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<html><head><title>db-sockets API Reference</title></head><body>
<h1>Package SOCKETS</h1>
<P>
A thinly-disguised BSD socket API for SBCL. Ideas stolen from the BSD
socket API for C and Graham Barr's IO::Socket classes for Perl.
<P>
We represent sockets as CLOS objects, and rename a lot of methods and
arguments to fit Lisp style more closely.
<P>
<P>
<h2>Contents</h2>
<P>
<ol>
<li> General concepts
<li> Methods applicable to all <a href="#socket">sockets</a>
<li> <a href="#sockopt">Socket Options</a>
<li> Methods applicable to a particular subclass
<ol>
<li> <a href="#internet">INET-SOCKET</a> - Internet Protocol (TCP, UDP, raw) sockets
<li> Methods on <a href="#UNIX-SOCKET">UNIX-SOCKET</a> - Unix-domain sockets
</ol>
<li> <a href="#name-service">Name resolution</a> (DNS, /etc/hosts, &amp;c)
</ol>
<P>
<h2>General concepts</h2>
<P>
<p>Most of the functions are modelled on the BSD socket API. BSD sockets
are widely supported, portably <i>(well, fairly portably)</i>
available on a variety of systems, and documented. There are some
differences in approach where we have taken advantage of some of the more useful features of Common Lisp - briefly
<P>
<ul>
<li> Where the C API would typically return -1 and set errno, db-sockets
signals an error. All the errors are subclasses of SOCKET-CONDITION
and generally correspond one for one with possible <tt>errno</tt> values
<P>
<li> We use multiple return values in many places where the C API would use p[ass-by-reference values
<P>
<li> We can often avoid supplying an explicit <i>length</i> argument to
functions because we already know how long the argument is.
<P>
<li> IP addresses and ports are represented in slightly friendlier fashion
than "network-endian integers". See the section on <a href="#internet"
>Internet domain</a> sockets for details.
</ul>
<P>
<P>
<hr> <h2>SOCKETs</h2>
<P>
<p><a name="SOCKET"><i>Class: </i><b>SOCKET</b></a>
<p><b>Slots:</b><ul><li>FILE-DESCRIPTOR : </li>
<li>FAMILY : </li>
<li>PROTOCOL : </li>
<li>TYPE : </li>
<li>STREAM : </li>
</ul><p><a name="SOCKET-BIND"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(socket-bind <i> (s <a href="#socket">socket</a>) &rest address</i>)</td><td align=right>Generic Function</td></tr></table>
<p><a name="SOCKET-ACCEPT"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(socket-accept <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>)</i>)</td><td align=right>Method</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Perform the accept(2) call, returning a newly-created connected socket
and the peer address as multiple values</blockquote>
<p><a name="SOCKET-CONNECT"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(socket-connect <i> (s <a href="#socket">socket</a>) &rest address</i>)</td><td align=right>Generic Function</td></tr></table>
<p><a name="SOCKET-PEERNAME"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(socket-peername <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>)</i>)</td><td align=right>Method</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Return the socket's peer; depending on the address family this may return multiple values</blockquote>
<p><a name="SOCKET-NAME"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(socket-name <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>)</i>)</td><td align=right>Method</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Return the address (as vector of bytes) and port that the socket is bound to, as multiple values</blockquote>
<p><a name="SOCKET-RECEIVE"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(socket-receive <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>) buffer length &key oob peek waitall (element-type
'character)</i>)</td><td align=right>Method</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Read LENGTH octets from <a href="#SOCKET">SOCKET</a> into BUFFER (or a freshly-consed buffer if
NIL), using recvfrom(2). If LENGTH is NIL, the length of BUFFER is
used, so at least one of these two arguments must be non-NIL. If
BUFFER is supplied, it had better be of an element type one octet wide.
Returns the buffer, its length, and the address of the peer
that sent it, as multiple values. On datagram sockets, sets MSG_TRUNC
so that the actual packet length is returned even if the buffer was too
small</blockquote>
<p><a name="SOCKET-LISTEN"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(socket-listen <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>) backlog</i>)</td><td align=right>Method</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Mark <a href="#SOCKET">SOCKET</a> as willing to accept incoming connections. BACKLOG
defines the maximum length that the queue of pending connections may
grow to before new connection attempts are refused. See also listen(2)</blockquote>
<p><a name="SOCKET-CLOSE"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(socket-close <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>)</i>)</td><td align=right>Method</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Close <a href="#SOCKET">SOCKET</a>. May throw any kind of error that write(2) would have
thrown. If <a href="#SOCKET-MAKE-STREAM">SOCKET-MAKE-STREAM</a> has been called, calls CLOSE on that
stream instead</blockquote>
<p><a name="SOCKET-MAKE-STREAM"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(socket-make-stream <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>) &rest args</i>)</td><td align=right>Method</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Find or create a STREAM that can be used for IO on <a href="#SOCKET">SOCKET</a> (which
must be connected). ARGS are passed onto SB-SYS:MAKE-FD-STREAM.</blockquote>
<hr>
<H2> Socket Options </h2>
<a name="sockopt"> </a>
<p> A subset of socket options are supported, using a fairly
general framework which should make it simple to add more as required
- see sockopt.lisp for details. The name mapping from C is fairly
straightforward: <tt>SO_RCVLOWAT</tt> becomes
<tt>sockopt-receive-low-water</tt> and <tt>(setf
sockopt-receive-low-water)</tt>.
|<p><a name="SOCKOPT-REUSE-ADDRESS"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(sockopt-reuse-address <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>) argument</i>)</td><td align=right>Accessor</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Return the value of the SO-REUSEADDR socket option for <a href="#SOCKET">SOCKET</a>. This can also be updated with SETF.</blockquote>
<p><a name="SOCKOPT-KEEP-ALIVE"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(sockopt-keep-alive <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>) argument</i>)</td><td align=right>Accessor</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Return the value of the SO-KEEPALIVE socket option for <a href="#SOCKET">SOCKET</a>. This can also be updated with SETF.</blockquote>
<p><a name="SOCKOPT-OOB-INLINE"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(sockopt-oob-inline <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>) argument</i>)</td><td align=right>Accessor</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Return the value of the SO-OOBINLINE socket option for <a href="#SOCKET">SOCKET</a>. This can also be updated with SETF.</blockquote>
<p><a name="SOCKOPT-BSD-COMPATIBLE"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(sockopt-bsd-compatible <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>) argument</i>)</td><td align=right>Accessor</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Return the value of the SO-BSDCOMPAT socket option for <a href="#SOCKET">SOCKET</a>. This can also be updated with SETF.</blockquote>
<p><a name="SOCKOPT-PASS-CREDENTIALS"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(sockopt-pass-credentials <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>) argument</i>)</td><td align=right>Accessor</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Return the value of the SO-PASSCRED socket option for <a href="#SOCKET">SOCKET</a>. This can also be updated with SETF.</blockquote>
<p><a name="SOCKOPT-DEBUG"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(sockopt-debug <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>) argument</i>)</td><td align=right>Accessor</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Return the value of the SO-DEBUG socket option for <a href="#SOCKET">SOCKET</a>. This can also be updated with SETF.</blockquote>
<p><a name="SOCKOPT-DONT-ROUTE"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(sockopt-dont-route <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>) argument</i>)</td><td align=right>Accessor</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Return the value of the SO-DONTROUTE socket option for <a href="#SOCKET">SOCKET</a>. This can also be updated with SETF.</blockquote>
<p><a name="SOCKOPT-BROADCAST"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(sockopt-broadcast <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>) argument</i>)</td><td align=right>Accessor</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Return the value of the SO-BROADCAST socket option for <a href="#SOCKET">SOCKET</a>. This can also be updated with SETF.</blockquote>
<p><a name="SOCKOPT-TCP-NODELAY"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(sockopt-tcp-nodelay <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>) argument</i>)</td><td align=right>Accessor</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Return the value of the TCP-NODELAY socket option for <a href="#SOCKET">SOCKET</a>. This can also be updated with SETF.</blockquote>
<hr> <h2>INET-domain sockets</h2>
<P>
<p>The TCP and UDP sockets that you know and love. Some representation issues:
<ul>
<li>These functions do not accept hostnames directly: see <a href="#name-service">name resolution</a>
<li>Internet <b>addresses</b> are represented by vectors of <tt>(unsigned-byte 8)</tt> - viz. <tt>#(127 0 0 1)</tt>. <b>Ports</b> are just integers: <tt>6010</tt>. No conversion between network- and host-order data is needed from the user of this package.
<li><b><i>socket addresses</i></b> are represented by the two values for <b>address</b> and <b>port</b>, so for example, <tt>(<a href="#SOCKET-CONNECT">socket-connect</a> s #(192 168 1 1) 80)</tt>
</ul>
<P>
<p><a name="INET-SOCKET"><i>Class: </i><b>INET-SOCKET</b></a>
<p><b>Slots:</b><ul><li>FAMILY : </li>
</ul><p><a name="MAKE-INET-ADDRESS"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(make-inet-address <i> dotted-quads</i>)</td><td align=right>Function</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Return a vector of octets given a string DOTTED-QUADS in the format
"127.0.0.1"</blockquote>
<p><a name="GET-PROTOCOL-BY-NAME"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(get-protocol-by-name <i> name</i>)</td><td align=right>Function</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Returns the network protocol number associated with the string NAME,
using getprotobyname(2) which typically looks in NIS or /etc/protocols</blockquote>
<p><a name="MAKE-INET-SOCKET"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(make-inet-socket <i> type protocol</i>)</td><td align=right>Function</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Make an INET socket. Deprecated in favour of make-instance</blockquote>
<hr> <h2>File-domain sockets</h2>
<P>
File-domain (AF_FILE) sockets are also known as Unix-domain sockets, but were
renamed by POSIX presumably on the basis that they may be
available on other systems too.
<P>
A file-domain socket address is a string, which is used to create a node
in the local filesystem. This means of course that they cannot be used across
a network.
<P>
|<p><a name="UNIX-SOCKET"><i>Class: </i><b>UNIX-SOCKET</b></a>
<p><b>Slots:</b><ul><li>FAMILY : </li>
</ul><hr> <a name="name-service"><h2>Name Service</h2></a>
<P>
<p>Presently name service is implemented by calling whatever
gethostbyname(2) uses. This may be any or all of /etc/hosts, NIS, DNS,
or something completely different. Typically it's controlled by
/etc/nsswitch.conf
<P>
<p> Direct links to the asynchronous resolver(3) routines would be nice to have
eventually, so that we can do DNS lookups in parallel with other things
<p><a name="HOST-ENT"><i>Class: </i><b>HOST-ENT</b></a>
<p><b>Slots:</b><ul><li>NAME : </li>
<li>ALIASES : </li>
<li>ADDRESS-TYPE : </li>
<li>ADDRESSES : </li>
</ul><p><a name="HOST-ENT-ADDRESS"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(host-ent-address <i> (host-ent <a href="#host-ent">host-ent</a>)</i>)</td><td align=right>Method</td></tr></table>
<p><a name="GET-HOST-BY-NAME"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(get-host-by-name <i> host-name</i>)</td><td align=right>Function</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Returns a <a href="#HOST-ENT">HOST-ENT</a> instance for HOST-NAME or throws some kind of condition.
HOST-NAME may also be an IP address in dotted quad notation or some other
weird stuff - see gethostbyname(3) for grisly details.</blockquote>
<p><a name="GET-HOST-BY-ADDRESS"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(get-host-by-address <i> address</i>)</td><td align=right>Function</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Returns a <a href="#HOST-ENT">HOST-ENT</a> instance for ADDRESS, which should be a vector of
(integer 0 255), or throws some kind of error. See gethostbyaddr(3) for
grisly details.</blockquote>
<p><a name="NAME-SERVICE-ERROR"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(name-service-error <i> where</i>)</td><td align=right>Function</td></tr></table>
<hr><p><a name="NON-BLOCKING-MODE"><table width="100%"><tr><td width="80%">(non-blocking-mode <i> (socket <a href="#socket">socket</a>)</i>)</td><td align=right>Method</td></tr></table>
<blockquote>Is <a href="#SOCKET">SOCKET</a> in non-blocking mode?</blockquote>
<hr>
<P>
<H1>Tests</h1>
<P>
There should be at least one test for pretty much everything you can do
with the package. In some places I've been more diligent than others; more
tests gratefully accepted.
<P>
Tests are in the file <tt>tests.lisp</tt> and also make good examples.
<P>
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<h2>Unix-domain sockets</h2>
<P>
A fairly rudimentary test that connects to the syslog socket and sends a
message. Priority 7 is kern.debug; you'll probably want to look at
/etc/syslog.conf or local equivalent to find out where the message ended up
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