Fl F flag, see the .Sx FORMATS section. This command works only if at least one client is attached. .It Xo .Ic choose-session .Op Fl F Ar format .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Op Ar template .Xc Put a window into session choice mode, where a session may be selected interactively from a list. When one is chosen, .Ql %% is replaced by the session name in .Ar template and the result executed as a command. If .Ar template is not given, "switch-client -t '%%'" is used. For the meaning of the .Fl F flag, see the .Sx FORMATS section. This command works only if at least one client is attached. .It Xo .Ic choose-tree .Op Fl suw .Op Fl b Ar session-template .Op Fl c Ar window-template .Op Fl S Ar format .Op Fl W Ar format .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Xc Put a window into tree choice mode, where either sessions or windows may be selected interactively from a list. By default, windows belonging to a session are indented to show their relationship to a session. .Pp Note that the .Ic choose-window and .Ic choose-session commands are wrappers around .Ic choose-tree . .Pp If .Fl s is given, will show sessions. If .Fl w is given, will show windows. .Pp By default, the tree is collapsed and sessions must be expanded to windows with the right arrow key. The .Fl u option will start with all sessions expanded instead. .Pp If .Fl b is given, will override the default session command. Note that .Ql %% can be used and will be replaced with the session name. The default option if not specified is "switch-client -t '%%'". If .Fl c is given, will override the default window command. Like .Fl b , .Ql %% can be used and will be replaced with the session name and window index. When a window is chosen from the list, the session command is run before the window command. .Pp If .Fl S is given will display the specified format instead of the default session format. If .Fl W is given will display the specified format instead of the default window format. For the meaning of the .Fl s and .Fl w options, see the .Sx FORMATS section. .Pp This command works only if at least one client is attached. .It Xo .Ic choose-window .Op Fl F Ar format .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Op Ar template .Xc Put a window into window choice mode, where a window may be chosen interactively from a list. After a window is selected, .Ql %% is replaced by the session name and window index in .Ar template and the result executed as a command. If .Ar template is not given, "select-window -t '%%'" is used. For the meaning of the .Fl F flag, see the .Sx FORMATS section. This command works only if at least one client is attached. .It Ic display-panes Op Fl t Ar target-client .D1 (alias: Ic displayp) Display a visible indicator of each pane shown by .Ar target-client . See the .Ic display-panes-time , .Ic display-panes-colour , and .Ic display-panes-active-colour session options. While the indicator is on screen, a pane may be selected with the .Ql 0 to .Ql 9 keys. .It Xo Ic find-window .Op Fl CNT .Op Fl F Ar format .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Ar match-string .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic findw ) Search for the .Xr fnmatch 3 pattern .Ar match-string in window names, titles, and visible content (but not history). The flags control matching behavior: .Fl C matches only visible window contents, .Fl N matches only the window name and .Fl T matches only the window title. The default is .Fl CNT . If only one window is matched, it'll be automatically selected, otherwise a choice list is shown. For the meaning of the .Fl F flag, see the .Sx FORMATS section. This command works only if at least one client is attached. .It Xo Ic join-pane .Op Fl bdhv .Oo Fl l .Ar size | .Fl p Ar percentage Oc .Op Fl s Ar src-pane .Op Fl t Ar dst-pane .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic joinp ) Like .Ic split-window , but instead of splitting .Ar dst-pane and creating a new pane, split it and move .Ar src-pane into the space. This can be used to reverse .Ic break-pane . The .Fl b option causes .Ar src-pane to be joined to left of or above .Ar dst-pane . .It Xo Ic kill-pane .Op Fl a .Op Fl t Ar target-pane .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic killp ) Destroy the given pane. If no panes remain in the containing window, it is also destroyed. The .Fl a option kills all but the pane given with .Fl t . .It Xo Ic kill-window .Op Fl a .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic killw ) Kill the current window or the window at .Ar target-window , removing it from any sessions to which it is linked. The .Fl a option kills all but the window given with .Fl t . .It Ic last-pane Op Fl t Ar target-window .D1 (alias: Ic lastp ) Select the last (previously selected) pane. .It Ic last-window Op Fl t Ar target-session .D1 (alias: Ic last ) Select the last (previously selected) window. If no .Ar target-session is specified, select the last window of the current session. .It Xo Ic link-window .Op Fl dk .Op Fl s Ar src-window .Op Fl t Ar dst-window .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic linkw ) Link the window at .Ar src-window to the specified .Ar dst-window . If .Ar dst-window is specified and no such window exists, the .Ar src-window is linked there. If .Fl k is given and .Ar dst-window exists, it is killed, otherwise an error is generated. If .Fl d is given, the newly linked window is not selected. .It Xo Ic list-panes .Op Fl as .Op Fl F Ar format .Op Fl t Ar target .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic lsp ) If .Fl a is given, .Ar target is ignored and all panes on the server are listed. If .Fl s is given, .Ar target is a session (or the current session). If neither is given, .Ar target is a window (or the current window). For the meaning of the .Fl F flag, see the .Sx FORMATS section. .It Xo Ic list-windows .Op Fl a .Op Fl F Ar format .Op Fl t Ar target-session .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic lsw ) If .Fl a is given, list all windows on the server. Otherwise, list windows in the current session or in .Ar target-session . For the meaning of the .Fl F flag, see the .Sx FORMATS section. .It Xo Ic move-pane .Op Fl bdhv .Oo Fl l .Ar size | .Fl p Ar percentage Oc .Op Fl s Ar src-pane .Op Fl t Ar dst-pane .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic movep ) Like .Ic join-pane , but .Ar src-pane and .Ar dst-pane may belong to the same window. .It Xo Ic move-window .Op Fl rdk .Op Fl s Ar src-window .Op Fl t Ar dst-window .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic movew ) This is similar to .Ic link-window , except the window at .Ar src-window is moved to .Ar dst-window . With .Fl r , all windows in the session are renumbered in sequential order, respecting the .Ic base-index option. .It Xo Ic new-window .Op Fl adkP .Op Fl c Ar start-directory .Op Fl F Ar format .Op Fl n Ar window-name .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Op Ar shell-command .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic neww ) Create a new window. With .Fl a , the new window is inserted at the next index up from the specified .Ar target-window , moving windows up if necessary, otherwise .Ar target-window is the new window location. .Pp If .Fl d is given, the session does not make the new window the current window. .Ar target-window represents the window to be created; if the target already exists an error is shown, unless the .Fl k flag is used, in which case it is destroyed. .Ar shell-command is the command to execute. If .Ar shell-command is not specified, the value of the .Ic default-command option is used. .Fl c specifies the working directory in which the new window is created. .Pp When the shell command completes, the window closes. See the .Ic remain-on-exit option to change this behaviour. .Pp The .Ev TERM environment variable must be set to .Dq screen for all programs running .Em inside .Nm . New windows will automatically have .Dq TERM=screen added to their environment, but care must be taken not to reset this in shell start-up files. .Pp The .Fl P option prints information about the new window after it has been created. By default, it uses the format .Ql #{session_name}:#{window_index} but a different format may be specified with .Fl F . .It Ic next-layout Op Fl t Ar target-window .D1 (alias: Ic nextl ) Move a window to the next layout and rearrange the panes to fit. .It Xo Ic next-window .Op Fl a .Op Fl t Ar target-session .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic next ) Move to the next window in the session. If .Fl a is used, move to the next window with an alert. .It Xo Ic pipe-pane .Op Fl o .Op Fl t Ar target-pane .Op Ar shell-command .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic pipep ) Pipe any output sent by the program in .Ar target-pane to a shell command. A pane may only be piped to one command at a time, any existing pipe is closed before .Ar shell-command is executed. The .Ar shell-command string may contain the special character sequences supported by the .Ic status-left option. If no .Ar shell-command is given, the current pipe (if any) is closed. .Pp The .Fl o option only opens a new pipe if no previous pipe exists, allowing a pipe to be toggled with a single key, for example: .Bd -literal -offset indent bind-key C-p pipe-pane -o 'cat >>~/output.#I-#P' .Ed .It Xo Ic previous-layout .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic prevl ) Move to the previous layout in the session. .It Xo Ic previous-window .Op Fl a .Op Fl t Ar target-session .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic prev ) Move to the previous window in the session. With .Fl a , move to the previous window with an alert. .It Xo Ic rename-window .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Ar new-name .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic renamew ) Rename the current window, or the window at .Ar target-window if specified, to .Ar new-name . .It Xo Ic resize-pane .Op Fl DLRUZ .Op Fl t Ar target-pane .Op Fl x Ar width .Op Fl y Ar height .Op Ar adjustment .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic resizep ) Resize a pane, up, down, left or right by .Ar adjustment with .Fl U , .Fl D , .Fl L or .Fl R , or to an absolute size with .Fl x or .Fl y . The .Ar adjustment is given in lines or cells (the default is 1). .Pp With .Fl Z , the active pane is toggled between zoomed (occupying the whole of the window) and unzoomed (its normal position in the layout). .It Xo Ic respawn-pane .Op Fl k .Op Fl t Ar target-pane .Op Ar shell-command .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic respawnp ) Reactivate a pane in which the command has exited (see the .Ic remain-on-exit window option). If .Ar shell-command is not given, the command used when the pane was created is executed. The pane must be already inactive, unless .Fl k is given, in which case any existing command is killed. .It Xo Ic respawn-window .Op Fl k .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Op Ar shell-command .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic respawnw ) Reactivate a window in which the command has exited (see the .Ic remain-on-exit window option). If .Ar shell-command is not given, the command used when the window was created is executed. The window must be already inactive, unless .Fl k is given, in which case any existing command is killed. .It Xo Ic rotate-window .Op Fl DU .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic rotatew ) Rotate the positions of the panes within a window, either upward (numerically lower) with .Fl U or downward (numerically higher). .It Xo Ic select-layout .Op Fl np .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Op Ar layout-name .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic selectl ) Choose a specific layout for a window. If .Ar layout-name is not given, the last preset layout used (if any) is reapplied. .Fl n and .Fl p are equivalent to the .Ic next-layout and .Ic previous-layout commands. .It Xo Ic select-pane .Op Fl lDLRU .Op Fl t Ar target-pane .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic selectp ) Make pane .Ar target-pane the active pane in window .Ar target-window . If one of .Fl D , .Fl L , .Fl R , or .Fl U is used, respectively the pane below, to the left, to the right, or above the target pane is used. .Fl l is the same as using the .Ic last-pane command. .It Xo Ic select-window .Op Fl lnpT .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic selectw ) Select the window at .Ar target-window . .Fl l , .Fl n and .Fl p are equivalent to the .Ic last-window , .Ic next-window and .Ic previous-window commands. If .Fl T is given and the selected window is already the current window, the command behaves like .Ic last-window . .It Xo Ic split-window .Op Fl dhvP .Op Fl c Ar start-directory .Oo Fl l .Ar size | .Fl p Ar percentage Oc .Op Fl t Ar target-pane .Op Ar shell-command .Op Fl F Ar format .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic splitw ) Create a new pane by splitting .Ar target-pane : .Fl h does a horizontal split and .Fl v a vertical split; if neither is specified, .Fl v is assumed. The .Fl l and .Fl p options specify the size of the new pane in lines (for vertical split) or in cells (for horizontal split), or as a percentage, respectively. All other options have the same meaning as for the .Ic new-window command. .It Xo Ic swap-pane .Op Fl dDU .Op Fl s Ar src-pane .Op Fl t Ar dst-pane .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic swapp ) Swap two panes. If .Fl U is used and no source pane is specified with .Fl s , .Ar dst-pane is swapped with the previous pane (before it numerically); .Fl D swaps with the next pane (after it numerically). .Fl d instructs .Nm not to change the active pane. .It Xo Ic swap-window .Op Fl d .Op Fl s Ar src-window .Op Fl t Ar dst-window .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic swapw ) This is similar to .Ic link-window , except the source and destination windows are swapped. It is an error if no window exists at .Ar src-window . .It Xo Ic unlink-window .Op Fl k .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic unlinkw ) Unlink .Ar target-window . Unless .Fl k is given, a window may be unlinked only if it is linked to multiple sessions - windows may not be linked to no sessions; if .Fl k is specified and the window is linked to only one session, it is unlinked and destroyed. .El .Sh KEY BINDINGS .Nm allows a command to be bound to most keys, with or without a prefix key. When specifying keys, most represent themselves (for example .Ql A to .Ql Z ) . Ctrl keys may be prefixed with .Ql C- or .Ql ^ , and Alt (meta) with .Ql M- . In addition, the following special key names are accepted: .Em Up , .Em Down , .Em Left , .Em Right , .Em BSpace , .Em BTab , .Em DC (Delete), .Em End , .Em Enter , .Em Escape , .Em F1 to .Em F20 , .Em Home , .Em IC (Insert), .Em NPage/PageDown/PgDn , .Em PPage/PageUp/PgUp , .Em Space , and .Em Tab . Note that to bind the .Ql \&" or .Ql ' keys, quotation marks are necessary, for example: .Bd -literal -offset indent bind-key '"' split-window bind-key "'" new-window .Ed .Pp Commands related to key bindings are as follows: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Xo Ic bind-key .Op Fl cnr .Op Fl t Ar mode-table .Ar key Ar command Op Ar arguments .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic bind ) Bind key .Ar key to .Ar command . By default (without .Fl t ) the primary key bindings are modified (those normally activated with the prefix key); in this case, if .Fl n is specified, it is not necessary to use the prefix key, .Ar command is bound to .Ar key alone. The .Fl r flag indicates this key may repeat, see the .Ic repeat-time option. .Pp If .Fl t is present, .Ar key is bound in .Ar mode-table : the binding for command mode with .Fl c or for normal mode without. To view the default bindings and possible commands, see the .Ic list-keys command. .It Ic list-keys Op Fl t Ar key-table .D1 (alias: Ic lsk ) List all key bindings. Without .Fl t the primary key bindings - those executed when preceded by the prefix key - are printed. .Pp With .Fl t , the key bindings in .Ar key-table are listed; this may be one of: .Em vi-edit , .Em emacs-edit , .Em vi-choice , .Em emacs-choice , .Em vi-copy or .Em emacs-copy . .It Xo Ic send-keys .Op Fl lR .Op Fl t Ar target-pane .Ar key Ar ... .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic send ) Send a key or keys to a window. Each argument .Ar key is the name of the key (such as .Ql C-a or .Ql npage ) to send; if the string is not recognised as a key, it is sent as a series of characters. The .Fl l flag disables key name lookup and sends the keys literally. All arguments are sent sequentially from first to last. The .Fl R flag causes the terminal state to be reset. .It Xo Ic send-prefix .Op Fl 2 .Op Fl t Ar target-pane .Xc Send the prefix key, or with .Fl 2 the secondary prefix key, to a window as if it was pressed. .It Xo Ic unbind-key .Op Fl acn .Op Fl t Ar mode-table .Ar key .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic unbind ) Unbind the command bound to .Ar key . Without .Fl t the primary key bindings are modified; in this case, if .Fl n is specified, the command bound to .Ar key without a prefix (if any) is removed. If .Fl a is present, all key bindings are removed. .Pp If .Fl t is present, .Ar key in .Ar mode-table is unbound: the binding for command mode with .Fl c or for normal mode without. .El .Sh OPTIONS The appearance and behaviour of .Nm may be modified by changing the value of various options. There are three types of option: .Em server options , .Em session options and .Em window options . .Pp The .Nm server has a set of global options which do not apply to any particular window or session. These are altered with the .Ic set-option .Fl s command, or displayed with the .Ic show-options .Fl s command. .Pp In addition, each individual session may have a set of session options, and there is a separate set of global session options. Sessions which do not have a particular option configured inherit the value from the global session options. Session options are set or unset with the .Ic set-option command and may be listed with the .Ic show-options command. The available server and session options are listed under the .Ic set-option command. .Pp Similarly, a set of window options is attached to each window, and there is a set of global window options from which any unset options are inherited. Window options are altered with the .Ic set-window-option command and can be listed with the .Ic show-window-options command. All window options are documented with the .Ic set-window-option command. .Pp .Nm also supports user options which are prefixed with a .Ql \&@ . User options may have any name, so long as they are prefixed with .Ql \&@ , and be set to any string. For example .Bd -literal -offset indent $tmux setw -q @foo "abc123"$ tmux showw -v @foo abc123 .Ed .Pp Commands which set options are as follows: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Xo Ic set-option .Op Fl agoqsuw .Op Fl t Ar target-session | Ar target-window .Ar option Ar value .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic set ) Set a window option with .Fl w (equivalent to the .Ic set-window-option command), a server option with .Fl s , otherwise a session option. .Pp If .Fl g is specified, the global session or window option is set. The .Fl u flag unsets an option, so a session inherits the option from the global options. It is not possible to unset a global option. .Pp The .Fl o flag prevents setting an option that is already set. .Pp The .Fl q flag suppresses errors about unknown options. .Pp With .Fl a , and if the option expects a string or a style, .Ar value is appended to the existing setting. For example: .Bd -literal -offset indent set -g status-left "foo" set -ag status-left "bar" .Ed .Pp Will result in .Ql foobar . And: .Bd -literal -offset indent set -g status-style "bg=red" set -ag status-style "fg=blue" .Ed .Pp Will result in a red background .Em and blue foreground. Without .Fl a , the result would be the default background and a blue foreground. .Pp Available window options are listed under .Ic set-window-option . .Pp .Ar value depends on the option and may be a number, a string, or a flag (on, off, or omitted to toggle). .Pp Available server options are: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Ic buffer-limit Ar number Set the number of buffers; as new buffers are added to the top of the stack, old ones are removed from the bottom if necessary to maintain this maximum length. .It Ic escape-time Ar time Set the time in milliseconds for which .Nm waits after an escape is input to determine if it is part of a function or meta key sequences. The default is 500 milliseconds. .It Xo Ic exit-unattached .Op Ic on | off .Xc If enabled, the server will exit when there are no attached clients. .It Xo Ic focus-events .Op Ic on | off .Xc When enabled, focus events are requested from the terminal if supported and passed through to applications running in .Nm . Attached clients should be detached and attached again after changing this option. .It Ic message-limit Ar number Set the number of error or information messages to save in the message log for each client. The default is 100. .It Xo Ic set-clipboard .Op Ic on | off .Xc Attempt to set the terminal clipboard content using the \ee]52;...\e007 .Xr xterm 1 escape sequences. This option is on by default if there is an .Em \&Ms entry in the .Xr terminfo 5 description for the client terminal. Note that this feature needs to be enabled in .Xr xterm 1 by setting the resource: .Bd -literal -offset indent disallowedWindowOps: 20,21,SetXprop .Ed .Pp Or changing this property from the .Xr xterm 1 interactive menu when required. .It Ic terminal-overrides Ar string Contains a list of entries which override terminal descriptions read using .Xr terminfo 5 . .Ar string is a comma-separated list of items each a colon-separated string made up of a terminal type pattern (matched using .Xr fnmatch 3 ) and a set of .Em name=value entries. .Pp For example, to set the .Ql clear .Xr terminfo 5 entry to .Ql \ee[H\ee[2J for all terminal types and the .Ql dch1 entry to .Ql \ee[P for the .Ql rxvt terminal type, the option could be set to the string: .Bd -literal -offset indent "*:clear=\ee[H\ee[2J,rxvt:dch1=\ee[P" .Ed .Pp The terminal entry value is passed through .Xr strunvis 3 before interpretation. The default value forcibly corrects the .Ql colors entry for terminals which support 256 colours: .Bd -literal -offset indent "*256col*:colors=256,xterm*:XT" .Ed .El .Pp Available session options are: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Ic assume-paste-time Ar milliseconds If keys are entered faster than one in .Ar milliseconds , they are assumed to have been pasted rather than typed and .Nm key bindings are not processed. The default is one millisecond and zero disables. .It Ic base-index Ar index Set the base index from which an unused index should be searched when a new window is created. The default is zero. .It Xo Ic bell-action .Op Ic any | none | current .Xc Set action on window bell. .Ic any means a bell in any window linked to a session causes a bell in the current window of that session, .Ic none means all bells are ignored and .Ic current means only bells in windows other than the current window are ignored. .It Xo Ic bell-on-alert .Op Ic on | off .Xc If on, ring the terminal bell when an alert occurs. .It Ic default-command Ar shell-command Set the command used for new windows (if not specified when the window is created) to .Ar shell-command , which may be any .Xr sh 1 command. The default is an empty string, which instructs .Nm to create a login shell using the value of the .Ic default-shell option. .It Ic default-shell Ar path Specify the default shell. This is used as the login shell for new windows when the .Ic default-command option is set to empty, and must be the full path of the executable. When started .Nm tries to set a default value from the first suitable of the .Ev SHELL environment variable, the shell returned by .Xr getpwuid 3 , or .Pa /bin/sh . This option should be configured when .Nm is used as a login shell. .It Ic default-terminal Ar terminal Set the default terminal for new windows created in this session - the default value of the .Ev TERM environment variable. For .Nm to work correctly, this .Em must be set to .Ql screen or a derivative of it. .It Xo Ic destroy-unattached .Op Ic on | off .Xc If enabled and the session is no longer attached to any clients, it is destroyed. .It Xo Ic detach-on-destroy .Op Ic on | off .Xc If on (the default), the client is detached when the session it is attached to is destroyed. If off, the client is switched to the most recently active of the remaining sessions. .It Ic display-panes-active-colour Ar colour Set the colour used by the .Ic display-panes command to show the indicator for the active pane. .It Ic display-panes-colour Ar colour Set the colour used by the .Ic display-panes command to show the indicators for inactive panes. .It Ic display-panes-time Ar time Set the time in milliseconds for which the indicators shown by the .Ic display-panes command appear. .It Ic display-time Ar time Set the amount of time for which status line messages and other on-screen indicators are displayed. .Ar time is in milliseconds. .It Ic history-limit Ar lines Set the maximum number of lines held in window history. This setting applies only to new windows - existing window histories are not resized and retain the limit at the point they were created. .It Ic lock-after-time Ar number Lock the session (like the .Ic lock-session command) after .Ar number seconds of inactivity, or the entire server (all sessions) if the .Ic lock-server option is set. The default is not to lock (set to 0). .It Ic lock-command Ar shell-command Command to run when locking each client. The default is to run .Xr lock 1 with .Fl np . .It Xo Ic lock-server .Op Ic on | off .Xc If this option is .Ic on (the default), instead of each session locking individually as each has been idle for .Ic lock-after-time , the entire server will lock after .Em all sessions would have locked. This has no effect as a session option; it must be set as a global option. .It Ic message-command-style Ar style Set status line message command style, where .Ar style is a comma-separated list of characteristics to be specified. .Pp These may be .Ql bg=colour to set the background colour, .Ql fg=colour to set the foreground colour, and a list of attributes as specified below. .Pp The colour is one of: .Ic black , .Ic red , .Ic green , .Ic yellow , .Ic blue , .Ic magenta , .Ic cyan , .Ic white , aixterm bright variants (if supported: .Ic brightred , .Ic brightgreen , and so on), .Ic colour0 to .Ic colour255 from the 256-colour set, .Ic default , or a hexadecimal RGB string such as .Ql #ffffff , which chooses the closest match from the default 256-colour set. .Pp The attributes is either .Ic none or a comma-delimited list of one or more of: .Ic bright (or .Ic bold ) , .Ic dim , .Ic underscore , .Ic blink , .Ic reverse , .Ic hidden , or .Ic italics , to turn an attribute on, or an attribute prefixed with .Ql no to turn one off. .Pp Examples are: .Bd -literal -offset indent fg=yellow,bold,underscore,blink bg=black,fg=default,noreverse .Ed .Pp With the .Fl a flag to the .Ic set-option command the new style is added otherwise the existing style is replaced. .It Ic message-style Ar style Set status line message style. For how to specify .Ar style , see the .Ic message-command-style option. .It Xo Ic mouse-resize-pane .Op Ic on | off .Xc If on, .Nm captures the mouse and allows panes to be resized by dragging on their borders. .It Xo Ic mouse-select-pane .Op Ic on | off .Xc If on, .Nm captures the mouse and when a window is split into multiple panes the mouse may be used to select the current pane. The mouse click is also passed through to the application as normal. .It Xo Ic mouse-select-window .Op Ic on | off .Xc If on, clicking the mouse on a window name in the status line will select that window. .It Xo Ic mouse-utf8 .Op Ic on | off .Xc If enabled, request mouse input as UTF-8 on UTF-8 terminals. .It Ic pane-active-border-style Ar style Set the pane border style for the currently active pane. For how to specify .Ar style , see the .Ic message-command-style option. Attributes are ignored. .It Ic pane-border-style Ar style Set the pane border style for paneas aside from the active pane. For how to specify .Ar style , see the .Ic message-command-style option. Attributes are ignored. .It Ic prefix Ar key Set the key accepted as a prefix key. .It Ic prefix2 Ar key Set a secondary key accepted as a prefix key. .It Xo Ic renumber-windows .Op Ic on | off .Xc If on, when a window is closed in a session, automatically renumber the other windows in numerical order. This respects the .Ic base-index option if it has been set. If off, do not renumber the windows. .It Ic repeat-time Ar time Allow multiple commands to be entered without pressing the prefix-key again in the specified .Ar time milliseconds (the default is 500). Whether a key repeats may be set when it is bound using the .Fl r flag to .Ic bind-key . Repeat is enabled for the default keys bound to the .Ic resize-pane command. .It Xo Ic set-remain-on-exit .Op Ic on | off .Xc Set the .Ic remain-on-exit window option for any windows first created in this session. When this option is true, windows in which the running program has exited do not close, instead remaining open but inactivate. Use the .Ic respawn-window command to reactivate such a window, or the .Ic kill-window command to destroy it. .It Xo Ic set-titles .Op Ic on | off .Xc Attempt to set the client terminal title using the .Em tsl and .Em fsl .Xr terminfo 5 entries if they exist. .Nm automatically sets these to the \ee]2;...\e007 sequence if the terminal appears to be an xterm. This option is off by default. Note that elinks will only attempt to set the window title if the STY environment variable is set. .It Ic set-titles-string Ar string String used to set the window title if .Ic set-titles is on. Character sequences are replaced as for the .Ic status-left option. .It Xo Ic status .Op Ic on | off .Xc Show or hide the status line. .It Ic status-interval Ar interval Update the status bar every .Ar interval seconds. By default, updates will occur every 15 seconds. A setting of zero disables redrawing at interval. .It Xo Ic status-justify .Op Ic left | centre | right .Xc Set the position of the window list component of the status line: left, centre or right justified. .It Xo Ic status-keys .Op Ic vi | emacs .Xc Use vi or emacs-style key bindings in the status line, for example at the command prompt. The default is emacs, unless the .Ev VISUAL or .Ev EDITOR environment variables are set and contain the string .Ql vi . .It Ic status-left Ar string Display .Ar string (by default the session name) to the left of the status bar. .Ar string will be passed through .Xr strftime 3 and formats (see .Sx FORMATS ) will be expanded. It may also contain any of the following special character sequences: .Bl -column "Character pair" "Replaced with" -offset indent .It Sy "Character pair" Ta Sy "Replaced with" .It Li "#(shell-command)" Ta "First line of the command's output" .It Li "#[attributes]" Ta "Colour or attribute change" .It Li "##" Ta "A literal" Ql # .El .Pp The #(shell-command) form executes .Ql shell-command and inserts the first line of its output. Note that shell commands are only executed once at the interval specified by the .Ic status-interval option: if the status line is redrawn in the meantime, the previous result is used. Shell commands are executed with the .Nm global environment set (see the .Sx ENVIRONMENT section). .Pp For details on how the names and titles can be set see the .Sx "NAMES AND TITLES" section. For a list of allowed attributes see the .Ic message-command-style option. .Pp Examples are: .Bd -literal -offset indent #(sysctl vm.loadavg) #[fg=yellow,bold]#(apm -l)%%#[default] [#S] .Ed .Pp By default, UTF-8 in .Ar string is not interpreted, to enable UTF-8, use the .Ic status-utf8 option. .It Ic status-left-length Ar length Set the maximum .Ar length of the left component of the status bar. The default is 10. .It Ic status-left-style Ar style Set the style of the left part of the status line. For how to specify .Ar style , see the .Ic message-command-style option. .It Xo Ic status-position .Op Ic top | bottom .Xc Set the position of the status line. .It Ic status-right Ar string Display .Ar string to the right of the status bar. By default, the current window title in double quotes, the date and the time are shown. As with .Ic status-left , .Ar string will be passed to .Xr strftime 3 , character pairs are replaced, and UTF-8 is dependent on the .Ic status-utf8 option. .It Ic status-right-length Ar length Set the maximum .Ar length of the right component of the status bar. The default is 40. .It Ic status-right-style Ar style Set the style of the right part of the status line. For how to specify .Ar style , see the .Ic message-command-style option. .It Ic status-style Ar style Set status line style. For how to specify .Ar style , see the .Ic message-command-style option. .It Xo Ic status-utf8 .Op Ic on | off .Xc Instruct .Nm to treat top-bit-set characters in the .Ic status-left and .Ic status-right strings as UTF-8; notably, this is important for wide characters. This option defaults to off. .It Ic update-environment Ar variables Set a space-separated string containing a list of environment variables to be copied into the session environment when a new session is created or an existing session is attached. Any variables that do not exist in the source environment are set to be removed from the session environment (as if .Fl r was given to the .Ic set-environment command). The default is "DISPLAY SSH_ASKPASS SSH_AUTH_SOCK SSH_AGENT_PID SSH_CONNECTION WINDOWID XAUTHORITY". .It Xo Ic visual-activity .Op Ic on | off .Xc If on, display a status line message when activity occurs in a window for which the .Ic monitor-activity window option is enabled. .It Xo Ic visual-bell .Op Ic on | off .Xc If this option is on, a message is shown on a bell instead of it being passed through to the terminal (which normally makes a sound). Also see the .Ic bell-action option. .It Xo Ic visual-silence .Op Ic on | off .Xc If .Ic monitor-silence is enabled, prints a message after the interval has expired on a given window. .It Ic word-separators Ar string Sets the session's conception of what characters are considered word separators, for the purposes of the next and previous word commands in copy mode. The default is .Ql \ -_@ . .El .It Xo Ic set-window-option .Op Fl agoqu .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Ar option Ar value .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic setw ) Set a window option. The .Fl a , .Fl g , .Fl o , .Fl q and .Fl u flags work similarly to the .Ic set-option command. .Pp Supported window options are: .Pp .Bl -tag -width Ds -compact .It Xo Ic aggressive-resize .Op Ic on | off .Xc Aggressively resize the chosen window. This means that .Nm will resize the window to the size of the smallest session for which it is the current window, rather than the smallest session to which it is attached. The window may resize when the current window is changed on another sessions; this option is good for full-screen programs which support .Dv SIGWINCH and poor for interactive programs such as shells. .Pp .It Xo Ic allow-rename .Op Ic on | off .Xc Allow programs to change the window name using a terminal escape sequence (\\033k...\\033\\\\). The default is on. .Pp .It Xo Ic alternate-screen .Op Ic on | off .Xc This option configures whether programs running inside .Nm may use the terminal alternate screen feature, which allows the .Em smcup and .Em rmcup .Xr terminfo 5 capabilities. The alternate screen feature preserves the contents of the window when an interactive application starts and restores it on exit, so that any output visible before the application starts reappears unchanged after it exits. The default is on. .Pp .It Xo Ic automatic-rename .Op Ic on | off .Xc Control automatic window renaming. When this setting is enabled, .Nm will rename the window automatically using the format specified by .Ic automatic-rename-format . This flag is automatically disabled for an individual window when a name is specified at creation with .Ic new-window or .Ic new-session , or later with .Ic rename-window , or with a terminal escape sequence. It may be switched off globally with: .Bd -literal -offset indent set-window-option -g automatic-rename off .Ed .Pp .It Ic automatic-rename-format Ar format The format (see .Sx FORMATS ) used when the .Ic automatic-rename option is enabled. .Pp .It Ic c0-change-interval Ar interval .It Ic c0-change-trigger Ar trigger These two options configure a simple form of rate limiting for a pane. If .Nm sees more than .Ar trigger C0 sequences that modify the screen (for example, carriage returns, linefeeds or backspaces) in one millisecond, it will stop updating the pane immediately and instead redraw it entirely every .Ar interval milliseconds. This helps to prevent fast output (such as .Xr yes 1 ) overwhelming the terminal. The default is a trigger of 250 and an interval of 100. A trigger of zero disables the rate limiting. .Pp .It Ic clock-mode-colour Ar colour Set clock colour. .Pp .It Xo Ic clock-mode-style .Op Ic 12 | 24 .Xc Set clock hour format. .Pp .It Ic force-height Ar height .It Ic force-width Ar width Prevent .Nm from resizing a window to greater than .Ar width or .Ar height . A value of zero restores the default unlimited setting. .Pp .It Ic main-pane-height Ar height .It Ic main-pane-width Ar width Set the width or height of the main (left or top) pane in the .Ic main-horizontal or .Ic main-vertical layouts. .Pp .It Xo Ic mode-keys .Op Ic vi | emacs .Xc Use vi or emacs-style key bindings in copy and choice modes. As with the .Ic status-keys option, the default is emacs, unless .Ev VISUAL or .Ev EDITOR contains .Ql vi . .Pp .It Xo Ic mode-mouse .Op Ic on | off | copy-mode .Xc Mouse state in modes. If on, the mouse may be used to enter copy mode and copy a selection by dragging, to enter copy mode and scroll with the mouse wheel, or to select an option in choice mode. If set to .Em copy-mode , the mouse behaves as set to on, but cannot be used to enter copy mode. .Pp .It Ic mode-style Ar style Set window modes style. For how to specify .Ar style , see the .Ic message-command-style option. .Pp .It Xo Ic monitor-activity .Op Ic on | off .Xc Monitor for activity in the window. Windows with activity are highlighted in the status line. .Pp .It Xo Ic monitor-silence .Op Ic interval .Xc Monitor for silence (no activity) in the window within .Ic interval seconds. Windows that have been silent for the interval are highlighted in the status line. An interval of zero disables the monitoring. .Pp .It Ic other-pane-height Ar height Set the height of the other panes (not the main pane) in the .Ic main-horizontal layout. If this option is set to 0 (the default), it will have no effect. If both the .Ic main-pane-height and .Ic other-pane-height options are set, the main pane will grow taller to make the other panes the specified height, but will never shrink to do so. .Pp .It Ic other-pane-width Ar width Like .Ic other-pane-height , but set the width of other panes in the .Ic main-vertical layout. .Pp .It Ic pane-base-index Ar index Like .Ic base-index , but set the starting index for pane numbers. .Pp .It Xo Ic remain-on-exit .Op Ic on | off .Xc A window with this flag set is not destroyed when the program running in it exits. The window may be reactivated with the .Ic respawn-window command. .Pp .It Xo Ic synchronize-panes .Op Ic on | off .Xc Duplicate input to any pane to all other panes in the same window (only for panes that are not in any special mode). .Pp .It Xo Ic utf8 .Op Ic on | off .Xc Instructs .Nm to expect UTF-8 sequences to appear in this window. .Pp .It Ic window-status-activity-style Ar style Set status line style for windows with an activity alert. For how to specify .Ar style , see the .Ic message-command-style option. .Pp .It Ic window-status-bell-style Ar style Set status line style for windows with a bell alert. For how to specify .Ar style , see the .Ic message-command-style option. .Pp .It Ic window-status-current-format Ar string Like .Ar window-status-format , but is the format used when the window is the current window. .Pp .It Ic window-status-current-style Ar style Set status line style for the currently active window. For how to specify .Ar style , see the .Ic message-command-style option. .Pp .It Ic window-status-format Ar string Set the format in which the window is displayed in the status line window list. See the .Ar status-left option for details of special character sequences available. The default is .Ql #I:#W#F . .Pp .It Ic window-status-last-style Ar style Set status line style for the last active window. For how to specify .Ar style , see the .Ic message-command-style option. .Pp .It Ic window-status-separator Ar string Sets the separator drawn between windows in the status line. The default is a single space character. .Pp .It Ic window-status-style Ar style Set status line style for a single window. For how to specify .Ar style , see the .Ic message-command-style option. .Pp .It Xo Ic xterm-keys .Op Ic on | off .Xc If this option is set, .Nm will generate .Xr xterm 1 -style function key sequences; these have a number included to indicate modifiers such as Shift, Alt or Ctrl. The default is off. .Pp .It Xo Ic wrap-search .Op Ic on | off .Xc If this option is set, searches will wrap around the end of the pane contents. The default is on. .El .It Xo Ic show-options .Op Fl gqsvw .Op Fl t Ar target-session | Ar target-window .Op Ar option .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic show ) Show the window options (or a single window option if given) with .Fl w (equivalent to .Ic show-window-options ) , the server options with .Fl s , otherwise the session options for .Ar target session . Global session or window options are listed if .Fl g is used. .Fl v shows only the option value, not the name. If .Fl q is set, no error will be returned if .Ar option is unset. .It Xo Ic show-window-options .Op Fl gv .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Op Ar option .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic showw ) List the window options or a single option for .Ar target-window , or the global window options if .Fl g is used. .Fl v shows only the option value, not the name. .El .Sh FORMATS Certain commands accept the .Fl F flag with a .Ar format argument. This is a string which controls the output format of the command. Replacement variables are enclosed in .Ql #{ and .Ql } , for example .Ql #{session_name} . Some variables also have an shorter alias such as .Ql #S . .Ql ## is replaced by a single .Ql # . Conditionals are also accepted by prefixing with .Ql \&? and separating two alternatives with a comma; if the specified variable exists and is not zero, the first alternative is chosen, otherwise the second is used. For example .Ql #{?session_attached,attached,not attached} will include the string .Ql attached if the session is attached and the string .Ql not attached if it is unattached. A limit may be placed on the length of the resultant string by prefixing it by an .Ql = , a number and a colon, so .Ql #{=10:pane_title} will include at most the first 10 characters of the pane title. .Pp The following variables are available, where appropriate: .Bl -column "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX" "XXXXX" .It Sy "Variable name" Ta Sy "Alias" Ta Sy "Replaced with" .It Li "alternate_on" Ta "" Ta "If pane is in alternate screen" .It Li "alternate_saved_x" Ta "" Ta "Saved cursor X in alternate screen" .It Li "alternate_saved_y" Ta "" Ta "Saved cursor Y in alternate screen" .It Li "buffer_sample" Ta "" Ta "Sample of start of buffer" .It Li "buffer_size" Ta "" Ta "Size of the specified buffer in bytes" .It Li "client_activity" Ta "" Ta "Integer time client last had activity" .It Li "client_activity_string" Ta "" Ta "String time client last had activity" .It Li "client_created" Ta "" Ta "Integer time client created" .It Li "client_created_string" Ta "" Ta "String time client created" .It Li "client_height" Ta "" Ta "Height of client" .It Li "client_last_session" Ta "" Ta "Name of the client's last session" .It Li "client_prefix" Ta "" Ta "1 if prefix key has been pressed" .It Li "client_readonly" Ta "" Ta "1 if client is readonly" .It Li "client_session" Ta "" Ta "Name of the client's session" .It Li "client_termname" Ta "" Ta "Terminal name of client" .It Li "client_tty" Ta "" Ta "Pseudo terminal of client" .It Li "client_utf8" Ta "" Ta "1 if client supports utf8" .It Li "client_width" Ta "" Ta "Width of client" .It Li "cursor_flag" Ta "" Ta "Pane cursor flag" .It Li "cursor_x" Ta "" Ta "Cursor X position in pane" .It Li "cursor_y" Ta "" Ta "Cursor Y position in pane" .It Li "history_bytes" Ta "" Ta "Number of bytes in window history" .It Li "history_limit" Ta "" Ta "Maximum window history lines" .It Li "history_size" Ta "" Ta "Size of history in bytes" .It Li "host" Ta "#H" Ta "Hostname of local host" .It Li "host_short" Ta "#h" Ta "Hostname of local host (no domain name)" .It Li "insert_flag" Ta "" Ta "Pane insert flag" .It Li "keypad_cursor_flag" Ta "" Ta "Pane keypad cursor flag" .It Li "keypad_flag" Ta "" Ta "Pane keypad flag" .It Li "line" Ta "" Ta "Line number in the list" .It Li "mouse_any_flag" Ta "" Ta "Pane mouse any flag" .It Li "mouse_button_flag" Ta "" Ta "Pane mouse button flag" .It Li "mouse_standard_flag" Ta "" Ta "Pane mouse standard flag" .It Li "mouse_utf8_flag" Ta "" Ta "Pane mouse UTF-8 flag" .It Li "pane_active" Ta "" Ta "1 if active pane" .It Li "pane_bottom" Ta "" Ta "Bottom of pane" .It Li "pane_current_command" Ta "" Ta "Current command if available" .It Li "pane_current_path" Ta "" Ta "Current path if available" .It Li "pane_dead" Ta "" Ta "1 if pane is dead" .It Li "pane_height" Ta "" Ta "Height of pane" .It Li "pane_id" Ta "#D" Ta "Unique pane ID" .It Li "pane_in_mode" Ta "" Ta "If pane is in a mode" .It Li "pane_index" Ta "#P" Ta "Index of pane" .It Li "pane_left" Ta "" Ta "Left of pane" .It Li "pane_pid" Ta "" Ta "PID of first process in pane" .It Li "pane_right" Ta "" Ta "Right of pane" .It Li "pane_start_command" Ta "" Ta "Command pane started with" .It Li "pane_synchronized" Ta "" Ta "If pane is synchronized" .It Li "pane_tabs" Ta "" Ta "Pane tab positions" .It Li "pane_title" Ta "#T" Ta "Title of pane" .It Li "pane_top" Ta "" Ta "Top of pane" .It Li "pane_tty" Ta "" Ta "Pseudo terminal of pane" .It Li "pane_width" Ta "" Ta "Width of pane" .It Li "saved_cursor_x" Ta "" Ta "Saved cursor X in pane" .It Li "saved_cursor_y" Ta "" Ta "Saved cursor Y in pane" .It Li "scroll_region_lower" Ta "" Ta "Bottom of scroll region in pane" .It Li "scroll_region_upper" Ta "" Ta "Top of scroll region in pane" .It Li "session_attached" Ta "" Ta "Number of clients session is attached to" .It Li "session_created" Ta "" Ta "Integer time session created" .It Li "session_created_string" Ta "" Ta "String time session created" .It Li "session_group" Ta "" Ta "Number of session group" .It Li "session_grouped" Ta "" Ta "1 if session in a group" .It Li "session_height" Ta "" Ta "Height of session" .It Li "session_id" Ta "" Ta "Unique session ID" .It Li "session_many_attached" Ta "" Ta "1 if multiple clients attached" .It Li "session_name" Ta "#S" Ta "Name of session" .It Li "session_width" Ta "" Ta "Width of session" .It Li "session_windows" Ta "" Ta "Number of windows in session" .It Li "window_active" Ta "" Ta "1 if window active" .It Li "window_activity_flag" Ta "" Ta "1 if window has activity alert" .It Li "window_bell_flag" Ta "" Ta "1 if window has bell" .It Li "window_find_matches" Ta "" Ta "Matched data from the find-window" .It Li "window_flags" Ta "#F" Ta "Window flags" .It Li "window_height" Ta "" Ta "Height of window" .It Li "window_id" Ta "" Ta "Unique window ID" .It Li "window_index" Ta "#I" Ta "Index of window" .It Li "window_layout" Ta "" Ta "Window layout description" .It Li "window_name" Ta "#W" Ta "Name of window" .It Li "window_panes" Ta "" Ta "Number of panes in window" .It Li "window_silence_flag" Ta "" Ta "1 if window has silence alert" .It Li "window_width" Ta "" Ta "Width of window" .It Li "wrap_flag" Ta "" Ta "Pane wrap flag" .El .Sh NAMES AND TITLES .Nm distinguishes between names and titles. Windows and sessions have names, which may be used to specify them in targets and are displayed in the status line and various lists: the name is the .Nm identifier for a window or session. Only panes have titles. A pane's title is typically set by the program running inside the pane and is not modified by .Nm . It is the same mechanism used to set for example the .Xr xterm 1 window title in an .Xr X 7 window manager. Windows themselves do not have titles - a window's title is the title of its active pane. .Nm itself may set the title of the terminal in which the client is running, see the .Ic set-titles option. .Pp A session's name is set with the .Ic new-session and .Ic rename-session commands. A window's name is set with one of: .Bl -enum -width Ds .It A command argument (such as .Fl n for .Ic new-window or .Ic new-session ) . .It An escape sequence: .Bd -literal -offset indent $printf '\e033kWINDOW_NAME\e033\e\e' .Ed .It Automatic renaming, which sets the name to the active command in the window's active pane. See the .Ic automatic-rename option. .El .Pp When a pane is first created, its title is the hostname. A pane's title can be set via the OSC title setting sequence, for example: .Bd -literal -offset indent$ printf '\e033]2;My Title\e033\e\e' .Ed .Sh ENVIRONMENT When the server is started, .Nm copies the environment into the .Em global environment ; in addition, each session has a .Em session environment . When a window is created, the session and global environments are merged. If a variable exists in both, the value from the session environment is used. The result is the initial environment passed to the new process. .Pp The .Ic update-environment session option may be used to update the session environment from the client when a new session is created or an old reattached. .Nm also initialises the .Ev TMUX variable with some internal information to allow commands to be executed from inside, and the .Ev TERM variable with the correct terminal setting of .Ql screen . .Pp Commands to alter and view the environment are: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Xo Ic set-environment .Op Fl gru .Op Fl t Ar target-session .Ar name Op Ar value .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic setenv ) Set or unset an environment variable. If .Fl g is used, the change is made in the global environment; otherwise, it is applied to the session environment for .Ar target-session . The .Fl u flag unsets a variable. .Fl r indicates the variable is to be removed from the environment before starting a new process. .It Xo Ic show-environment .Op Fl g .Op Fl t Ar target-session .Op Ar variable .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic showenv ) Display the environment for .Ar target-session or the global environment with .Fl g . If .Ar variable is omitted, all variables are shown. Variables removed from the environment are prefixed with .Ql - . .El .Sh STATUS LINE .Nm includes an optional status line which is displayed in the bottom line of each terminal. By default, the status line is enabled (it may be disabled with the .Ic status session option) and contains, from left-to-right: the name of the current session in square brackets; the window list; the title of the active pane in double quotes; and the time and date. .Pp The status line is made of three parts: configurable left and right sections (which may contain dynamic content such as the time or output from a shell command, see the .Ic status-left , .Ic status-left-length , .Ic status-right , and .Ic status-right-length options below), and a central window list. By default, the window list shows the index, name and (if any) flag of the windows present in the current session in ascending numerical order. It may be customised with the .Ar window-status-format and .Ar window-status-current-format options. The flag is one of the following symbols appended to the window name: .Bl -column "Symbol" "Meaning" -offset indent .It Sy "Symbol" Ta Sy "Meaning" .It Li "*" Ta "Denotes the current window." .It Li "-" Ta "Marks the last window (previously selected)." .It Li "#" Ta "Window is monitored and activity has been detected." .It Li "!" Ta "A bell has occurred in the window." .It Li "~" Ta "The window has been silent for the monitor-silence interval." .It Li "Z" Ta "The window's active pane is zoomed." .El .Pp The # symbol relates to the .Ic monitor-activity window option. The window name is printed in inverted colours if an alert (bell, activity or silence) is present. .Pp The colour and attributes of the status line may be configured, the entire status line using the .Ic status-style session option and individual windows using the .Ic window-status-style window option. .Pp The status line is automatically refreshed at interval if it has changed, the interval may be controlled with the .Ic status-interval session option. .Pp Commands related to the status line are as follows: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Xo Ic command-prompt .Op Fl I Ar inputs .Op Fl p Ar prompts .Op Fl t Ar target-client .Op Ar template .Xc Open the command prompt in a client. This may be used from inside .Nm to execute commands interactively. .Pp If .Ar template is specified, it is used as the command. If present, .Fl I is a comma-separated list of the initial text for each prompt. If .Fl p is given, .Ar prompts is a comma-separated list of prompts which are displayed in order; otherwise a single prompt is displayed, constructed from .Ar template if it is present, or .Ql \&: if not. .Pp Both .Ar inputs and .Ar prompts may contain the special character sequences supported by the .Ic status-left option. .Pp Before the command is executed, the first occurrence of the string .Ql %% and all occurrences of .Ql %1 are replaced by the response to the first prompt, the second .Ql %% and all .Ql %2 are replaced with the response to the second prompt, and so on for further prompts. Up to nine prompt responses may be replaced .Po .Ql %1 to .Ql %9 .Pc . .It Xo Ic confirm-before .Op Fl p Ar prompt .Op Fl t Ar target-client .Ar command .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic confirm ) Ask for confirmation before executing .Ar command . If .Fl p is given, .Ar prompt is the prompt to display; otherwise a prompt is constructed from .Ar command . It may contain the special character sequences supported by the .Ic status-left option. .Pp This command works only from inside .Nm . .It Xo Ic display-message .Op Fl p .Op Fl c Ar target-client .Op Fl t Ar target-pane .Op Ar message .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic display ) Display a message. If .Fl p is given, the output is printed to stdout, otherwise it is displayed in the .Ar target-client status line. The format of .Ar message is described in the .Sx FORMATS section; information is taken from .Ar target-pane if .Fl t is given, otherwise the active pane for the session attached to .Ar target-client . .El .Sh BUFFERS .Nm maintains a set of named .Em paste buffers . Each buffer may be either explicitly or automatically named. Explicitly named buffers are named when created with the .Ic set-buffer or .Ic load-buffer commands, or by renaming an automatically named buffer with .Ic set-buffer .Fl n . Automatically named buffers are given a name such as .Ql buffer0001 , .Ql buffer0002 and so on. When the .Ic buffer-limit option is reached, the oldest automatically named buffer is deleted. Explicitly named are not subject to .Ic buffer-limit and may be deleted with .Ic delete-buffer command. .Pp Buffers may be added using .Ic copy-mode or the .Ic set-buffer and .Ic load-buffer commands, and pasted into a window using the .Ic paste-buffer command. If a buffer command is used and no buffer is specified, the most recently added automatically named buffer is assumed. .Pp A configurable history buffer is also maintained for each window. By default, up to 2000 lines are kept; this can be altered with the .Ic history-limit option (see the .Ic set-option command above). .Pp The buffer commands are as follows: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Xo .Ic choose-buffer .Op Fl F Ar format .Op Fl t Ar target-window .Op Ar template .Xc Put a window into buffer choice mode, where a buffer may be chosen interactively from a list. After a buffer is selected, .Ql %% is replaced by the buffer name in .Ar template and the result executed as a command. If .Ar template is not given, "paste-buffer -b '%%'" is used. For the meaning of the .Fl F flag, see the .Sx FORMATS section. This command works only if at least one client is attached. .It Ic clear-history Op Fl t Ar target-pane .D1 (alias: Ic clearhist ) Remove and free the history for the specified pane. .It Ic delete-buffer Op Fl b Ar buffer-name .D1 (alias: Ic deleteb ) Delete the buffer named .Ar buffer-name , or the most recently added automatically named buffer if not specified. .It Xo Ic list-buffers .Op Fl F Ar format .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic lsb ) List the global buffers. For the meaning of the .Fl F flag, see the .Sx FORMATS section. .It Xo Ic load-buffer .Op Fl b Ar buffer-name .Ar path .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic loadb ) Load the contents of the specified paste buffer from .Ar path . .It Xo Ic paste-buffer .Op Fl dpr .Op Fl b Ar buffer-name .Op Fl s Ar separator .Op Fl t Ar target-pane .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic pasteb ) Insert the contents of a paste buffer into the specified pane. If not specified, paste into the current one. With .Fl d , also delete the paste buffer. When output, any linefeed (LF) characters in the paste buffer are replaced with a separator, by default carriage return (CR). A custom separator may be specified using the .Fl s flag. The .Fl r flag means to do no replacement (equivalent to a separator of LF). If .Fl p is specified, paste bracket control codes are inserted around the buffer if the application has requested bracketed paste mode. .It Xo Ic save-buffer .Op Fl a .Op Fl b Ar buffer-name .Ar path .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic saveb ) Save the contents of the specified paste buffer to .Ar path . The .Fl a option appends to rather than overwriting the file. .It Xo Ic set-buffer .Op Fl a .Op Fl b Ar buffer-name .Op Fl n Ar new-buffer-name .Ar data .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic setb ) Set the contents of the specified buffer to .Ar data . The .Fl a option appends to rather than overwriting the buffer. The .Fl n option renames the buffer to .Ar new-buffer-name . .It Xo Ic show-buffer .Op Fl b Ar buffer-name .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic showb ) Display the contents of the specified buffer. .El .Sh MISCELLANEOUS Miscellaneous commands are as follows: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Ic clock-mode Op Fl t Ar target-pane Display a large clock. .It Xo Ic if-shell .Op Fl b .Op Fl t Ar target-pane .Ar shell-command command .Op Ar command .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic if ) Execute the first .Ar command if .Ar shell-command returns success or the second .Ar command otherwise. Before being executed, shell-command is expanded using the rules specified in the .Sx FORMATS section, including those relevant to .Ar target-pane . With .Fl b , .Ar shell-command is run in the background. .It Ic lock-server .D1 (alias: Ic lock ) Lock each client individually by running the command specified by the .Ic lock-command option. .It Xo Ic run-shell .Op Fl b .Op Fl t Ar target-pane .Ar shell-command .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic run ) Execute .Ar shell-command in the background without creating a window. Before being executed, shell-command is expanded using the rules specified in the .Sx FORMATS section. With .Fl b , the command is run in the background. After it finishes, any output to stdout is displayed in copy mode (in the pane specified by .Fl t or the current pane if omitted). If the command doesn't return success, the exit status is also displayed. .It Xo Ic wait-for .Op Fl L | S | U .Ar channel .Xc .D1 (alias: Ic wait ) When used without options, prevents the client from exiting until woken using .Ic wait-for .Fl S with the same channel. When .Fl L is used, the channel is locked and any clients that try to lock the same channel are made to wait until the channel is unlocked with .Ic wait-for .Fl U . This command only works from outside .Nm . .El .Sh TERMINFO EXTENSIONS .Nm understands some extensions to .Xr terminfo 5 : .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Em Cs , Cr Set the cursor colour. The first takes a single string argument and is used to set the colour; the second takes no arguments and restores the default cursor colour. If set, a sequence such as this may be used to change the cursor colour from inside .Nm : .Bd -literal -offset indent $printf '\e033]12;red\e033\e\e' .Ed .It Em \&Ss , Se Change the cursor style. If set, a sequence such as this may be used to change the cursor to an underline: .Bd -literal -offset indent$ printf '\e033[4 q' .Ed .Pp If .Em Csr is set, it will be used to reset the cursor style instead of .Em Cs . .It Em \&Ms This sequence can be used by .Nm to store the current buffer in the host terminal's selection (clipboard). See the .Em set-clipboard option above and the .Xr xterm 1 man page. .El .Sh CONTROL MODE .Nm offers a textual interface called .Em control mode . This allows applications to communicate with .Nm using a simple text-only protocol. .Pp In control mode, a client sends .Nm commands or command sequences terminated by newlines on standard input. Each command will produce one block of output on standard output. An output block consists of a .Em %begin line followed by the output (which may be empty). The output block ends with a .Em %end or .Em %error . .Em %begin and matching .Em %end or .Em %error have two arguments: an integer time (as seconds from epoch) and command number. For example: .Bd -literal -offset indent %begin 1363006971 2 0: ksh* (1 panes) [80x24] [layout b25f,80x24,0,0,2] @2 (active) %end 1363006971 2 .Ed .Pp In control mode, .Nm outputs notifications. A notification will never occur inside an output block. .Pp The following notifications are defined: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Ic %exit Op Ar reason The .Nm client is exiting immediately, either because it is not attached to any session or an error occurred. If present, .Ar reason describes why the client exited. .It Ic %layout-change Ar window-id Ar window-layout The layout of a window with ID .Ar window-id changed. The new layout is .Ar window-layout . .It Ic %output Ar pane-id Ar value A window pane produced output. .Ar value escapes non-printable characters and backslash as octal \\xxx. .It Ic %session-changed Ar session-id Ar name The client is now attached to the session with ID .Ar session-id , which is named .Ar name . .It Ic %session-renamed Ar name The current session was renamed to .Ar name . .It Ic %sessions-changed A session was created or destroyed. .It Ic %unlinked-window-add Ar window-id The window with ID .Ar window-id was created but is not linked to the current session. .It Ic %window-add Ar window-id The window with ID .Ar window-id was linked to the current session. .It Ic %window-close Ar window-id The window with ID .Ar window-id closed. .It Ic %window-renamed Ar window-id Ar name The window with ID .Ar window-id was renamed to .Ar name . .El .Sh FILES .Bl -tag -width "@SYSCONFDIR@/tmux.confXXX" -compact .It Pa ~/.tmux.conf Default .Nm configuration file. .It Pa @SYSCONFDIR@/tmux.conf System-wide configuration file. .El .Sh EXAMPLES To create a new .Nm session running .Xr vi 1 : .Pp .Dl $tmux new-session vi .Pp Most commands have a shorter form, known as an alias. For new-session, this is .Ic new : .Pp .Dl$ tmux new vi .Pp Alternatively, the shortest unambiguous form of a command is accepted. If there are several options, they are listed: .Bd -literal -offset indent $tmux n ambiguous command: n, could be: new-session, new-window, next-window .Ed .Pp Within an active session, a new window may be created by typing .Ql C-b c (Ctrl followed by the .Ql b key followed by the .Ql c key). .Pp Windows may be navigated with: .Ql C-b 0 (to select window 0), .Ql C-b 1 (to select window 1), and so on; .Ql C-b n to select the next window; and .Ql C-b p to select the previous window. .Pp A session may be detached using .Ql C-b d (or by an external event such as .Xr ssh 1 disconnection) and reattached with: .Pp .Dl$ tmux attach-session .Pp Typing .Ql C-b \&? lists the current key bindings in the current window; up and down may be used to navigate the list or .Ql q to exit from it. .Pp Commands to be run when the .Nm server is started may be placed in the .Pa ~/.tmux.conf configuration file. Common examples include: .Pp Changing the default prefix key: .Bd -literal -offset indent set-option -g prefix C-a unbind-key C-b bind-key C-a send-prefix .Ed .Pp Turning the status line off, or changing its colour: .Bd -literal -offset indent set-option -g status off set-option -g status-style bg=blue .Ed .Pp Setting other options, such as the default command, or locking after 30 minutes of inactivity: .Bd -literal -offset indent set-option -g default-command "exec /bin/ksh" set-option -g lock-after-time 1800 .Ed .Pp Creating new key bindings: .Bd -literal -offset indent bind-key b set-option status bind-key / command-prompt "split-window 'exec man %%'" bind-key S command-prompt "new-window -n %1 'ssh %1'" .Ed .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr pty 7 .Sh AUTHORS .An Nicholas Marriott Aq Mt nicm@users.sourceforge.net