Overview ========= The group that has been working on bibliographic entries for TEI proposes that with its children , , and be replaced by two new elements: and . After the lengthy discussion that resulted from encoding around 200 bibliographic entries, we have come to the conclusion that the element is both too ambiguous and too restrictive. Take an example of an article that reviews a book that was originally a manuscript. In order to render such an entry in TEI 4, we need the following XML: Example 1 ========= Frank W. Heny Noam Chomsky The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory New York Plenum 1975 Noam Chomsky The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory Cambridge, Mass. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1955 Synthese 1979 40 317-352 Note that this entry needs three elements. Each of these elements can only exist as a sibling of the others, so the true relationship between them remains ambiguous. The sibling relationship of the second element does not indicate that it is the origin for its older brother. Likewise, the proximity of the third element to the second element seems to indicate a relationship, when in fact there is none. A better way to encode this example is to nest related items inside each other. Here is such an example, using our proposed new elements: Example 1 With New Elements ============================ Frank W. Heny Noam Chomsky Noam Chomsky The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory New York Plenum 1975 Noam Chomsky The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory Cambridge, Mass. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1955 Synthese 40 1979 317-352 Note how instead of three elements, this entry uses three elements. The second indicates that it is the origin to the work reviewed both by the role attribute ("original") and because it is the child of the work reviewed. The third is not nested inside the first, so it correctly shows no relationship to it. We know that this third serves as the host for the actual review because its value for the role attribute is "host". New Structure for =============================== The elements , , and would not be used within , since we believe these concepts unneeded and too vague. For example, some librarians refer to an individual article as a monographic entry, while other vehemently insist that a journal is not a monograph at all. Does one include information about a multivolume work in a element, even though an editor of a multivolume work is distinct for the editor of a series? Instead, we propose that entries using , , and be encoded using the element. This new structure would bring TEI bibliographic representation closer in line with recent library developments, such as the Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS) from the Library of Congress. The proposed relatedBiblItem element would be structurally equivalent to the element in MODS, which is itself influenced by relator structures in Dublin Core. Here is an example of article "Weak Indefinites" that appears in volume 1 of a book called *The Syntax and Semantics of Noun Phrases.* In turn, the book *The Syntax and Semantics of Noun Phrases* appears in a multivolume work called *From NP to DP.* In turn, volumes of this work appears in a series called 'Linguistics Today.' Example 2 ========== Gregory N. Carlson Weak Indefinites The Syntax and Semantics of Noun Phrases From NP to DP Martine Coene Yves D'hulst Amsterdam Benjamins 2003 1 Linguistics Today 55 195-210 In order to clarify exactly what our new structure will look like, we have included further examples at the bottom of the page. Each entry includes an example from TEI 4 using , and an additional entry re-written using our proposed new elements. Content Model ============= The and should allow the same children as , minus the phrase-level element content. The new element should not allow any PCDTA. Likewise, the new elements should not allow the elements , , or . Attributes ========== We propose the following attributes for and : * type type should be optional. It should indicate either a genre, such as "review", or the physical qualities of the element itself, such "book". * target target should be optional. It should indicate that the is linked to in the same file. For example, an XML document might have several article that are in the same journal. This linking attribute would allow a user to enter the journal only once, and then link to it for each article. * url url should be optional. It should indicate that the is linked to a in a different file. For example, an XML document might have several article that are in the same journal. This linking attribute would allow a user to enter the journal only once, and then link to it for each article. Depending on P5's linking model, "target" and "url" could also be merged into a single "xlink:href" attribute. * form form should be optional. It should indicate the physical form of a bibliographic entry. A play recorded on a video cassette would look like . * status status should be optioal. It should indicate the publication status of an entry. A book in manuscript form would look like this: . Other possible values for "status" are "forthcoming" and "inPrint". We propose the following mandatory attribute for : * role role should be mandatory. We would like to restrict the values of role, but do not have enough time to come up with a comprehensive list. However, here is a list of known values: * "host" indicates that the elements serves as a host. * "original" indicates that the element forms the origin. * "workReviewed" indicates that the element is the work reviewed. * "edition" indicates that the element contains separate information (such as an author) for that particular edition. Conversely, one could use the if TEI 5 allows this element within our new elements. * "isBasedOn" indicates that the element forms the base for the work in question. * "isReferencedBy" indicates that the element is a reference for the work in question. Rationale for New Elements ========================== The group working on TEI 5 might ask why the element is needed when three other items already exist to indicate bibliographic information. We feel that the other three element don't quite indicate that their contents will include specific information that a processor would use to create automatic bibliographic entries. We would hope that would replace . In a less ideal situation, we hope that would be accepted as a new element, while the use of would be deprecated. If neither of these cases are possible, we at least hope that the would be allowed within . Examples from TEI 4 and Proposed Changes ========================================= Here are several examples taken from TEI 4. For each example, we have included what the XML would look like with our new elements. Edward R. Tufte Envisioning Information Cheshire, Conn. Graphics Press 1990 Edward R. Tufte Envisioning Information Cheshire, Conn. Graphics Press 1990 --- Bibliography Nelson, T. H. Replacing the printed word: a complete literary system. Information Processing '80: Proceedings of the IFIPS Congress, October 1980 Simon H. Lavington North-Holland Amsterdam 1980 pp 1013–23 Apparently a draft of section 4 of Literary Machines. Bibliography Nelson, T. H. Replacing the printed word A complete literary system Information Processing '80 Proceedings of the IFIPS Congress, October 1980 Simon H. Lavington North-Holland Amsterdam 1980 1013–1023 Apparently a draft of section 4 of Literary Machines. ------- Thaller, Manfred A Draft Proposal for a Standard for the Coding of Machine Readable Sources Historical Social Research 40 October 1986 3-46 Modelling Historical Data: Towards a Standard for Encoding and Exchanging Machine-Readable Texts Daniel I. Greenstein St. Katharinen Max-Planck-Institut für Geschichte In Kommission bei Scripta Mercaturae Verlag 1991 Halbgraue Reihe zur Historischen Fachinformatik Herausgegeben von Manfred Thaller Max-Planck-Institut für Geschichte Serie A: Historische Quellenkunden Band 11 Thaller, Manfred A Draft Proposal for a Standard for the Coding of Machine Readable Sources Modelling Historical Data Towards a Standard for Encoding and Exchanging Machine-Readable Texts Daniel I. Greenstein St. Katharinen Max-Planck-Institut für Geschichte 1991 Historische Quellenkunden Halbgraue Reihe zur Historischen Fachinformatik Herausgegeben von Manfred Thaller Max-Planck-Institut für Geschichte A 11 Historical Social Research 40 1986 3–46 --------- Lucy Allen Paton Notes on Manuscripts of the <title level="m" lang="FRA">Prophécies de Merlin PMLA 8 1913 122 Lucy Allen Paton Notes on Manuscripts of the <title level="m" lang="FRA">Prophécies de Merlin PMLA 8 1913 122 ---------- Des Minnesangs Frühling Mit 1 Faksimile 36., neugestaltete und erweiterte Auflage Unter Benutzung der Ausgaben von Karl Lachmann und Moriz Haupt, Friedrich Vogt und Carl von Kraus bearbeitet von Hugo Moser Helmut Tervooren I Texte Stuttgart S. Hirzel Verlag 1977 Texte Des Minnesangs Frühling 36., neugestaltete und erweiterte Auflage Unter Benutzung der Ausgaben von Karl Lachmann und Moriz Haupt, Friedrich Vogt und Carl von Kraus bearbeitet von Hugo Moser Helmut Tervooren Stuttgart S. Hirzel Verlag 1977 I Mit 1 Faksimile ------------- Shirley, James The gentlemen of Venice a tragi-comedie presented at the private house in Salisbury Court by Her Majesties servants [Microform] London H. Moseley 1655 78 p. New York Readex Microprint 1953 1 microprint card, 23 x 15 cm. Three centuries of drama: English, 1642–1700 Shirley, James The gentlemen of Venice A tragi-comedie presented at the private house in Salisbury Court by Her Majesties servants London H. Moseley 1655 78 New York Readex Microprint 1953 1 microprint card, 23 x 15 cm Three centuries of drama English, 1642–1700 ----------- Wrigley, E. A. Parish registers and the historian Steel, D. J. National index of parish registers London Society of Genealogists 1968 vol. 1 pp. 155–167. Wrigley, E. A. Parish registers and the historian Steel, D. J. National index of parish registers London Society of Genealogists 1968 1 155–167 ---------- Boguraev, Branimir Neff, Mary Text Representation, Dictionary Structure, and Lexical Knowledge Literary & Linguistic Computing 7 2 1992 110-112 Boguraev, Branimir Neff, Mary Text Representation, Dictionary Structure, and Lexical Knowledge Literary & Linguistic Computing 7 1992 2 110–112 ---------------------- Chesnutt, David Historical Editions in the States Computers and the Humanities 25.6 (December, 1991): 377–380 Chesnutt, David Historical Editions in the States Computers and the Humanities 25 December, 1991 6 377–380