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<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//KDE//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2-Based Variant V1.0//EN" "dtd/kdex.dtd" [
  <!ENTITY rosegarden "<application>Rosegarden</application>">
  <!ENTITY MIDI "<acronym>MIDI</acronym>">
  <!ENTITY % English "INCLUDE" > <!-- change language only here -->
  <!ENTITY % addindex "IGNORE">
]>

<!-- The language must be changed in the <book> tag for translations. -->


<!--

    Notes on style and terminology for Rosegarden handbook
    ======================================================

     * Try to use British spelling and idiom as much as you possibly
       can, so the American bits don't stick out like a sore
       thumb.  Realise, not realize, colour, not color, though of
       course an American is going to miss using colorful (oops)
       British sayings like "a bit naff," and won't have any idea
       what the bloody hell (that was good, but a bit too vulgar, of
       course) words like "heuristic" mean.

     * Aim to be clear, brief and direct, but be informal.

     * Write instructions in the second person.

       Good:     "You can select segments by clicking on them with
                 the arrow tool."

       Bad:      "Segments can be selected by clicking on them with
                 the arrow tool."

       Very bad: "The arrow tool allows the user to select segments
                 by clicking on them."

       If you dislike the first of these because you want to make the
       phrase "the arrow tool" more obvious by placing it at the
       start of the sentence, then perhaps you should be using a
       variablelist instead and making "the arrow tool" a list item.

     * It's perfectly permissible to detour to explain why
       something is the way it is, particularly if it might not be
       obvious.

     * It's also entirely permissible to omit advanced stuff.  This
       document is be about understanding how and why, not about
       knowing every last clever detail.  Initially we were going to
       include a function reference section for the clever details,
       but it proved too hard to keep up to date, and not all that
       useful.  Providing a quick bit of guidance is most of the job.       

     * Bear in mind we can link extensively from any part of
       the handbook to any other.  Unfortunately DocBook won't allow
       you to write a link to a target that doesn't exist yet, so if
       you want to link to something that's not yet been written,
       either make a note of the planned link in an XML comment, or
       go and create a stub for the bit that hasn't been written yet,
       or else just write in a way that allows for a link to be
       easily added later (we could do an editing phase specially for
       links).

     * Be strict about using the correct terminology for
       Rosegarden data structures (segment, event, track, instrument,
       composition), but don't capitalise the words.  Capitalisation
       is useful in technical documents to make it clear that you're
       referring to a precise concept, but you shouldn't have to do
       it to make your meaning clear in user documentation.  If
       something seems ambiguous without, try rewording it instead.


    About Screenshots
    =================

    We recommend saving your current user preferences as a new theme
    using the KDE theme manager, so you can restore your usual
    desktop after your work on this manual is done.  Then we
    recommend that you spare yourself some effort, and use the
    "Rosegarden Handbook" KDE theme I just created, and put here:
    	
	http://rosegarden.sourceforge.net/Rosegarden\ Handbook.kth

    If you can't use the theme for some reason, you must dial in
    these changes by hand.  Screenshots used with this documentation
    should use the following style, colour and font settings:

    (NOTE: These specs are from the KDE 2.x era, surely, and make no
    particular mention of icon themes.  I have no idea what icons
    were used in the original version of this document, since it was
    not specified.  I have used the new default "Crystal SVG" icons
    in creating the theme above.  This will probably result in a
    mis-match, but I find I really don't care.)

    (NOTE in reply to the above: the scheme was originally from
    KDE 2.x, yes.  I suggest we don't worry about icon mismatches too
    much, as most of the screenshots don't have icons in semantically
    meaningful roles anyway.  I use Crystal SVG too now and I don't 
    really intend to change that for the documentation.)

     * KDE Style: "Light Style, 3rd Revision"

     * Colour scheme: "Blue Slate", with high-contrast
       setting and with the standard widget background set to white.
       (I have this saved as a new scheme.)

     * Fonts: Verdana 11px for general use and menus; Verdana
       11px bold for window titles; antialiasing on, but sub-pixel
       antialiasing off.  (For pictures of the segment and instrument
       parameter boxes I usually turn the size up to 13px, which
       perhaps says something about our use of font size in these
       boxes.)  WARNING: This is not a reliable hint any more, as
       the KDE font size is not in pixels but points that depend
       on the detected monitor resolution.  Go for something that
       looks a bit like the existing screenshots; it will probably
       be smaller than 11pt.

       NOTE: switching off sub-pixel antialiasing is quite important,
       as otherwise your text will look weird and fuzzy to any
       readers with CRT monitors or LCDs with a different colour
       ordering.  The exact choice of font is less important: I
       think you can get away with Vera or whatever.

     * Window Decorations: "Quartz"

    None of these would be my first choice for nice-looking
    screenshots now, but we're not here to sell Rosegarden in this
    document, we're here to provide clear and consistent help text.
    So the priority is to make new screenshots look like the existing
    ones, not to make them look fancy.  Also, I think there is an
    advantage to having screenshots in a help document look a bit
    distinct from the user's own window decorations surrounding the
    help text.

    Screenshots of the whole program or of whole matrix or notation
    windows may be taken using different themes if desired, but
    screenshots of individual dialogs or window components must use
    the above scheme.

-->

<!--
    Notes on Usability Defects
    ==========================

    This comment is a place to note anything I find difficult to
    document, or anything where the functions for two necessarily
    linked concepts are not actually linked in the GUI (etc).

    * The audio file directory (in document properties) can't be
      inspected or changed from the audio file manager.  This is
      arguably linked to a need for a project directory.  There
      are various other usability problems with the audio file
      manager as well, e.g. there's no way to tell it to pull all
      imported audio files into a single audio directory.

    * Track buttons showing sometimes-instrument, sometimes-label.

    * Mostly FIXED - Can't usefully double-click / right-click on
      most rulers.  This would be useful for a slower but clearer
      way to set loops; adding and editing markers; etc.  Setting
      loops is particularly opaque especially in notation and
      matrix views.

    * Hideous inconsistency (documented in an RFE already) between
      having to use RG for MIDI routing and being unable to use RG
      for audio routing.

    Troubleshooting
    ===============

    Shall we have a troubleshooting section?

    * I'm not seeing any MIDI outputs
    * I'm not hearing any sound from my MIDI outputs
    * I'm not seeing any audio outputs
    * I'm not hearing any sound from my audio outputs
    * I don't see any synth plugins

-->

<!--
    Still to do (yeah right, in 30 to 75 years)
    ===========

    * Control rulers

    * Controller editing

    * Event list

    * Event editor dialogs

    * Document properties

    * Add images for the tools (move, split &c) when describing them

    * Add images for transport buttons in transport section

    * Update notation menu references

    * Add new notation stuff     <- "new" when this to-do item was added? when was that I wonder?

    * Config dialog

    * Make sure the guimenuitem etc tags are being used for all menu refs

    * Give keyboard shortcuts for menu functions?

    * Go through again changing Rosegarden -> &rosegarden; and double-hyphen ->
      &ndash; or &mdash; and review any uses of "the ... function" to see
      if these words are redundant

    * Troubleshooter

    * Check !!! items

    * Fill gaps in revision history

    * Consistent capitalisation: Instrument Parameter Box or instrument
      parameter box?  Audio Mixer or audio mixer?  Device or device?

    * Finally, review the structure again and adjust the <chapter>/<sect*>
      for balance

-->


<book id="rosegarden" lang="&language;">

  <!-- This header contains all of the meta-information for the document such
  as Authors, publish date, the abstract, and Keywords -->

  <bookinfo>
    <title>The Rosegarden Handbook</title>
    <authorgroup>
      <author>
	<firstname>Chris</firstname>
	<surname>Cannam</surname>
      </author>
      <author>
	<firstname>Richard</firstname>
	<surname>Bown</surname>
      </author>
      <author>
	<firstname>Guillaume</firstname>
	<surname>Laurent</surname>
      </author>
      <!-- TRANS:ROLES_OF_TRANSLATORS -->
    </authorgroup>

    <copyright>
      <year>2002-2007</year>
      <holder>Chris Cannam, Richard Bown, Guillaume Laurent</holder>
    </copyright>

    <date>2007-09-09</date>
    <releaseinfo>1.6.0</releaseinfo>

    <abstract>
      <para>
	  <screenshot>
	    <mediaobject>
	      <imageobject>
		<imagedata fileref="rg-mainwindow.png" format="PNG"/>
              </imageobject>
	      <textobject>
	      <phrase>&rosegarden;</phrase>
	      </textobject>
	    </mediaobject>
	  </screenshot>

	Rosegarden is an audio and &MIDI; sequencer and musical notation
	editor.  This Handbook describes how to use it.

      </para>
    </abstract>

    <keywordset>
      <keyword>Rosegarden</keyword>
      <keyword>sequencer</keyword>
      <keyword>MIDI</keyword>
      <keyword>audio</keyword>
      <keyword>music</keyword>
      <keyword>notation</keyword>
      <keyword>score</keyword>
      <keyword>KDE</keyword>
    </keywordset>

  </bookinfo>

  <!-- The contents of the documentation begins here.  Label each
  chapter so with the id attribute. This is necessary for two reasons:
  it allows you to easily reference the chapter from other chapters of
  your document, and if there is no ID, the name of the generated HTML
  files will vary from time to time making it hard to manage for
  maintainers and for the CVS system. Any chapter labelled (OPTIONAL)
  may be left out at the author's discretion. Other chapters should
  not be left out in order to maintain a consistent documentation
  style across all KDE apps. -->

  <chapter id="introduction">
    <title>Introduction</title>

    <sect1>
      <title>About Rosegarden</title>
    <para>
      <application>Rosegarden</application> is a &MIDI; and audio
      sequencer and musical notation editor.  Rosegarden allows you to
      record, arrange, and compose music, in the shape of traditional
      score or &MIDI; data, or of audio files either imported or
      recorded from a microphone, guitar or whatever audio source you
      care to specify.  You can use Rosegarden to write, edit, and
      organise music to create a composition, which you can then
      synthesise, add effects to, and mix down for burning to CD or
      distribution on the web.  Rosegarden also contains professional
      notation editing support for high quality printed output.
    </para>

    <para>
      <application>Rosegarden</application> is designed to look and
      act in a manner familiar to experienced users coming to Linux
      from other platforms, whilst also being accessible and friendly
      to users new to music software generally.
    </para>

    <sect2 id="intro-handbook">
      <title>About this Handbook</title>
    <para>
    This handbook summarises the capabilities of &rosegarden; and
    provides a reference for some of the concepts involved.  It's
    designed to make sense either read in order or used as a reference
    to the concepts and functions available in Rosegarden.  If you
    would like to read a tutorial as well, <ulink
    url="http://rosegarden.sourceforge.net/tutorial/en/chapter-0.html">you
    can find one here</ulink>.</para>

    <para>If there's something else that you
    don't understand or require further help with, please visit
    <ulink url="http://www.rosegardenmusic.com/support/">the
    Rosegarden website</ulink> for Frequently Asked Questions and
    mailing list instructions.
    </para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="intro-menufunctions">
      <title>About Menus and Shortcuts</title> <para>This handbook
      usually refers to the functions you can use in Rosegarden by
      describing where they live on the menus.  For example, the
      function to add a single new track to the main track editor is
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Tracks</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Add Track</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>.</para>

      <para>In many cases, this is not the only way to reach a
      particular function.  In this case the same function is also
      available through the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+T, and it also
      appears as an icon on one of the main window's toolbars.  Both
      the keyboard shortcut and the icon can quickly be learned,
      because they are shown on the menu in Rosegarden alongside the
      name of the function.  You should bear in mind that although we
      always give the full menu location in this documentation for
      reference purposes, it's not necessarily the best or most usual
      way to use a function, and you should keep an eye on the
      keyboard shortcuts or toolbar icons as well.
      </para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="intro-optional">
      <title>Optional Features</title> <para>This Handbook assumes
      that your Rosegarden installation supports all the features of
      which it is capable.  Some of Rosegarden's features, including
      some very major ones, are actually optional when building a
      Rosegarden installation, depending on which other libraries and
      supporting code is available.  For example, the whole audio
      subsystem is only compiled in if JACK libraries are available;
      synth plugin support depends on a number of other modules;
      etc.</para> <para>These dependencies are documented in the
      Rosegarden README and configuration documentation. If you find
      that this Handbook refers to features not visible in the version
      of Rosegarden you're using, consult your configuration
      documentation or distributor.
      </para>
    </sect2>
    </sect1>
  </chapter>


<!--
  **********************************
 
   PART I:
   Discussion and tutorial material

  **********************************
  -->


  <chapter id="file-operations">
    <title>Rosegarden Files and Documents</title>
    <para>
      &rosegarden; stores each composition in its own document, using
      its own internal format.  When you save a document it is stored
      on disc as a file with the .rg extension.<footnote><para>
	 Many users have complained about our opaque binary file
	 format.  It is, in fact, nothing more than gzipped XML.
     </para></footnote>  &rosegarden; can also
      handle a number of other standard file formats.
    </para>

    <sect1 id="file-creating">
      <title>New compositions</title>
      <para>
	When &rosegarden; starts up, it does so with a new document,
	containing an "empty" composition ready to start editing.
	To put something in that composition, you must either record
	something, or create some blank lengths of music (referred
	to as "segments") that you can then fill in using the
	various editing facilities.
      </para>
      <para>See <link linkend="recording">Recording</link> for details of how to record music, and see the <link
	  linkend="segment-view">Track Editor</link> section for a
	description of how to create, edit, and manage segments of
	music.
      </para>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="file-midi">
      <title>Using MIDI files</title>
      <para>
	To import and export MIDI files, use the 
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">File</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Import</guimenuitem>
	  <guimenuitem>Import MIDI File</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>
	and
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">File</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Export</guimenuitem>
	  <guimenuitem>Export MIDI File</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>
	functions.
      </para>
      <para>
	Although &rosegarden; can load and save file formats such as
	MIDI, it does not store MIDI data internally.  You should
	generally prefer to save files in &rosegarden;'s own format,
	as &rosegarden; stores quite a lot of information that will
	be lost when exporting to MIDI.  This also applies if you merely
	import a file, and then immediately export it back out.  &rosegarden;
	translates the raw MIDI to its internal format, and then translates that format
	back into MIDI.  Some details of the file structure can and do get
	lost or rearranged in this translation, but the resulting performances
	should be functionally identical.
      </para>
      <para>
	When a MIDI file is loaded, &rosegarden; splits out the
	music into one track per MIDI track or channel in the file,
	<link linkend="studio-midi-import">sets up the appropriate
	  instrument mappings</link>, and <link
	  linkend="nv-quantization">attempts to calculate plausible
	  notation</link> for the MIDI performance data.
      </para>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="file-rgproject">
      <title>Rosegarden Project files</title> <para>A Rosegarden
      composition file (.rg) contains all of the the note information
      for your composition, as well as other data such as MIDI
      controller settings, plugin details, and the names of any audio
      files referred to in your composition.  The audio files
      themselves are not stored in the Rosegarden composition file;
      instead you are expected to keep track of their location on disk
      yourself (see <link linkend="segment-view-audio-segments">Audio
      segments</link>).  When you need to transfer a project from one
      computer to another, or to a friend or colleague, this can be
      inconvenient.  This is where Rosegarden Project files are
      useful.  A Project file contains your composition, all of the
      audio files it uses, any further data files required for plugins
      used in the composition, and any additional files you may want
      to include, all in one big bundle.</para>
      <para>Use <menuchoice>
	  <guimenu>File</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Export</guimenuitem>
	  <guimenuitem>Export Rosegarden Project file...</guimenuitem></menuchoice> to export the current composition and its associated data into a Rosegarden Project file, and  <menuchoice>
	  <guimenu>File</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Import</guimenuitem>
	  <guimenuitem>Import Rosegarden Project file...</guimenuitem></menuchoice> to expand a Rosegarden Project file back into a composition and load it.</para>

      <para>Note that Rosegarden Project format is an interchange
      format, not an archival format.  Although Rosegarden composition
      files are very carefully checked for compatibility from one
      Rosegarden version to the next, no long-term guarantees are made for the
      Project file format.</para>
    </sect1>
    
    <sect1 id="file-other">
      <title>Other file formats</title>
	<para>Rosegarden can export to and import from a number of other file formats.  Some of these are described here; see also <link linkend="file-printing">Printing</link> for information about LilyPond file export.</para>
	<variablelist>
	<varlistentry>
	<term>Csound</term>
	<listitem>
      <para>You can export score files for the Csound synthesis system using 
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu>File</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Export</guimenuitem>
	  <guimenuitem>Export Csound score file...</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>.  Together with a suitable orchestra file (not supplied), this can be used to play the composition through <ulink url="http://www.csounds.com/">Csound</ulink>. Note that not all data in the Rosegarden composition necessarily can or will be saved in the Csound format.</para>
	</listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
      <term>Mup</term>
	<listitem>
	<para>You can use <menuchoice>
	    <guimenu>File</guimenu>
	    <guimenuitem>Export</guimenuitem>
	    <guimenuitem>Export Mup file...</guimenuitem>
	  </menuchoice>
	  to save the contents of the current composition into a new Mup file.  This can then be processed by the <ulink url="http://www.arkkra.com/">Mup</ulink> music publication system, although it is likely that the file may need some tweaking to get really good quality output.  Note that not all data in the Rosegarden composition necessarily can or will be saved in the Mup format.</para>
      </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
      <term>MusicXML</term>
	<listitem>
	<para>The <menuchoice>
	    <guimenu>File</guimenu>
	    <guimenuitem>Export</guimenuitem>
	    <guimenuitem>Export MusicXML file...</guimenuitem>
	  </menuchoice>
	  function saves the contents of the current composition into a new MusicXML file.  This can then be used with any music software that supports the MusicXML format.  Note that MusicXML support is experimental and has not been well tested.  Not all data in the Rosegarden composition necessarily can or will be saved in the MusicXML format.</para>
	</listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
      <term>Hydrogen</term>
	<listitem>
	<para>Rosegarden can import h2song files created by the Hydrogen drum machine.  These are imported into a skeletal MIDI-style structure with one track per pattern.  The audio samples they use are not imported.  Use  <menuchoice>
	    <guimenu>File</guimenu>
	    <guimenuitem>Import</guimenuitem>
	    <guimenuitem>Import Hydrogen file...</guimenuitem>
	  </menuchoice> to import a Hydrogen file.</para>
	</listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
      <term>Rosegarden 2.1</term>
	<listitem>
	<para>Use the 
	  <menuchoice>
	    <guimenu>File</guimenu>
	    <guimenuitem>Import</guimenuitem>
	    <guimenuitem>Import Rosegarden 2.1 file...</guimenuitem>
	  </menuchoice> function to create a new composition from the contents of an existing X11 Rosegarden v2.1 (.rose) file.
	  </para>
	</listitem>

	</varlistentry>
	</variablelist>
      </sect1>

    <sect1 id="file-merge">
      <title>Merging files</title> <para>As well as loading or
	importing files, you can also merge them into the current
	document, loading or importing the data from the file, as necessary,
	and adding it to the existing composition.
      </para>
      
      <para>To merge a file, just use the relevant option on the
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">File</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Merge</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>
	submenu, instead of using the Open or
	Import option.
      </para>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="file-printing">
      <title>Printing</title>
      <para>
	You can print out a composition in the form of a musical
	score, using the
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">File</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Print</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>
	function or the
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">File</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Print with LilyPond</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>
	function.
      </para>

      <para>
	Producing a score from performance data is a hard task, and
	in most cases it's unreasonable to expect a default printout
	based on MIDI data to be very readable.  You should use the
	<link linkend="notation-view">notation editor</link> to tidy
	up the score before printing.  (See also <link
	  linkend="nv-quantization">Notation from performance
	  data</link>.)
      </para>

      <para>&rosegarden; is capable of producing very readable scores.  Even
	  so, it is designed to be a screen editor and not primarily a
	  typesetter.  If you want to produce true print-quality scores you
	  should consider using <ulink
	      url="http://www.lilypond.org">LilyPond</ulink> in conjunction
	  with &rosegarden;.  LilyPond is music typesetting software that
	  reads a specialised text file format and produces high-quality
	  typeset output.  &rosegarden; is capable of writing LilyPond files
	  using the
	  <menuchoice>
	    <guimenu lang="en">File</guimenu>
	    <guimenuitem>Export</guimenuitem>
            <guimenuitem>Export LilyPond</guimenuitem>
          </menuchoice>
          function, and it
	  features special <link linkend="nv-lilypond-directives">exportable
	      directives</link> and <link linkend="track-parameters">track
	      parameters</link> that provide access to LilyPond features for
	  which there is currently no parallel within &rosegarden;'s own
	  native interface.
      </para>

      <para>LilyPond may be conveniently used with the
	  <menuchoice>
	    <guimenu lang="en">File</guimenu>
            <guimenuitem>Preview with LilyPond</guimenuitem>
          </menuchoice>
	  function, which exports the file into a temporary file and processes
	  it directly with LilyPond for preview with a PDF viewer.
	  If you are happy with the preview, you may print the score using the
	  printing capability of the PDF viewer, or use the 
	  <menuchoice>
	    <guimenu lang="en">File</guimenu>
            <guimenuitem>Print with LilyPond</guimenuitem>
          </menuchoice>
	  function.
      </para>

      <para>
	  When Export, Preview, or Printing is done with LilyPond,
	  there is available also a collection of
	  <link linkend="lilypond-options">LilyPond options</link>.
      </para>
      </sect1>

    <sect1 id="lilypond-options">
      <title>LilyPond options</title>
      <para>If one of the LilyPond export functions is invoked, there will
	  appear a dialog in which options specific to LilyPond export may be
	  altered.
      </para>

      <variablelist>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term>LilyPond version</term>
	    <listitem><para>
		LilyPond version installed into the system should be automatically
		detected in the dialog, but it is possible to export to any other
		LilyPond version since 2.6.  Historically, LilyPond's syntax has
		changed somewhat over time, but since LilyPond version 2.6 changes
		have have been less radical and more maintainable.</para>
	    </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Paper size and Landscape</term>
	    <listitem><para>
		Paper size can be A3, A4, A5, A6, Legal, US Letter, and Tabloid.
		All paper sizes may also be used in Landscape mode.</para>
	    </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Font size</term>
	    <listitem><para>
		Font size affects the size of the notes.  If you want to fit more
		staffs into the paper, you should decrease the font size.</para>
	    </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Export content</term>
	    <listitem><para>
		Export content concerns tracks that have segments in them, which
		are the tracks that are not empty.
		It is possible to export All tracks, Non-muted tracks, the current
		Selected track, or Selected segments.  If LilyPond export is
		launched from the Notation view, Selected segments include
		the same selection which was used in opening the Notation view.</para>
	    </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Merge tracks that have the same name</term>
	    <listitem><para>
		It is possible to Merge tracks that have the same name.
		This options allows for example to make a piano score with 
		several independent voices.  You may give first three tracks
		name "Right" and three next tracks "Left" and then merge
		them in LilyPond export.  (This provides an easier way to manage
		overlapping segments with the price that the top and bottom
		parts will have different names on the page.  If you wish both
		of them to be named, eg. "Piano," then you will have to keep all
		of the segments on the same pair of staffs. Consult <ulink
		url="http://rosegarden.sourceforge.net/tutorial/supplemental/piano/piano-by-example.html">Piano
		by Example</ulink> for a hands-on demonstration of this.) <!--
		this comment makes absolutely no sense to me(dmm):   Sometimes you
		may encounter notes that overlap in printed form, you may avoid
		them by selecting one of the collapsing notes and fine adjust
		its position in Notation view function -->
	  <menuchoice>
	    <guimenu lang="en">Adjust</guimenu>
            <guimenuitem>Fine Positioning</guimenuitem>
            <guimenuitem>Push Right/Left</guimenuitem>
          </menuchoice>.</para>
	    </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Export tempo marks</term>
	    <listitem><para>
		Tempo marks are not exported by default.  If tempo changes
		rarely, you may want to export all tempo marks, but if
		tempo changes too often, you may export only the first mark.</para>
	    </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Export lyrics</term>
	    <listitem><para>
		<link linkend="nv-text-lyrics">Lyrics</link> is exported if this
		option is checked.  Text is entered in Unicode, which
		makes it possible to enter lyrics in all languages.  Multiple
		lines of lyrics per staff is also possible, see the section
		on <link linkend="nv-text-lyrics">Editign lyrics</link>.</para>
	    </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Export beamings</term>
	    <listitem><para>
		<link linkend="nv-beamed-groups">Beams</link> defined in
		&rosegarden; can be exported, or the default
		beam grouping of LilyPond can be used.  Future versions
		of &rosegarden; may support nested note grouping.</para>
	    </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
<!-- deprecated
        <varlistentry>
	  <term>Add staff group bracket</term>
	    <listitem><para>
		Staff group bracket may be added to cover all staffs.
		Future versions of &rosegarden; may support nested staff
		groupings.</para>
	    </listitem>
	</varlistentry> -->
	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Lyrics alignment</term>
	    <listitem><para>
		Lyrics is aligned Left by default.  Sometimes Center or
		Right alignment provides results and more pleasant output.</para>
	    </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Ragged bottom</term>
	    <listitem><para>
		The staffs normally cover the whole page from top to bottom.
		When there are only a few staffs, this option places the
		extra vertical space at the bottom of the page instead.</para>
	    </listitem>
	</varlistentry>	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Enable "point-and-click" debugging</term>
	    <listitem><para>
		If you export the LilyPond source with the 
	  <menuchoice>
	    <guimenu lang="en">File</guimenu>
	    <guimenuitem>Export</guimenuitem>
            <guimenuitem>Export LilyPond</guimenuitem>
          </menuchoice>
		function, you may open the LilyPond source by clicking
		notes in the PDF output.  Consult <ulink url="  http://lilypond.org/doc/v2.10/Documentation/user/lilypond/Point-and-click#Point-and-click">LilyPond documentation</ulink> for more
		information.
</para>
	    </listitem>
	</varlistentry>	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Export \midi block</term>
	    <listitem><para>
		LilyPond is also capable of producing MIDI output.  Check this
		option if you wish the LilyPond source to use this option.
		Note however that MIDI output which you obtain via &rosegarden;
		sequencer, via
	  <menuchoice>
	    <guimenu lang="en">File</guimenu>
	    <guimenuitem>Export</guimenuitem>
            <guimenuitem>Export MIDI file</guimenuitem>
          </menuchoice>,
		and via LilyPond's MIDI output may differ considerably.</para>
	    </listitem>
	</varlistentry>	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Headers</term>
	    <listitem><para>
		Headers can be edited both in LilyPond export dialog and through the
	  <menuchoice>
	    <guimenu lang="en">Composition</guimenu>
	    <guimenuitem>Edit Document Properties</guimenuitem>
          </menuchoice> function.</para><para>Some of the headers will appear
		only in LilyPond output.
		The position of the Printable headers match roughly with
		the positions of the headers in the printed output.
		Below is shown an example with all headers and lyrics
		entered with Unicode text.</para>
	<para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="headers-and-unicode-lyrics.png" format="PNG"/>
	    </imageobject>
	    <textobject>
	      <phrase>LilyPond's output showing all headers and Unicode lyrics.</phrase>
	    </textobject>
	  </mediaobject>
	</screenshot>
	</para>
	    </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
      </variablelist>
      </sect1>

  </chapter>

  <chapter id="segment-view">
    <title>The Track Editor</title>
    <sect1 id="segment-view-overview">
      <title>Overview</title>
      <para>
	&rosegarden;'s main layout is similar to many
	other popular sequencers.  It is based on a track
	structure &mdash; the main window shows a track editor with
	a list of tracks and their associated instruments down the
	left hand side.  You can manipulate and move blocks of
	music data (referred to as &ldquo;segments&rdquo;) on the
	track editor as well as opening the segments themselves in
	specialised editors (<link
	  linkend="notation-view">notation</link>, <link
	  linkend="matrix-view">matrix</link>, <link
	  linkend="percussion-matrix-view">percussion matrix</link>, and <link
	  linkend="event-view">event list</link>).
      </para>
      
      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-trackeditor.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s Track Editor showing two segments of music data</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>

      <para>
	Tracks govern what sort of segment you can create in a particular
	place.  If you create a segment on an audio track, it will be an audio
	segment, no matter where that segment subsequently moves.  If you
	create a segment on a &MIDI; track, it will always be a &MIDI;
	segment.  You can set <link linkend="track-parameters">
	track parameters</link> to pre-select various segment properties at the track
	level, and to exercise fine control over &MIDI; recording.
      </para>
      <para>
	Tracks can be assigned to a range of &MIDI;, plugin synth, or
	audio instruments.  In the picture above we see three segments
	in the track editor on tracks assigned to General MIDI
	instruments.
      </para>
      
      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-trackbutton-labels.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s Track buttons showing track labels</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>

      <para>
	The button area to the left of the segment canvas shows you
	the track number, mute and record status, and the label of the
	track.  You can mute or unmute a track by clicking on the blue
	LED-style button, and select a particular track as a record
	target by clicking on the red one.  To change the track label,
	double-click on it.
      </para>
      
      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-trackbutton-instruments.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s Track buttons showing instrument assignments</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>

      <para>
	Track labels are only shown if the
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Settings</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Show Track Labels</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>
	menu option is enabled.
	Otherwise, as in this picture, the instrument assignments for
	the tracks are shown instead.</para>

    </sect1>
    <sect1 id="segment-view-instruments">
      <title>Tracks and instruments</title>
      <para>
	Each track must have an instrument assigned to it, in order to
	be heard.  By default the first 16 tracks are assigned to the
	16 instruments of the first available MIDI device, and the
	next 16 tracks are assigned to audio.</para>

      <para>To change the instrument assignment for a track,
      right-click on the track label: a pop-up menu will appear from
      which you can select among all the available instruments.
      </para>
      
      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-trackbutton-instrumentmenu.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s Instrument menu</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>

      <para>
	An instrument can be understood as a single channel on a
	&MIDI; device, or as a mono or stereo audio output or an audio
	synth plugin.  Tracks containing note data should be assigned
	to &MIDI; or synth plugin instruments, and those containing
	audio to audio instruments.  You can assign more than one
	track to the same instrument, in which case the multiple
	tracks will produce sounds in the same way (&MIDI; tracks playing
	panned to the left with a flute, or audio tracks playing with the same
	volume levels, through the same stack of <link linkend="studio-plugins">
	plugins</link>.)
      </para>
      <para>
	You can change various properties of the instrument
	associated with a track using the <link
	  linkend="segment-view-instrumentparameterbox">Instrument
	  Parameter Box</link>.  This is where, for example, you would
	set a MIDI instrument to use a particular patch and so
	produce a particular sound (piano, strings etc).
      </para>
      <para>
	See the
	<link linkend="studio-introduction">Studio</link> section
	for more about instruments.
      </para>
	
    </sect1>
    <sect1 id="segment-view-creating">
      <title>Creating segments</title>
      <para>
	To create an empty segment, in order to begin composing
	something new, you need to use the pencil tool (which is normally the
	default active tool when you first start &rosegarden;).  Click on
	the pencil on the toolbar, and then click at the point where
	you want the segment to start (at the correct height for the
	track you want the segment to be on, and at a distance
	across the editor window corresponding to the correct time)
	and drag rightwards until the segment is the right number of
	bars long.
      </para>
      <para>If you want to draw a segment longer than the visible
	portion of the canvas, the canvas will scroll automatically once you
	reach its edge.  If you keep dragging past the end of the entire
	composition, you can keep dragging, and will push the end marker right along
	with you.  (This is a welcome contrast to earlier version of
	&rosegarden;.)
      </para>

      <para>
	Usually each new segment starts on a barline and extends bar
	by bar, but this snap-to-grid effect can be prevented by
	holding down Shift while clicking and dragging.
      </para>

      <para>New segments are created in a green colour, with a treble clef by
	  default.  You may wish to jump ahead and have a look at <link
	      linkend="track-parameters">track parameters</link> to explore
	  other possibilities.
      </para>

      <para>
	Once you have created a segment, you can then begin editing
	using the <link linkend="matrix-view">matrix</link>, <link linkend="percussion-matrix-view">percussion matrix</link> or <link
	  linkend="notation-view">notation</link> editors.  To use one
	of these editors, either double-click on the segment, or
	else click with the right mouse button and choose the editor
	you want from the context menu.
      </para>

      <para>
	If you are intending to <link
	linkend="recording">record</link> from a MIDI device or audio
	input, you don't need to create a new segment to record into
	first -- each separate recording always goes into a new
	segment, created automatically during recording.
      </para>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="segment-view-audio-segments">
      <title>Audio segments</title>
      <para>
	An audio segment contains recorded or sampled audio data,
	instead of editable note-event data.  Rosegarden allows you to
	record, play, arrange and split audio segments, but does not
	contain audio waveform editing facilities.
	</para>
      <para>To create an audio segment, you can <link
      linkend="recording">record</link> from an audio source onto a
      track assigned to an audio instrument, or you can work with
      existing WAV files.  To do this, you need to use the audio
      manager dialog (reached via <menuchoice><guimenu
      lang="en">File</guimenu><guimenuitem>Manage Audio Files</guimenuitem></menuchoice>).
	</para>
      <para>
        <screenshot>
          <mediaobject>
            <imageobject>
              <imagedata fileref="rg-audiofilemanager.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>The audio file manager</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>

      <para>You can drag-and-drop audio files from the KDE file
      browser or your KDE desktop into the audio file manager, or you
      can open them using its File menu.  Then you can either
      drag-and-drop them onto Rosegarden's track canvas, or use the
      audio file manager's <menuchoice><guimenu
      lang="en">Action</guimenu><guimenuitem>Insert into Selected
	    Audio Track</guimenuitem></menuchoice> menu function, provided the current
      selected track in the main window is assigned to an audio
      instrument.  Newly-recorded audio segments also appear in the
      audio file manager dialog.</para>

      <para>Details of the audio files associated with a particular
      composition are saved with that composition, but the audio files
      themselves are not.  You should ensure your document has a
      sensible audio file search path (via <menuchoice><guimenu
      lang="en">Composition</guimenu><guimenuitem>Edit Document
      Properties...</guimenuitem><guimenuitem>Audio</guimenuitem></menuchoice>)
      so as to keep your audio files accessible together.  You can also export
      your project to a &rosegarden; project package file (.rgp) via
      <menuchoice><guimenu lang="en">File</guimenu>
      <guimenuitem>Export</guimenuitem><guimenuitem>Export Rosegarden Project File
      </guimenuitem></menuchoice> to collect any scattered audio files
      together in one place.</para>

      <para>The audio manager dialog also shows the sample-rate and
      other information for each audio file, and marks with an
      asterisk any audio file whose sample rate does not match that of
      the current JACK audio session that Rosegarden is using.
      Rosegarden will resample these files at playback time using a
      very low quality zero order hold resampler.  You are advised to
      resample them separately using a separate dedicated audio editor
      instead.
      </para>

    </sect1>
    
    <sect1 id="segment-view-manipulating">
      <title>Manipulating segments</title>
      <para>
	The main window contains a selection of "tools" for editing
	segments.  These are available from the main toolbar: first
	select the tool you want from the toolbar, and then click
	and drag on the segments on the main canvas.
      </para>

      <sect2 id="segment-view-selector">
	<title>The Select tool</title>
	<para>
	  The select tool	  <inlinemediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-select.png"/>
	</imageobject>
	</inlinemediaobject>
          is actually a
	  multipurpose tool: it can be used to select, move, copy,
	  resize and create segments.</para>

	<para>The most obvious use is
	  selection: select a single segment by clicking on it with
	  the select tool, or select several by clicking with Shift
	  held down, or by clicking in an empty area of the window and
	  dragging out an area.
	</para>

	<para>To move segments with the select tool, simply click and
	  drag on the segment.  To create copies, click and drag with
	  Ctrl held down.  To resize a segment, click and drag on the
	  right-hand edge of the segment; and to create new segments,
	  click and drag on an empty area with the middle mouse button.
	</para>

	<para>
	  The select tool doesn't replace the other tools completely,
	  though &mdash; sometimes you need to be more precise about
	  which operation you intend, particularly when working on small
	  segments.
	</para>

      </sect2>

      <sect2 id="segment-view-move-resize">
	<title>Move and Resize tools</title>
	<para>To move a segment to a different start time or track,
	  use the move tool	  <inlinemediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-move.png"/>
	</imageobject>
	</inlinemediaobject>
           and click and drag on the segment you want
	  to move.  If you hold down the Ctrl key while dragging, the
	  segment will be copied instead of moved.</para>

	<para>To resize a segment, use the resize tool	  <inlinemediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-resize.png"/>
	</imageobject>
	</inlinemediaobject>
           and click and drag on the right-hand end of the segment.
           Resizing a segment has the effect of extending or
           shortening it, by subtracting some of its contents or adding
           silence at the start or end.  If you hold down the Ctrl
           key, the segment will be <link
           linkend="segment-view-rescale">rescaled</link> (stretched
           or squashed) instead of extended or shortened.</para>

	<para>For both move and resize you can hold Shift for fine
	positioning, to avoid snapping to a particular grid position.
	</para>

      </sect2>

      <sect2 id="segment-view-rescale">
        <title>Stretching and squashing segments</title>
        <para>Resizing a segment normally makes it shorter or longer
        by subtracting content or adding some extra space.  However,
        by holding the Ctrl key while resizing, you can instead
        stretch or squash the contents of the segment.  You can also do this by selecting the segment and then using <menuchoice><guimenu lang="en">Segments</guimenu>
      <guimenuitem>Stretch or Squash...</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.</para>
        <para>
          For segments that contain MIDI events, this re-spaces the
          events so that they are spread across the new segment's
          duration, playing back faster or slower than before but in
          the same relative proportions.
        </para>
        <para>
          For audio segments, this time-stretches the audio, altering
          its played speed without altering its pitch (as would happen
          if the audio was simply played back faster or slower).
          Time-stretching usually adds some audible artifacts as well,
          so the quality of your results may vary.
        </para>
        <para>
          &rosegarden; does not alter the original audio file when
          time-stretching an audio segment, and if you rescale the same
          segment repeatedly it will always work from the original
          file instead of accumulating timestretching artifacts with
          each rescale.  You can rescale both mono and stereo audio.
        </para>
        <para>
          (For reference, &rosegarden; uses a frequency-domain
          time-stretcher based on a phase vocoder with phase-locking
          at percussive transients.  This usually produces good
          results with stable harmonic sounds such as pads and basses
          as well as purely percussive sounds such as drum loops, but
          is less effective for composite material or music with soft
          or breathy note onsets.)
        </para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2 id="segment-view-split-join">
	<title>Split tool</title>
	<para>
	  You can use the split tool
	  <inlinemediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-split.png"/>
	</imageobject>
	</inlinemediaobject>
	  to split a single segment
	  into two separate segments.  To split your segment, select the
	  split tool and click on the segment you wish to split.
	</para>
	<para>
	  By default segments are split on the closest barline to the
	  cursor, but this can be prevented by holding down Shift
	  while splitting the segment.
	</para>

      </sect2>

      <sect2 id="segment-view-split-by-pitch">
	<title>Other Split functions</title>
	<para>The Segments menu contains a number of other Split functions.</para>
	<variablelist>
	<varlistentry>
	<term>Split on Silence</term>
	<listitem><para><menuchoice>
		  <guimenu>Segments</guimenu>
		  <guimenuitem>Split</guimenuitem>
		  <guimenuitem>Split on Silence</guimenuitem>
		</menuchoice>
	  splits the selected segments on silences.
		  This function works slightly differently depending
		  on whether the selected segments contain audio or
		  MIDI data.  For audio segments, it offers you a
		  dialog in which you can choose a threshold below
		  which the segment is considered "silent"; it then
		  splits the segment whenever its amplitude falls
		  below this threshold.  For MIDI segments, it simply
		  splits the segment everywhere that a full bar of
		  silence occurs.
	</para>
	</listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
	<term>Split by Pitch</term>
	<listitem><para>
		<menuchoice>
		  <guimenu>Segments</guimenu>
		  <guimenuitem>Split</guimenuitem>
		  <guimenuitem>Split by Pitch...</guimenuitem>
		</menuchoice>
		  splits the currently selected segments into higher and
		    lower parts.

		  This function invokes a dialog allowing you to
		  choose a pitch as a "split point", and then splits
		  the selected segments in half with all the notes on
		  or above that split point in the "higher" segment
		  and all the notes below it in the "lower".

		</para>
		<para>
		  If the music in the segment consists of two separate
		  parts (e.g. left and right hand piano parts) that
		  are not always completely on either side of a single
		  split point, you may with to select the "ranging
		  split-point" option.  If this is selected,
		  Rosegarden will attempt to track the two parts as
		  they move up and down, usually doing a slightly
		  better job of separating out notes that were
		  intended to lie in the two separate parts.

		</para>
		<para>
		  The resulting segments are both created on the same
		  track, with one overlapping the other.
		  
		</para>
	</listitem></varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
<term>Split by Recording Source</term><listitem><para><menuchoice>
		  <guimenu>Segments</guimenu>
		  <guimenuitem>Split</guimenuitem>
		  <guimenuitem>Split by Recording Source...</guimenuitem>
		</menuchoice> splits the currently selected segments according to the MIDI channel and device their events were recorded from.</para><para>If you have recorded events from more than one MIDI channel or device into the a single segment, you can use this function to split them into separate segments afterwards.  Select the channel or device whose events you want to split out, and the segment will be split into two segments, one containing events from the selected channel or device and the other containing the remaining events.  The two segments are both created on the same track, with one overlapping the other.</para><para>See also <link linkend="recording">Recording</link> and <link linkend="track-recording-filters">Track recording filters</link> for more details on how to select the source MIDI channel or device for a recording.</para></listitem></varlistentry>


	<varlistentry>
	<term>Split at Time</term><listitem><para>The <menuchoice>
		  <guimenu>Segments</guimenu>
		  <guimenuitem>Split</guimenuitem>
		  <guimenuitem>Split at Time...</guimenuitem>
		</menuchoice> function simply splits the currently selected segments into two parts at the time you specify.</para></listitem></varlistentry>	

	</variablelist>
	  
	</sect2>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="segment-view-tempo-timesig">
      <title>Tempo and Time Signature</title>

      <sect2 id="tempo">
	<title>Tempo in Rosegarden</title>
	<para>
	  &rosegarden; considers a composition to be accompanied by a
	  single stream of "tempo changes" and "time signature
	  changes", which you can edit to adjust the tempo and the
	  number and structure of beats in each bar.</para>

	<para>A tempo change
	  can be to a constant fixed tempo, or it can be "ramped"
	  &mdash; changing smoothly to a different target tempo at a
	  given future time.  Each tempo change takes effect until the
	  following one is reached, so any two consecutive tempo changes
	  together describe a region that will be played at a constant
	  or smoothly ramping tempo.
	</para>

	<para>
	  Tempo and time signature are related, because &rosegarden;
	  displays tempo in beats per minute, and the duration of a
	  beat depends on the time signature.  &rosegarden; only
	  permits a single time signature to be in effect in any given
	  bar (that is, you can't have different time signatures in
	  different tracks).  Each new time signature causes a new bar
	  to start, so you can place two time signatures closer
	  together than the natural bar duration in order to obtain a
	  partial bar.
	</para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2 id="tempo-ruler">
	<title>Tempo rulers</title>
	<para>
	  The &rosegarden; <link linkend="segment-view">track editor</link>, <link
	  linkend="matrix-view">matrix editor</link> and <link
	  linkend="notation-view">notation editor</link> each contain
	  a tempo ruler, which can be optionally displayed at the top
	  of the editing area.</para>

      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-temporuler.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s tempo ruler (and the bar and beat ruler beneath it)</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>

	<para>The tempo ruler shows changes to tempo and time
	signature throughout the composition, and can be used for
	editing tempo.</para>

	<para>To increase or decrease the tempo within the range of a
	single tempo change, click and drag the horizontal line (or
	sloped line, for ramped tempos) representing that tempo
	upwards or downwards.</para>

	<para>To insert a new tempo change, right-click on the ruler
	for a menu and select <guimenuitem>Insert Tempo
	Change</guimenuitem>.  This will insert a new tempo change
	with the same tempo as the prior one, which you can then drag
	to increase or decrease.</para>

	<para>You can also click and drag the starting point of a
	tempo change left or right to move that tempo change to a
	different time, and you can click and drag the ending point of
	a tempo change up or down to make the tempo ramp gradually
	towards an ending tempo value.</para>

	<para>Double-click on the tempo ruler to open the <link linkend="tempo-timesig">tempo and
	time signature editor</link>.</para>

</sect2>

<sect2 id="tempo-timesig">
	<title>Tempo and time signature editor</title>
	
      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-tempotimesig.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s tempo and time signature editor</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>

	<para>The tempo and time signature editor window lists all of the tempo and time signature changes in the composition.  You can edit an individual tempo or time signature change by double-clicking on it.</para>

      </sect2>

      <sect2 id="tempo-edit">
	<title>Changing Tempo</title>
	<para>
	You can edit an existing tempo change, or add a new one, by using the <link linkend="tempo-ruler">tempo ruler</link>, by double-clicking on the tempo display in the <link linkend="transport">Transport window</link>, by using the <menuchoice>
		  <guimenu>Composition</guimenu>
		  <guimenuitem>Add Tempo Change...</guimenuitem>
		</menuchoice> menu function, or by double-clicking on an existing tempo in the <link linkend="tempo-timesig">tempo and time signature editor</link>.  Each of these will bring you to some variation of the tempo editing dialog:</para>
	<para>
	  <screenshot>
	    <mediaobject>
	      <imageobject>
		<imagedata fileref="rg-tempodialog.png" format="PNG"/>
	</imageobject>
	  <textobject>
	    <phrase>&rosegarden;'s tempo dialog</phrase>
	  </textobject>
	</mediaobject>
	</screenshot>
	</para>
	<para>To set a new tempo, either dial it into the numeric tempo spinbox at the top, or else click repeatedly on the Tap button at approximately the speed you want and let &rosegarden; work out the tempo for you.
	  </para>
	<para>By default, a new tempo is "fixed"; that is, the tempo remains constant from the tempo change until the next tempo change is reached.  Alternatively, you can tell &rosegarden; to make the tempo ramp smoothly to a particular value, or to the following tempo value, by the point at which the next tempo change is reached.  See also <link linkend="tempo">Tempo</link> for more details on tempo handling.</para>
      </sect2>
      
      <sect2 id="time-signature">
	<title>Time signature</title>
	<para>
	  To change the time signature, use <menuchoice>
		  <guimenu>Composition</guimenu>
		  <guimenuitem>Add Time Signature Change...</guimenuitem>
		</menuchoice> or double-click on the existing time signature in the <link linkend="transport">Transport window</link> or <link linkend="tempo-timesig">tempo and time signature editor</link>.</para><para>
	  <screenshot>
	    <mediaobject>
	      <imageobject>
		<imagedata fileref="rg-timesigdialog.png" format="PNG"/>
	</imageobject>
	  <textobject>
	      <phrase>&rosegarden;'s time signature dialog</phrase>
	  </textobject>
	</mediaobject>
	</screenshot>
	</para>
      </sect2>
<sect2 id="tempo-from-segment">
	<title>Setting tempo from an existing segment</title>
	<para>&rosegarden; provides two ways to set tempo from a segment that you have recorded or imported:</para>
	  <variablelist>
	    <varlistentry>
	    <term>Audio Segment Duration</term>
	      <listitem><para>Use the <menuchoice>
		  <guimenu>Composition</guimenu>
		  <guimenuitem>Set Tempo to Audio Segment Duration</guimenuitem></menuchoice> function when you have imported or recorded an audio segment that you know is exactly one bar long, and you want to ensure that the tempo for surrounding note events is set appropriately.</para><para>This function uses the duration of the selected segment (which must be an audio segment of a single bar) to work out a single matching tempo setting.  It does not analyse the content of the audio segment in any way; it simply looks at how long it is.</para>
		</listitem>
	    </varlistentry>
	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>Beat Segment</term>
	    <listitem><para><menuchoice>
		  <guimenu>Composition</guimenu>
		  <guimenuitem>Set Tempos from Beat Segment</guimenuitem></menuchoice> analyses a segment of MIDI events that are assumed to be at beat positions for the current time signature, and sets a series of tempo changes according to the time elapsed between consecutive beats.</para>
	      <para>You can use this to set an overall tempo map for a composition by "tapping" tempo in a recorded segment.  For example, you can record from a MIDI keyboard and tap a series of single notes at approximate beat positions, speeding up and slowing down gradually; then select the recorded segment and use this function to set a tempo map that speeds up and slows down to match your tapping.</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>
	  </variablelist>
	</sect2>
		
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="markers-ranges-loops">
      <title>Markers, ranges, and loops</title>
      <sect2 id="markers">
	<title>Markers</title>

	<para>Markers are moments in time that have labels.  You can
	create any number of markers in your &rosegarden; composition,
	to define particular points that you wish to remember the
	locations of.  Marker positions and labels will be saved in
	your &rosegarden; file.</para>

	<para>Markers are shown in the main ruler at the top of each
	of &rosegarden;'s editor windows.</para>

      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-markerloop.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>A marker and a loop range</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>
        <para>To add
	a new marker, double-click on the marker area (top half) of
	the ruler to open the marker editor.  Make sure &rosegarden;'s
	playback pointer (see <link linkend="transport">The
	Transport</link>) is in the location you want to add the
	marker at, and then click the Add button to add a new marker
	at the playback position.  You can then double-click on the
	marker's entry in the marker editor window to edit its name or
	adjust its location.</para>

	<para>Click on the text of a marker in the marker ruler to
	move the playback pointer directly to that marker.</para>

	<para>You can set a <link linkend="ranges-loops">loop range</link>
	between two marker positions, by clicking in the area between
	the markers in the marker ruler with the Shift key
	pressed.</para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2 id="ranges-loops">
	<title>Ranges and loops</title>
	<para>
	  &rosegarden; allows you to highlight a period of time in the
	  main ruler, which will be used as a "range" for editing
	  operations and which will be looped during playback.
	</para>

	<para>To set the current range, click and drag with the Shift
	key pressed on the subdivided area of the main ruler at the
	top of the editing window.  The range that you drag will be
	highlighted in white as you drag it, and will snap to the
	nearest beat boundary at both ends.  Any subsequent playback
	will then be constrained to looping this range.
	</para>
	
	<para>You can also set a range between two <link
	linkend="markers">markers</link> by shift-clicking between the
	marker positions in the marker ruler, or set a range using the
	<link linkend="transport-overview">Transport</link> window.
	The Transport contains small buttons to set the start and end
	of the current range to the current playback pointer position.
	Either of these methods allows you to set more precise end
	points for your range than you can with click-drag.</para>

	<para>To clear a range and restore normal playback, click on
	the subdivided area of the main ruler with the Shift key
	pressed, or toggle the loop button on the Transport.</para>

	<para>Note that playback looping when a range is defined is
	not the same thing as the <link
	linkend="segment-view-segmentparameterbox">repeating
	segment</link> function available in the segment parameters
	(which seamlessly repeats individual segments rather than
	causing the transport to jump).</para>

	<sect3 id="range-operations">
	  <title>Range editing</title>

	  <para>You can carry out edits
	    on the current range in order to cut and paste sections
	    of music that include the relevant parts of all
	    segments, tempos and time signatures within the range.
	  </para>

	  <para>Set a range and then use the <menuchoice> <guimenu
	  lang="en">Edit</guimenu> <guimenuitem>Cut
	  Range</guimenuitem> </menuchoice> or
	  <menuchoice><guimenuitem>Copy
	  Range</guimenuitem></menuchoice> menu functions to cut or
	  copy the range to the clipboard.</para>

	  <para>You can paste a range using the standard <menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Edit</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Paste</guimenuitem></menuchoice> menu function
	  to overlay its contents onto the rest of the composition at
	  the current playback pointer position, or you can use
	  <menuchoice> <guimenu lang="en">Edit</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Paste Range</guimenuitem></menuchoice> to
	  insert the range from the clipboard into the composition at
	  the current playback pointer position.</para>

	</sect3>

	<sect3 id="range-insert">
	  <title>Inserting a range</title>

          <para>You can also insert an empty range at the current
          playback position using the <menuchoice> <guimenu
          lang="en">Edit</guimenu> <guimenuitem>Insert
          Range</guimenuitem> </menuchoice> menu function.  You can
          specify how much space you want to insert, and then all of
          the segment content, tempos and time signatures following
          the playback position will be pushed along in time by that
          duration to leave an empty space.
          </para>
        </sect3>

      </sect2>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="triggered-segments">
      <title>Triggered segments</title>

	<para>A triggered segment is a segment that does not appear on
	the main canvas and is not positioned at a particular time or
	on any particular instrument, but is instead triggered during
	playback by one or more notes in other segments.  These
	triggering notes serve as a shorthand for the full triggered
	segment, in the same way as written ornaments such as trills
	in notation serve as shorthand for the notes that make up the
	trill.  One use of triggered segments is in fact for
	<link linkend="nv-ornaments">playing ornaments</link>.</para>

    <para>Rosegarden can optionally stretch or squash each triggered
    segment to match the duration of the note that triggers it, and
    can raise or lower the pitch and velocity of the segment likewise
    to match.  A triggered segment is played on the same instrument as
    its triggering event.</para>

      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-triggersegment.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s Trigger Segment dialog, as reached from the matrix editor</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>
 
    <para>Triggered segments are managed through a window available
    via the <menuchoice> <guimenu
    lang="en">Segments</guimenu><guimenuitem>Manage Triggered
    Segments</guimenuitem></menuchoice> option in the main segment
    canvas.  To make a new triggered segment, copy a segment or part
    of a segment to Rosegarden's clipboard, then use the <menuchoice>
    <guimenu lang="en">Edit</guimenu> <guimenuitem>Paste as New
    Triggered Segment</guimenuitem></menuchoice> menu option in this
    manager window.  You can then set a particular note to play this
    triggered segment instead of the original note, using the
    <menuchoice> <guimenu lang="en">Adjust</guimenu>
    <guimenuitem>Trigger Segment...</guimenuitem></menuchoice>
    function in the matrix or <menuchoice> <guimenu
    lang="en">Note</guimenu><guimenuitem
    lang="en">Ornaments</guimenuitem> <guimenuitem>Trigger
    Ornament...</guimenuitem></menuchoice> function in the notation
    editor.</para>

    <para>When triggering a segment, you will be offered a choice for
    how it is played in terms of timing, because the triggered segment
    (or ornament) may have a different underlying duration from your
    triggering note.  The options for playback timing are:</para>

    <variablelist>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>As stored</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Play the triggered segment with a start time
	  coinciding with that of the note, and at the original speed.
	  Keep playing the triggered segment until it ends, even if it
	  is longer than the triggering note.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Truncate if longer than note</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Play the triggered segment with a start time
	  coinciding with that of the note, and at the original speed.
	  If the triggered segment is longer than the triggering note,
	  truncate it so that it ends at the end time of the note.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>End at same time as note</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Play the triggered segment with its end time
	  coinciding with the end of the note, and at the original
	  speed.  This means the start of the triggered segment may be
	  chopped off if it is longer than the triggering note.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Stretch or squash segment to note duration</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Speed up or slow down the triggered segment so that it
	  fits exactly into the duration of the triggering note.  This
	  is the default.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
 
    </variablelist>
 
    <para>A triggered segment may contain silence at the start or end,
    and this will be "played" (and stretched or squashed if
    appropriate) as well as the notes and other events in the segment.</para>
 
    <para>It is not currently possible to make a triggered segment
    start playing before the start time of its triggering note. You
    also can't trigger a segment from within another triggered
    segment, and you can't trigger audio segments.</para>
 
    <para>To edit the contents of a triggered segment, either
    double-click on it in the Manage Triggered Segments window, or
    double-click on any note that triggers it.  Apart from editing the
    notes in the segment, you can also change the duration of the
    segment itself from the Edit menu of the resulting event list
    view.  Remember that editing a triggered segment will affect all
    the notes that trigger it, not just the one that you
    double-clicked to get to the editing window.</para>

    </sect1>
  </chapter>

  <chapter id="transport">
    <title>The Transport</title>
    <para>
      When you play a composition,
      &rosegarden; sweeps a playback pointer across
      the tracks from left to right playing the contents of the
      segments as it crosses them.  The pointer's position on the
      screen is tracked and controlled by a window called the
      Transport.
    </para>
    
    <sect1 id="transport-overview"><title>Overview</title>
    <para>
      <screenshot>
        <mediaobject>
          <imageobject>
            <imagedata fileref="rg-transport.png" format="PNG"/>
    </imageobject>
      <textobject>
	<phrase>&rosegarden;'s Transport window</phrase>
      </textobject>
    </mediaobject>
    </screenshot>
    </para>

    <para>
      If the Transport isn't visible, you can activate it with <menuchoice> <guimenu lang="en">Settings</guimenu> 
	<guimenuitem>Show Transport</guimenuitem> </menuchoice>.
    </para>
    
    <para>The Transport shows the time reached by the playback
      pointer, in seconds by default.</para>

    <para>You can switch it to show
      musical time (bar and beat counts), musical time with a flashing
      visual metronome, or audio sample frame times, using the topmost
      of the small buttons <inlinemediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-button-bar-time.png"/>
	</imageobject>
	</inlinemediaobject> on the left of the transport window.</para>

    <para>The
      button immediately below that <inlinemediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-button-from-end.png"/>
	</imageobject>
	</inlinemediaobject> toggles the display so as to show
      time remaining to the end of the composition instead of from the
      start.</para>

    <para>
      The main controls on the transport start the sequencer playing
      and pause it, fast forward the pointer position, rewind it, stop
      it or jump to beginning or end of composition.
    </para>

    <para>
      The transport display also shows the tempo and time signature in
      effect at the current playback position.  Double-click on either
      of these to insert a new tempo or time signature change.  See
      <link linkend="segment-view-tempo-timesig">Tempo and Time
      Signature</link> for more ways to adjust these elsewhere in Rosegarden.
    </para>

    <para>
      You can also double-click anywhere on the main time display on
      the transport window, to enter a precise time that you want the
      playback position to be set to.
    </para>

    <para>Additional controls and a &MIDI; event display are hidden on
    the bottom flap on the transport, which can be toggled on or off
    using the arrow button next to it at the left.  Also on this extra
    portion there are buttons for recording, setting the loop start
    and end (see <link linkend="ranges-loops">Ranges and loops</link>),
    soloing individual tracks, turning on or off the metronome (see
    <link linkend="studio-metronome">Metronomes</link>), and silencing
    your MIDI devices (the panic button).  </para>

    </sect1>
    <sect1 id="recording">
      <title>Recording</title>
      <para>
        <screenshot>
          <mediaobject>
            <imageobject>
              <imagedata fileref="rg-trackbuttons.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>Track buttons in various states of recording readiness</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>
      <para>
	To record a new segment into a track, first make sure the
	right tracks are armed for recording by selecting the red
	(for audio tracks) or yellow (for MIDI tracks) LED-style
	buttons on the track labels, and then use the <link
	    linkend="transport-overview">Transport's</link> record
	control.  This has the effect of both starting the transport,
	thus playing the existing composition, and recording into the
	appropriate track, or tracks.
      </para>
      <para>
	You can record any number of &MIDI; and audio tracks at once so long
	as your computer is powerful enough, and you have enough disk space.
	Be careful not to accidentally leave tracks selected when you have
	finished using them and are trying to record somewhere else.
      </para>
      <para>
	Alternatively you can use punch-in record to separate the acts
	of starting the transport and entering record mode.  Punch-in
	record is toggled with the <keycap>Space</keycap> bar.  You can press
	<keycap>Space</keycap>
	while playing a composition to switch instantly between
	playback and recording without stopping the transport, or you
	can use <keycap>Space</keycap> to arm for recording when the transport is
	stopped, so that a subsequent Play will in fact record as
	well.  (The latter is handy when synchronising to an <link
	linkend="transport-external">external transport</link>.)
      </para>
      <para>
	If you record to MIDI tracks, you will record from the 
	MIDI devices that are selected for recording in the
	<link linkend="studio-device-editor">MIDI device
        manager</link>, as filtered through the <link
        linkend="track-recording-filters">track level recording filter</link>
        and the global <link linkend="studio-midi-filters">MIDI filters</link>.
      </para>
      <para>
	If you record to audio tracks, your recording to each track
	will be from the input currently selected for that track's
	instrument in the <link
	linkend="segment-view-instrumentparameterbox">instrument
	parameter box</link>.  This will either be an external audio
	input or an audio submaster or master (for performing
	mixdowns).  If it's an external input, it will by default
	record from your soundcard's first available physical record
	in.  You may wish to use a JACK connection tool to
	connect some other JACK audio application to the input
	instead.  See also <link
	linkend="studio-audio-routing">Audio Routing</link>.
      </para>
    </sect1>
    <sect1 id="transport-external">
      <title>Synchronising to external transports</title>
      <sect2 id="transport-jack">
	<title>JACK Transport</title>
	<para>
	  Rosegarden supports the JACK transport mechanism for
	  synchronising its transport with other JACK applications on
	  the same computer.  To activate it, go to
	  <menuchoice>
	    <guimenu lang="en">Settings</guimenu>
	    <guimenuitem>Configure Rosegarden...</guimenuitem>
	  </menuchoice>
	  and check the <guimenuitem>Use JACK transport</guimenuitem> box.</para>
	
	<para>When the JACK transport is in use, all of the applications
	  that are subscribed to it share a common transport control, and
	  you can start, stop, and move the transport from any one of
	  them.</para>

	<para>Many Linux audio applications that use the JACK audio
	server also support JACK transport: consult their
	documentation for details of whether and how.</para>
      </sect2>
      <sect2 id="transport-mtc">
	<title>MIDI Time Code</title>
	<para>
	  Rosegarden supports MIDI Time Code (MTC) synchronisation in
	  master and slave modes.  This is particularly useful for
	  synchronising the Rosegarden transport with a hardware
	  MTC-capable device, or with software running on other
	  computers connected via MIDI.
	</para>
	<para>To make Rosegarden the MTC Master, so that it will
	  control any MTC slave device or application connected to it,
	  go to
	  <menuchoice>
	    <guimenu lang="en">Settings</guimenu>
	    <guimenuitem>Configure Rosegarden...</guimenuitem>
	  </menuchoice>
	  and in the MIDI page's MIDI Sync tab, select "MTC
	  Master" from the MIDI Time Code menu.  To make Rosegarden an
	  MTC Slave so that Rosegarden's transport will automatically
	  be synchronised with incoming MTC events, select "MTC
	  Slave".
	</para>
      </sect2>
    </sect1>
    
    <sect1 id="infrared-remote-controls">
    	<title>Infrared Remote Controls</title>
		<para>
			Rosegarden supports infrared remote controls for 
			almost all transport functions. In order to use it, 
			you need either the internal LIRC client, which is 
			an optional feature at Rosegarden's compile time, 
			or the KDE IRKick application (KDE LIRC daemon) 
			that you can find in your Linux distribution's 
			repositories. In both cases, you need to install 
			and configure the LIRC server daemon. The exact 
			details depend on your remote control and receiver, 
			and you should refer to the <ulink url="http://www.lirc.org/html">
			LIRC web site</ulink> for more information.
		</para>
			
		<para>
			You can find more details online about the internal
			LIRC client configuration file and IRKick basics, at  
			<ulink url="http://www.rosegardenmusic.com/resources/documents/infrared-remotes.shtml">
			Rosegarden's web site</ulink>.
		</para> 
    </sect1>
  </chapter>

  <chapter id="studio">
    <title>The Studio</title>

    <sect1 id="studio-introduction">
      <title>Devices, instruments and connections</title>

      <para>Rosegarden uses the term Studio to refer to everything it
      knows about the sound systems attached to the computer.  This
      may include &MIDI; and audio hardware and other sound software,
      and includes information about connections, configuration,
      &MIDI; patches and so on.  The Studio is built-in to every
      composition you create with Rosegarden.</para>

      <para>Three pieces of terminology are essential here:

	<variablelist>

	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>Device</term>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>A <quote>device</quote>, as far as Rosegarden is
	      concerned, is simply something capable of producing
	      sounds.  This may be a MIDI or audio device.  MIDI
	      devices do not necessarily correspond directly to
	      physical MIDI ports: they are just things with names
	      that you can refer to, expected to work in particular
	      ways.  Configuration information such as MIDI patch maps
	      can be attached to devices.
	      </para>
	    </listitem>
	  </varlistentry>

	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>Instrument</term>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>Each device has a number of
		<quote>instruments</quote>, each of which is assumed
		to make a particular sound.  These are the things that
		you can assign tracks to in order to choose which
		sound they play.  By default, a device contains 16
		instruments, created for you at startup: if the device
		is a MIDI device, then these will each be initialised
		to one of the 16 MIDI channels.  The instrument is
		where you set all the properties of a particular
		voice, such as program settings, reverb, volume etc.
	      </para>
	    </listitem>
	  </varlistentry>

	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>Connection</term>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>While a MIDI device is simply a name and a
	      collection of configuration information, the
	      <quote>connection</quote> specifies which MIDI port it
	      is physically attached to.  This can be configured in
	      the <link linkend="studio-device-editor">MIDI device
	      manager</link>.  (Audio and synth plugin devices do not
	      have connections in the same way.)
	      </para>
	    </listitem>
	  </varlistentry>
	</variablelist>
      </para>

      <para>For example, imagine a setup consisting of a PC with two
	physical MIDI ports, one of which has an external synth
	attached to it.  Here you would normally configure Rosegarden
	so as to have one MIDI device, corresponding to the synth.
	You could then configure this device with the correct name and
	patch map, and then specify a connection for it that
	corresponded to the relevant MIDI port on your soundcard.
	Each of the 16 default instruments on the device could then be
	configured with a suitable program, and you would then assign
	tracks to those.</para>

      <para>
	In practice, Rosegarden will by default create a device for
	each of the available connections on startup.  So in the
	example above, two MIDI devices will be created by default
	even though you only need one.  You would generally then
	rename and apply patch maps to the first, and delete or
	simply not use the second.  Remember that there is no way
	for Rosegarden to know what synths you actually have plugged
	in to the MIDI ports on your computer: for this reason, the
	devices created at startup are just intended to be a default
	set, and it's up to you to ensure that the devices you
	configure match those you are really using.
      </para>

      <para>Once configured, the studio setup is stored with every
	Rosegarden-format file you save.</para>

    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="studio-device-editor">
      <title>Managing MIDI devices</title>

      <para>
        <screenshot>
          <mediaobject>
            <imageobject>
              <imagedata fileref="rg-devicemanager.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>The MIDI device manager</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>

      <para>
	The MIDI device manager dialog shows you the MIDI devices
	that you currently have available to you, and where they are
	connected.  To reach this dialog, use	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Studio</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Manage MIDI Devices</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>.
      </para>

      <para>
	As described in the <link
	  linkend="studio-introduction">Devices, Instruments and
	  Connections</link> section, by default Rosegarden tries to
	provide a plausible set of devices for you at startup, and
	to make sensible connections for those devices.  But the
	default configuration might not always be suitable, and so
	this dialog allows you to rename devices and modify their
	connections and play/record direction.
      </para>
      
      <para>
	Each of the Play devices listed here provides a target for
	MIDI tracks to talk to: if you add a new Play device, you
	will then have 16 new instruments on this device which you
	can assign tracks to.  If you then assign a connection for
	that device, the tracks assigned to it will play to the
	appropriate channel (depending on the instrument) of any
	MIDI synth attached to that connection.
      </para>

      <para> The Record devices listed here represent possible
	sources for recording MIDI.  You can make one or more of them
	current (so that Rosegarden will listen to them when
	recording) using the checkboxes on each line, as shown in this
	dialog.  </para>

    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="studio-bank-editor">
      <title>Managing banks and programs for MIDI devices</title>

      <para>
        <screenshot>
          <mediaobject>
            <imageobject>
              <imagedata fileref="rg-bankeditor.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>The MIDI bank and program editor</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>

      <para>
	Remember that each MIDI device contains a number of
	instruments, and that you can assign tracks to those
	instruments.  In MIDI terms, each instrument corresponds to
	a single channel on your MIDI synth.  You can choose which
	of the available voices (sounds) on your synth each
	instrument uses, but in order to do this, you need to let
	Rosegarden know the names for all of the available voices.
      </para>

      <para>
	This dialog allows you to attach banks of programs (names for
	voices) to your MIDI devices, thus permitting each
	instrument on a device to be set to use one of those voices
	in the <link
	  linkend="segment-view-instrumentparameterbox">Instrument
	  Parameter Box</link>.
      </para>

      <para>
	The usual way to set up the program names for a device is
	simply to import them from one of the supplied device
	(".rgd") files.  To do this, select a device in the list on
	the left of the dialog, then click the Import button below
	the list and choose the .rgd file corresponding to your
	synth.
      </para>

      <para>
        If there is no current .rgd file available for your synth,
        then you can use this dialog to create a new bank.  To do this
        you will have to find the program map in your synth's MIDI
        Implementation Chart and enter all the names by hand: you can
        then Export them to a .rgd file to share with other Rosegarden
        users.  Contact the rosegarden-user mailing list if you have
        made a new .rgd file and would like to share it.  (This is how
        all of the existing .rgd files have come to be included with
        Rosegarden: other users have contributed them.)
      </para>

      <sect2 id="studio-keymappings">
	<title>Percussion Key Mappings</title>

	<para>
	  Many MIDI synthesizers have at least one percussion program,
	  in which each "pitch" plays a different type of sound.
	  Rosegarden contains a dedicated percussion matrix editor to
	  view and edit notes against a scale consisting of the
	  correct names for the pitches, instead of against the
	  conventional piano keyboard pitch scale.
	</para>

	<para>
	  The key mappings available for a particular MIDI device are
	  also defined in the Rosegarden device (".rgd") file.  Each
	  MIDI program that is defined as a percussion program can
	  have a key mapping associated with it; if there is one, then
	  it will be used by default in any track that is assigned to
	  this program.  Like program and bank definitions, key
	  mappings can be imported from and exported to .rgd files.
	</para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2 id="studio-soundfonts">
	<title>SoundFonts</title>

	<para>
	  If you happen to be using a soft-synth or soundcard synth
	  that uses SoundFont (.sf2) files, you can simply load the
	  correct program names directly from your .sf2 file into this
	  dialog.  Just ask to Import as normal, and then choose the
	  .sf2 file that you are using instead of a .rgd file.
	</para>

	<para>Note that the Studio only manages information about
	  existing MIDI devices for Rosegarden, it does not actually
	  handle tasks such as loading a SoundFont to your soundcard in
	  the first place.  If you want to make sure a SoundFont is
	  loaded to your soundcard when Rosegarden starts up, you should
	  use the special "Load SoundFont to SoundBlaster card at
	  startup" option in the sequencer configuration in
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Settings</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Configure Rosegarden...</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>.
	</para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2 id="studio-variations">
	<title>Variations</title>

	<para>
	  Some MIDI devices (for example, those from Roland)
	  organise their program names using a scheme known as
	  "variations".  For these devices, you generally want to
	  select a program by first selecting the basic program name
	  &mdash; such as a piano &mdash; and then selecting one
	  of a set of variations on that program &mdash; such as an
	  electric piano.  This is in contrast to General MIDI-based
	  synths, which organise their programs into banks and
	  expect you to choose a bank first and then a program from
	  that bank.
	</para>

	<para>
	  Rosegarden can support devices that use variations, but
	  you still have to enter the program names in a bank
	  format.  Internally, devices that use variations still use
	  MIDI bank select controllers to choose between the
	  variations; you need to find out from your synth's
	  documentation whether your device uses the LSB or MSB bank
	  select to choose variations, and which bank number
	  corresponds to which variation.  You can then enter the
	  banks as normal, and use the "Show Variation list based on
	  MSB/LSB" option on the bank dialog to tell Rosegarden to
	  show variations instead of banks when displaying that
	  device in an instrument parameter box.
	</para>
      </sect2>

    <sect2 id="studio-midi-import">
      <title>Program mapping on &MIDI; import</title>
      <para>
	
	When you import a &MIDI; file into a composition, &rosegarden;
	uses the existing studio setup to determine how to map the
	&MIDI; programs onto &rosegarden; instruments.  The aim is to
	ensure that every &MIDI; program gets mapped to an instrument
	that really exists in your studio (and thus is actually
	attached to your computer), so that all the &MIDI; tracks
	can be heard.

      </para><para>

	The &MIDI; program-change and bank-select events found in the
	imported file are used when importing, but only as an aid to
	help find the appropriate instrument for each &MIDI; track
	from the set of instruments in your studio.  So, for
	example, if your studio is currently set up to contain only
	<acronym>GM</acronym> instruments, and you import a &MIDI; file with <acronym>GS</acronym> program
	changes onto it, &rosegarden; will remap the <acronym>GS</acronym> banks back
	onto <acronym>GM</acronym> because they're all it knows that you have at the
	time you import the file.  It doesn't remember the original
	<acronym>GS</acronym> program numbers.

      </para><para>

	This means that you should always ensure that your studio is
	correctly configured for the devices you actually have,
	before you import the &MIDI; file.  Otherwise the program data
	in the &MIDI; file may be lost.

      </para>
    </sect2>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="studio-audio-routing">
      <title>Audio Routing</title>
      <para>
	Any Rosegarden track assigned to an audio or synth plugin
	instrument becomes part of Rosegarden's audio routing
	architecture.  There are 16 audio instruments and 16 synth
	plugin instruments, and each of these has a set of adjustable
	parameters including fader level, pan, effects and so on.
	These are generally configurable in the <link
	linkend="segment-view-instrumentparameterbox">Instrument
	Parameter Box</link> or <link
	linkend="studio-audio-mixer">audio mixer</link>.  Each audio
	instrument also has an input connection, and both audio and
	synth plugin instruments have an output connection.
      </para>
      
      <para>An instrument's input connection defines where Rosegarden
      will read audio data from when recording to this instrument.
      The most usual setting would be to one of Rosegarden's external
      audio inputs, the number of which is configurable in the <link
      linkend="studio-audio-mixer">audio mixer</link>.  These
      correspond to JACK audio ports exposed by Rosegarden, to which
      you can connect outputs from any other JACK audio application or
      soundcard capture ports using an external JACK router
      application such as <ulink
      url="http://qjackctl.sf.net/">QJackCtl</ulink>.  You can also
      set an instrument's audio input to the output of one of
      Rosegarden's built-in audio submasters or master output for
      mixdowns.
      </para>
      <para>An instrument's output connection defines where the audio
      goes when played.  Instruments default to sending their audio to
      Rosegarden's master output, which is another (stereo pair of)
      external JACK port(s) that can then be connected up using the
      same external JACK router.  However, Rosegarden also supports up
      to eight internal submaster busses, to which you can send
      instrument outputs instead so as to group instruments into
      related categories.  You can control the number and routing of
      these in the <link linkend="studio-audio-mixer">audio
      mixer</link>.
      </para>
      <para>
	Rosegarden currently supports effects using a set of pre-fader
	insert effects slots for each audio instrument.  You cannot
	yet assign effects to the submaster busses, and Rosegarden
	does not yet support send effects, although you can obtain
	similar results using an external JACK effects and mixing
	architecture.
      </para>
      <para>Some further details of audio routing configuration,
      mixing, and effects are discussed in the <link
      linkend="studio-audio-mixer">audio mixer</link>, <link
      linkend="segment-view-instrumentparameterbox">instrument
      parameter box</link> and <link
      linkend="studio-plugins">audio plugins</link> sections.</para>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="studio-midi-routing">
      <title>MIDI Routing</title>
      <para>&rosegarden; is able to instantly send incoming MIDI events to 
      some output device and MIDI channel. This feature is known as MIDI Thru.</para>
      <para>MIDI Thru is enabled by default in &rosegarden;. You may want 
      to globally disable it using the menu option <menuchoice>
      <guimenu lang="en">Studio</guimenu>
      <guimenuitem>MIDI Thru Routing</guimenuitem></menuchoice>, if you prefer 
      to use an external MIDI routing system. There is also a global filter by 
      MIDI event type, which you may use to ignore some event types and let other
      types to be routed. It is explained in the section <link linkend="studio-midi-filters">
      MIDI filters</link>.</para>
      <para>MIDI Thru routing works quite differently when &rosegarden; is playing 
      or stopped than when it is recording.</para>
      <itemizedlist>
        <listitem><para>When &rosegarden; is playing or in stopped state, the MIDI 
        thru function routes events to the selected track instrument. The selected 
        track has its track name highlighted.</para></listitem>
        <listitem><para>When &rosegarden; is recording, the MIDI events are routed 
        to the armed track instruments, based on the <link linkend="track-recording-filters">
        recording filters</link>. It doesn't
        matter which track is selected. Only one instrument is selected for each event,
        corresponding to the first track with a matching record filter.</para>
        </listitem>
      </itemizedlist>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="studio-audio-mixer">
      <title>The Audio Mixer</title>
      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-audiomixer.png" format="PNG"/>
            </imageobject>
	    <textobject>
	      <phrase>&rosegarden;'s Audio Mixer</phrase>
	    </textobject>
          </mediaobject>
        </screenshot>
      </para>

      <para>
	Rosegarden's audio mixer window, reached through 
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Studio</guimenu> <guimenuitem>Audio
	  Mixer</guimenuitem></menuchoice>, resembles a hardware audio
	  mixer and provides a way to see and change the state of a
	  number of audio instruments at once.  It contains many of
	  the same controls as found in the audio and synth plugin
	  <link
	  linkend="segment-view-instrumentparameterbox">instrument
	  parameter boxes</link>, most importantly a playback level
	  meter and fader control for each audio and synth plugin
	  instrument, as well as routing controls, pan, mono/stereo
	  and effects plugin slots.
      </para>
      <para>
	The audio mixer window is also where you see and control the
	master audio output level (at the far right of the picture
	above), as well as the record level (to the left of the master
	fader) and submaster output levels.
      </para>
      <para>
	The audio mixer's <menuchoice> <guimenu
	lang="en">Settings</guimenu></menuchoice> menu is particularly
	relevant.  Apart from controlling what will be shown in the
	mixer window, this menu also contains the <link
	linkend="studio-audio-routing">audio routing</link> settings
	for the number of stereo audio record inputs available and the
	number of submasters.  These are studio settings whose values
	are saved with your Rosegarden format file.</para>

      <para>Note that if you are not actually using any submasters
      (i.e. if there are no instruments configured to route their
      output to a submaster) you may see a small performance
      improvement if you set the number of submasters explicitly to
      None, rather than keeping unused ones in the configuration.
      </para>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="studio-midi-mixer">
      <title>The MIDI Mixer</title>
      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-midimixer.png" format="PNG"/>
            </imageobject>
	    <textobject>
	      <phrase>&rosegarden;'s MIDI Mixer</phrase>
	    </textobject>
          </mediaobject>
        </screenshot>
      </para>
      <para>
	Rosegarden's MIDI mixer window, reached through 
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Studio</guimenu> <guimenuitem>MIDI
	  Mixer</guimenuitem></menuchoice>, provides a way to see and
	  edit the <link
	  linkend="segment-view-instrumentparameterbox-midi">instrument
	  parameter values</link> for a number of MIDI instruments at once.</para>
      
      <para>The window is organised using a tabbed pane.  Along the
	bottom, you will see one tab for each playback MIDI device in
	your studio configuration.  When you select a device tab, the
	rest of the window will update to show the controls for the 16
	instruments of that device.
      </para>

      <para>
	The controls shown for each instrument are those set up in the
	<!-- !!! link linkend="studio-device-controllers" --> control
	parameter manager, as well as volume (corresponding to the
	MIDI volume control change, not to MIDI velocity or audio dB
	levels) and an approximate output level indicator.
      </para>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="studio-plugins">
      <title>Audio Plugins</title>
      <para>An audio plugin is a piece of software, separate from
      Rosegarden, that Rosegarden can load and use in order to perform
      a particular audio processing task.  These can be broadly
      divided into effects plugins and synth plugins.  Effects plugins
      take an audio input and manipulate it to produce a different
      audio output; synth plugins take MIDI-like events as input and
      turn them into audio output.  Rosegarden uses the Linux standard
      LADSPA plugin API for effects and the DSSI plugin API for
      synths, permitting the use of large numbers of open-source
      plugins made available by many developers.
      </para>
      <para>The use of plugins has a cost in CPU time, as audio
      processing in real time usually takes a significant amount of
      work even on a modern CPU. It also has a potential cost in
      reliability: when Rosegarden is running a plugin, if the plugin
      hangs or crashes, so does Rosegarden.  Many plugins are very
      reliable, but it's inevitable that some will not be so well
      tested.
      </para>
      <sect2 id="studio-plugins-effects">
	<title>Effects plugins</title> <para>An effects plugin is
	something that you can use to modify an audio signal in a
	controllable way.  Examples include reverb, delay effects,
	dynamic compression and so on.
	</para>
	<para>Every audio or synth-plugin instrument in Rosegarden has
	five associated effects slots.  By default these are empty,
	but you can load plugins into them in order to chain up to
	five effects onto the audio signal before it goes through
	fader level and pan processing.</para>

	<para>To load a plugin to a slot, click its button on the
	<link linkend="segment-view-instrumentparameterbox-audio">instrument
	parameter box</link>:
	</para>
	<para>
	  <screenshot>
	    <mediaobject>
	      <imageobject>
		<imagedata fileref="rg-pluginbuttons.png" format="PNG"/>
	      </imageobject>
	      <textobject>
	      <phrase>Plugin Slot Buttons</phrase>
	      </textobject>
	    </mediaobject>
          </screenshot>
        </para>
	<para>(These buttons are also optionally available in the <link
	linkend="studio-audio-mixer">audio mixer</link> window.)
	</para>
	<para>Clicking a plugin button will
	pop up the plugin dialog.  This shows you
	the available categories of effects in the first menu; select
	one, and you can then choose your plugin in the second menu.
	</para>
      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-plugin-dialog.png" format="PNG"/>
            </imageobject>
	    <textobject>
	      <phrase>A &rosegarden; Plugin Dialog</phrase>
	    </textobject>
          </mediaobject>
        </screenshot>
      </para>

	<para>Below the plugin selection menus, the dialog gives you a
	varying number of rotary controllers showing all the
	modifiable parameters for the plugin you have selected.  To
	change a value, just click a rotary and drag up and down or
	left and right.  (Up or right to raise the value, down or left
	to lower it.)  You can also roll the mouse wheel to change the
	value, or click with the middle mouse button to reset it to
	its initial default.</para>

	<para>It is also possible to copy one plugin with its current
	configuration into another slot, so as to use the same plugin
	settings with more than one instrument, or to base one plugin
	configuration on another.  Just click the Copy button when you
	have the plugin set up the way you want it, and then open
	another plugin slot's plugin dialog and click Paste.</para>

	<para>Finally, you can use the Bypass toggle to remove a
	plugin temporarily from processing while retaining its
	configuration.
	</para>
      </sect2>
      <sect2 id="studio-plugins-synths">
	<title>Synth plugins</title>
	<para>
	  Synth plugins can be used in place of hardware or standalone
	  soft-synth MIDI devices, to generate sounds from your note
	  event segments.</para>

	<para>Using a synth plugin gives you somewhat better control
	and repeatability than using an external MIDI device, because
	Rosegarden will be able to load the correct plugins for you
	and use the correct settings the next time you load your same
	file.  Plugins may also offer better timing resolution than
	external MIDI devices, and synth plugin instruments have the
	advantage of being routable like audio instruments, which also
	means you can add effects plugins on top of them.
	</para>
	
	<para>To make use of a synth plugin, first <link
	linkend="segment-view-instruments">assign a track</link> to a
	synth plugin instrument, and then load a synth plugin by
	clicking on the topmost button in the <link
	linkend="segment-view-instrumentparameterbox-synth">instrument
	parameter box</link>:</para>
	  
	<para>
	  <screenshot>
	    <mediaobject>
	      <imageobject>
		<imagedata fileref="rg-synthpluginbuttons.png" format="PNG"/>
	      </imageobject>
	      <textobject>
	      <phrase>Synth Plugin Buttons</phrase>
	      </textobject>
	    </mediaobject>
          </screenshot>
        </para>

	<para>This will bring up the same plugin dialog as shown above
	for effects plugins, but with a list of synth plugins instead
	of effects.  Once again, you will be shown the particular set
	of rotary parameters for the synth you have selected.  Synth
	plugins may also have "programs", selectable from a menu --
	this menu will only appear if you have chosen a synth that supports
	them.  When you have selected and configured a synth plugin
	for an instrument, any MIDI data on tracks assigned to that
	instrument should play through that synth, as should
	incoming MIDI data during recording or monitoring.
	</para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2 id="studio-plugins-guis">
	<title>Plugin native editor windows</title>

	<para>Most plugins can be controlled completely using the
	rotary controllers in Rosegarden's plugin dialog.  However, a
	few plugins (generally synths) also have their own editor
	windows which can be switched on or off from Rosegarden and
	which may provide more complete or more organised
	controls.</para>

	<para>When you select a plugin that has its own editor window,
	the button at the lower left of the plugin dialog labelled
	"Editor" will become active:</para>

	<para>
	  <screenshot>
	    <mediaobject>
	      <imageobject>
		<imagedata fileref="rg-plugineditorbutton.png" format="PNG"/>
	      </imageobject>
	      <textobject>
	      <phrase>A Plugin Editor Button</phrase>
	      </textobject>
	    </mediaobject>
          </screenshot>
        </para>

	<para>(For synth plugins, there is a similar button in the
	instrument parameter box.)  Clicking this button should show
	the plugin's own editor window.  Any changes you make in this
	editor window should also be reflected in Rosegarden's own
	plugin dialog, if visible, and of course should be saved in
	your Rosegarden file as normal.</para>
      </sect2>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="studio-metronome">
      <title>Metronomes</title>
      <para>
	Rosegarden has two built-in metronomes, one for use during
	recording and one that can be switched on during normal
	playback.  They work by sending notes to a MIDI instrument,
	and both metronomes use the same instrument, pitch and
	velocity information.
      </para>

      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-metronome.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s metronome configuration dialog</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>
      <para>
	To configure the metronomes, use
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Studio</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Manage Metronome</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>
	to bring up the metronome dialog.
	Here you can select a MIDI instrument for the metronome and
	choose the metronome's resolution (whether it should tick
	once per beat, once per subdivision of a beat, or only once
	per bar), pitch, and velocities.  Properties such as the
	actual voice the MIDI synth uses for the metronome tick
	depend on the instrument selected, just as the voice used
	for a MIDI track depends on the instrument that track is
	assigned to.  You can configure the instrument by assigning
	a track to it on the main window and selecting the correct
	program from the instrument parameter box.
      </para>

      <para>
	The record and play metronomes can be switched on or off
	from the Transport window, using the metronome button.  This
	button controls the record metronome when recording is armed
	or in progress, and the play metronome at other times.  By
	default, the record metronome is switched on and the play
	metronome switched off.
      </para>

      <para>
	Rosegarden also has a "visual metronome": the transport window
	can be told to flash brightly to mark each beat.  See <link
	linkend="transport">the Transport section</link> for more
	details.</para>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="studio-midi-filters">
      <title>MIDI filters</title>
      <para>
        <screenshot>
          <mediaobject>
            <imageobject>
              <imagedata fileref="rg-midifilter.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>The MIDI filter dialog</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>

      <para>
        Using this dialog you can decide which MIDI events Rosegarden
        will ignore or accept, either when forwarding events using
        MIDI THRU or when simply recording them.  Use the check boxes
        on this dialog to tell Rosegarden which types of MIDI events
        you don't want to forward or record.
      </para>

    </sect1>


    <sect1 id="studio-external-controllers">
      <title>External MIDI control surfaces</title>
      <para>
	Rosegarden's audio and MIDI mixer windows and main canvas can
	also be controlled to some degree by an external MIDI device.
	To set this up, you will need to use an ALSA MIDI connection
	manager such as qjackctl to connect your MIDI controller
	device to Rosegarden's "external controller" input and output
	MIDI ports.
      </para>
      <para>
	Rosegarden accepts MIDI control change messages to adjust the
	mixer track corresponding to the incoming MIDI channel on each
	controller event, and also sends out MIDI messages when
	something is changed in a mixer track in order to support
	controllers with powered faders or knobs.
      </para>
      <para>Rosegarden accepts MIDI controller number 81 to change the
      currently active window.  Send controller 81 with data value 0-9
      to select the main window, 10-19 to select the audio mixer
      window or 20-29 to select the MIDI mixer window.</para>
      <para>Rosegarden accepts MIDI controller number 82 to change the
      currently selected track in the main window.  The stepping of
      this controller depends on the number of tracks in the window --
      the ratio of controller data value to track number will be
      calculated so as to use the full MIDI controller data range,
      provided there are no more than 128 tracks in the window.</para>
    </sect1>

  </chapter>

  <chapter id="segment-instrument-parameters">
    <title>Special Parameters</title>
    
    <sect1 id="track-parameters">
      <title>The Track Parameter Box</title>
      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-trackparameterbox.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s track parameter box</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>
	<para>
	  The track parameter box can be found at the left side of the
	  &rosegarden; main window.  It displays the parameters for the
	  currently selected track.  (If you can't see it, try using 	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Settings</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Show Special Parameters</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>.)
    </para>
    <para>
	It allows you to assign instruments to tracks, control what
	incoming &MIDI; data from which sources will be recorded to
	particular tracks, control staff attributes (currently only for LilyPond
	export,) make selections that govern how &MIDI; segments
	will be created for each track that is assigned to a non-audio
	instrument, and apply these selections to existing segments (as when
	converting a trumpet part from an imported &MIDI; file to be
	represented as notation playable by a real human on a real instrument,
	for example.)
    </para>
    <para>This box is divided into three sections:</para>
	<sect2 id="track-playback-parameters">
	    <title>Playback parameters</title>
	    <para>
		These provide an alternative mechanism to the <link
		    linkend="segment-view-instruments">menu-based
		    system</link> of instrument assignment.
	    </para>
	</sect2>
	<sect2 id="track-recording-filters">
	    <title>Track recording filters</title>
	    <para>
               These provide you a way to control what events are recorded to this track. If you leave the default values ("all") for both parameters, every received event will be stored in the track. This setting is safe and convenient if you are recording only one MIDI track. Otherwise, you should adjust one or both parameters to select only the desired events for the track.
            </para>
	    <variablelist>
		    <varlistentry>
			<term>Device</term>
			<listitem>
			    <para>You can record from only one of the available devices marked for recording in the  <link linkend="studio-device-editor">device manager</link>, or from all of them simultaneously.</para>
			</listitem>
		    </varlistentry>
		    <varlistentry>
			<term>Channel</term>
			<listitem>
			    <para>You can record from all channels, or limit recording to only one of the 16 available MIDI channels. In this case, only MIDI channel messages matching the channel number will be recorded, and system messages not having a channel (as system exclusive events) will be discarded.</para>
			</listitem>
		    </varlistentry>
	     </variablelist>
	     <para>
               Both parameters are cummulative: you can filter only a device, only a channel, or both a device and a channel simultaneously. It is not mandatory to ensure mutually exclusive selections for all the armed tracks, but if you don't do so you will find duplicated events at several recorded tracks.
             </para>
	     <para>
		The recording filters are also used to <link linkend="studio-midi-routing">route MIDI events </link> to the assigned track instrument when you are recording.
             </para>
	</sect2>
	<sect2 id="track-staff-params">
	    <title>Staff export options</title>
	    <para>
	        These provide you with a means of exporting notation to render
		at either normal, small, or tiny size (eg. for printing certain
		parts at cue size,) and allow you to export a variety of nested
		brackets.
	   </para>
	   <para>
	        You are responsible for creating a series of bracket start and
		end markers that will yield a functional result, and if you make
		a mistake with these, it is likely that your file will not
		export or preview correctly in LilyPond.
	   </para>
	   <para>For a detailed, hands-on demonstration of brackets in action,
	   please see
	   <ulink url="http://rosegarden.sourceforge.net/tutorial/supplemental/fidelio/fidelio.html">this
	   online tutorial.</ulink>
	   </para>
	</sect2>
	<sect2 id="track-create-with">
	    <title>Create segments with</title>
	    <para>
		These provide you with a means of controlling many of
		the <link
		    linkend="segment-view-segmentparameterbox">segment
		    parameters</link> for segments that don't yet
		exist.  They are aimed especially at notation users,
		and they facilitate operations that require you to use
		more than one segment on a track (as when using
		<!-- link -->repeats, or <link
		    linkend="nv-lilypond-directives">alternative
		    endings</link>), by allowing you to create a series of new
		segments that all have the same properties by default.
	    </para>
	    <para>
		<variablelist>

		    <varlistentry>
			<term>Preset</term>
			<listitem>
			    <para>
				The <guimenuitem>Load</guimenuitem> button
				launches a dialog that allows you to pick
				a pre-defined collection of parameters
				that provide guidelines for how you should
				write parts for real-world instruments, and
				optionally convert any existing segments on this
				track to take on these new parameters.
				<!-- needs a tutorial somewhere, and a link to
				that tutorial DMM -->
			    </para>
			    <para>
			    <inlinemediaobject>
				<imageobject>
				    <imagedata fileref="rg-loadpreset.png" format="PNG"/>
				</imageobject>
			    </inlinemediaobject>
			    </para>
			    <para>
				You first pick a Category, then an Instrument,
				and finally choose whether you wish to write a
				part for an amateur or a professional player.
				<footnote><para>This database was compiled by
				Magnus Johansson, who deserves all the special
				mention we can muster for his outstanding effort
				on this.</para></footnote> The Scope controls
				allow you to choose whether these parameters
				will only affect segments that don't yet exist
				(which you will subsequently record, or draw
				with the pencil) or should convert any existing
				segments to take these parameters as well.  (For
				a demonstration of the latter case in action,
				please see
				<ulink url="http://rosegarden.sourceforge.net/tutorial/supplemental/fidelio/fidelio.html">
				this online tutorial.)</ulink>
				Clicking the <guimenuitem>OK</guimenuitem>
				button injects the appropriate parameters into
				the remaining widgets in this part of the track
				parameters box, where you can tweak them if you
				desire.<footnote><para>No facility is provided
				at this time for assembling your own database of
				presets, or customizing the existing ones in a
				permanent way.</para></footnote> </para>
			    <para>
				Once you have loaded a preset, the name of
				your chosen preset will be used as the label
				for any segments you subsequently draw or
				record on this track, even if you change some
				or all of the associated parameters away from
				the values you just loaded.
			    </para>
			</listitem>
		    </varlistentry> 

		    <varlistentry>
			<term>Clef</term>
			<listitem>
			    <para>This lets you choose the clef for any
				segments you subsequently draw or record on
				this track.  Clefs are events, not properties.
				Your segments will be created with an initial
				clef event of the appropriate type (which you
				may subsequently alter or delete, should you
				have some occasion to do so.)
			    </para>
			    <para>
				The clefs available include a variety of named
				clefs representing standard clefs with various
				octave offsets.
			    </para>
			    <!-- !!! I would enumerate this list, but I have
			    no idea how to do it in docbook.  I'm just winging
			    it by the seat of my pants here.  Why do you think
			    I avoided touching this hateful mess until now?  I
			    wrote Rosegarden Companion using OO.o, and didn't
			    touch tag one.  Wah. -->
			</listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
			<term>Transpose</term>
			<listitem>
			    <para>
				This causes segments on this track to be
				created so that their note events sound at a
				given transposition.  Useful, especially, for
				writing parts for transposing instruments.
			    </para>
			</listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
			<term>Colour</term>
			<listitem>
			    <para>
				This causes segments on this track to be
				created using a given colour.
			    </para>
			</listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
			<term>Range</term>
			<listitem>
			    <para>
				The <guimenuitem>Low:</guimenuitem> and 
				<guimenuitem>High:</guimenuitem> buttons,
				launch a dialog that allows you to pick a
				pitch using a staff.  The lowest and highest pitches
				you select will then appear right on these
				buttons.
			    </para>
			    <para>
				These represent the lowest and highest
				playable notes, respectively, on the instrument for which you
				are writing notation.  In some cases, these
				limits will be hard and fast, like the low B
				on a Transverse Flute (B foot).  In others,
				they may only serve as guidelines to help you
				make good choices for instruments with which
				you are not intimately familiar.
			    </para>
			    <para>
				If you enter, record, or import data that has
				pitches exceeding the values specified, the
				note heads will appear in red by default.  You
				can turn this behavior off with
				<menuchoice><guimenu>Settings</guimenu><guimenuitem>Configure
					Rosegarden</guimenuitem><guimenuitem>Notation</guimenuitem><guimenuitem>Show
					notes outside playable range in
					red</guimenuitem></menuchoice>
			    </para>
			</listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		</variablelist>
	    </para>
	</sect2>

    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="segment-view-segmentparameterbox">
      <title>The Segment Parameter Box</title>

      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-segmentparameterbox.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s segment parameter box</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>

      <para>
	The segment parameter box can be found at the left side of the Rosegarden main window.  (If you can't see it, try using 	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Settings</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Show Special Parameters</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>.)
 It allows you to modify some aspects of the
	selected segments.</para><para>If a single segment is currently selected, its
	parameters will be shown in the segment parameter box and can be
	edited there.  If several segments are selected, the parameter box
	will only show the current values where they are the same for all
	of the selected segments -- but you can still edit them, and your
	changes will apply to the whole selection.

	<variablelist>
	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>Label</term>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>Shows the label of the selected segment (or segments, if
		they all have the same label).  Click the "Edit" button to edit
		the label.</para>
	    </listitem>
	  </varlistentry>
	  
	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>Repeat</term>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>Switches repeat on or off for the selected segments.  A
		repeating segment will repeat until the start of the following
		segment on the same track, or until the end of the composition
		if there is no following segment.</para>

	      <para>The repeated parts of a repeating segment are shown on
		the main canvas in a fainter colour than the original segment.
		You can turn them into real editable copies of the original
		segment either by using
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Segments</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Turn Repeats into Copies</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>, or simply by double-clicking on the
		individual repeating blocks.</para>
	    </listitem>
	  </varlistentry>

	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>Quantize</term>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>
		Shows the quantization setting for the selected
		segments.  You can change this to quickly quantize
		the start times of all their notes.  For more
		advanced quantization, use <menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Segments</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Quantize...</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>.  See <link
		  linkend="quantization">Quantization</link> for more
		details.
	      </para>
	    </listitem>
	  </varlistentry>

	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>Transpose</term>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>Shows the transposition (in semitones) currently applied
		to the selected segments.  This transposition is applied when
		the segment is played, and is not shown in the notes displayed
		in the matrix, notation or event list editors.  You can use
		this to quickly change the pitch of part or all of a
		composition, and it is commonly used with segments containing
		notation written for transposing instruments, such as the
		clarinet.</para>
	    </listitem>
	  </varlistentry>

	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>Delay</term>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>Shows the delay currently in effect on the selected
		segments.  You can set a delay here in order to cause an entire
		segment to play later than written.  This delay is applied when
		the segment is played, and is not shown in the notes displayed
		in the matrix, notation or event list editors.
	      </para>
	      <para>
		You can set a delay either in musical time (by
		choosing a note duration from the delay dropdown),
		in which time the exact delay will depend on the
		tempo, or in real time (by choosing a time in
		milliseconds from the dropdown).
	      </para>
	    </listitem>
	  </varlistentry>

	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>Colour</term>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>Shows the colour being used for the display of the
		selected segments.  You can choose another colour from the
		dropdown, or choose the "Add New Colour" option if you want a
		colour not in the dropdown.
	      </para>
	      <para>
		You can also manage and rename colours using
<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Composition</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Edit Document Properties...</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>
		(then choose the Colour page on the document properties
		dialog).  The modified colour palette will be saved
		with the composition in the Rosegarden file.
		<screenshot>
		  <mediaobject>
		    <imageobject>
		      <imagedata fileref="rg-colours.png" format="PNG"/>
	      </imageobject>
		<textobject>
		  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s colour manager</phrase>
		</textobject>
	      </mediaobject>
	      </screenshot>
	      </para>
	    </listitem>
	  </varlistentry>
	  
	</variablelist>
      </para>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="segment-view-instrumentparameterbox">
      <title>The Instrument Parameter Box</title>
      <para>
	The instrument parameter box can be found at the left side of
	the Rosegarden main window, near the <link
	linkend="segment-view-segmentparameterbox">Segment Parameter
	Box</link>.  (If you can't see it, try using
	<menuchoice> <guimenu lang="en">Settings</guimenu>
	<guimenuitem>Show Special
	Parameters</guimenuitem> </menuchoice>.)</para>

      <para>It shows you
	which instrument is assigned to the current selected track,
	and contains all of the editable controls for that instrument.
	Remember that because any number of tracks can be assigned to
	the same instrument, the settings in this box may affect more
	than one track at a time.</para>

      <para>The layout and contents of the instrument
	parameter box depend on the type of instrument: MIDI, audio,
	or synth plugin.
      </para>

      <sect2 id="segment-view-instrumentparameterbox-midi">
	<title>MIDI Instrument Parameters</title>
      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-ipb-midi.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s instrument parameter box for a MIDI instrument</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>
	<para>When you select a track assigned to a MIDI instrument,
	the instrument parameter box shows MIDI parameters.
	</para>
	<para>At the top, this box
	shows the name of the instrument and the connection that its
	device is using.
	</para>
	<para>Below that, you can see and edit the MIDI
	channel number and the <link linkend="studio-bank-editor">bank
	and program</link> settings that should be sent to the
	instrument at the start of playback (including a "percussion"
	toggle that controls whether only percussion programs should
	be offered in these settings).</para>

	<para>Finally this box shows you the <!-- !!! link
	linkend="studio-device-controllers" --> controllers available
	for this device (those for a General MIDI device are shown
	above).  Any settings you make here will be sent to this
	instrument's channel at the start of playback.</para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2 id="segment-view-instrumentparameterbox-audio">
	<title>Audio Instrument Parameters</title>
      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-ipb-audio.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s instrument parameter box for an audio instrument</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>
	<para>
	  When you select an audio track, the instrument parameter
	  box shows audio parameters.
	</para>
	<para>
	  The box has two main faders, one with a blue surround for
	  playback level and the other with a red surround for the
	  record level when recording to this instrument.  Between
	  them is a playback level meter.
	</para>
	<para>The two menus at the top of the box are used to select
	the input and output <link linkend="studio-audio-routing">audio routing</link> for this
	instrument.  Below them you can select whether the instrument
	is mono or stereo, and the pan setting for position in the
	stereo field.  (Audio instruments are always ultimately
	stereo, because the pan setting is always applied.  But if you
	set the instrument to mono, it will reduce any audio data and
	effect outputs to mono before applying pan.)
	  </para>
	<para>The column of five buttons at lower left are the effects
	slots.  Click on them to select and activate plugin effects
	for this audio instrument, and to control them using the <link linkend="studio-plugins">plugin editor dialog</link>.  These are insert effects,
	applied in order from top to bottom before the fader and pan.
	</para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2 id="segment-view-instrumentparameterbox-synth">
	<title>Synth Plugin Instrument Parameters</title>
      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-ipb-synth.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s instrument parameter box for a synth plugin instrument</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>
	<para>When you select a track assigned to a synth plugin
	instrument, the instrument parameter box shows synth
	parameters.  You will notice that although a synth plugin
	track uses segments with MIDI data in them, in terms of
	control and routing it behaves more like an audio track.
	</para>
	<para>The most important control here is the button at top
	left (saying Xsynth in the above picture) which shows the name
	of the synth plugin in use for this instrument.  Click this to
	select a particular synth and control it in the standard
	Rosegarden <link linkend="studio-plugins">plugin editor dialog</link>.  Once
	you've selected a plugin, you may also be able to click the
	Editor button below it in order to open a dedicated GUI editor
	for the particular plugin (if the plugin has one).
	</para>
	<para>The remaining controls here are the same as for audio
	instruments: the playback fader, playback level, output
	routing, mono/stereo and pan settings and effects slots are
	all exactly the same.</para>
      </sect2>

    </sect1>
  </chapter>

  <chapter id="quantization">
    <title>Quantization</title>
    <para>
      "Quantization" is the process of repositioning notes and other
      events so that they start or finish on exact beat divisions.  It
      is traditionally used to make an approximate performance into a
      precise but rather mechanical-sounding one -- either because
      precision is the desired effect, or for reasons such as making
      the notes clearer in notation.
    </para>

    <para>
      For general quantization, use
      	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Segments</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Quantize</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>
      in the main window or
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Adjust</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Quantize</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>
      in matrix or notation editors.  This shows you a dialog in which
      you can select the precise quantization parameters you need, and
      then it applies these to all of the selected segments or notes.
      (You can also quickly reach this dialog by pressing the "="
      key.)
    </para>

    <para>
      <screenshot>
	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="rg-gridquantizer.png" format="PNG"/>
    </imageobject>
      <textobject>
	<phrase>&rosegarden;'s quantize dialog</phrase>
      </textobject>
    </mediaobject>
    </screenshot>
    </para>

    <para>
      The quantize dialog offers a selection of quantizers, each with
      its own set of parameters.  The quantizers available are:
    </para>
    <variablelist>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Grid quantizer</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>The grid quantizer moves the start times of notes so
	  that they start at the nearest point on some grid (defined
	  by various parameters of the quantizer).  Thus notes that
	  initially vary slightly in start time will be aligned by the
	  quantizer, making for a more precise and mechanical
	  performance.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Legato quantizer</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>The legato quantizer carries out a simple grid
	  quantization, and also adjusts the note durations so as to
	  remove any gaps between notes by extending each note so as
	  to (at least) continue until the start of the following one.
	  You can also obtain this legato effect without the
	  accompanying grid quantization using the
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Adjust</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Quantize</guimenuitem>
	  <guimenuitem>Legato</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice> function in the Matrix editor.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Heuristic notation quantizer</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>The notation quantizer attempts to adjust note start
	  times and durations so as to produce readable notation.  See
	  <link linkend="nv-quantization">Notation from performance
	  data</link> for a description of this quantizer and its
	  uses.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

    </variablelist>

    <para>The grid quantizer has the following adjustable parameters:</para>
    <variablelist>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Base grid unit</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>This is the size of the grid used for quantization.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Swing</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>This is a percentage figure which adjusts the degree
	  by which alternate beats are quantized "late".</para>
	  <para>If set to
	  None (the default), quantization will be to an even grid
	  spaced according to the base grid unit.</para>
	  <para>If set to 100%,
	  every second grid line will be placed two-thirds of the distance
	  between the previous and next ones, instead of only half.
	  This will result in notes being quantized to the first and
	  third triplets of a swing beat.
	  </para>
	  <para>Other settings will produce proportionately varying degrees of
	  swinginess.  You can also set this parameter to negative
	  figures (for alternate beats to start early) or to figures
	  greater than 100%.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Iterative amount</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>The default behaviour of the grid quantizer is to move
	  each note exactly onto its nearest grid line.  But if you
	  set the iterative amount to something less than 100% (the
	  "Full quantize" default), each note will only be moved that
	  percentage of the distance toward its nearest grid line,
	  resulting in a nearly-but-not-quite quantized effect.</para>
	  <para>This quantizer may be applied repeatedly so as to try
	  out gradually increasing degrees of quantization, hence the
	  name "iterative".  Use 
	<menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Adjust</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Quantize</guimenuitem>
	  <guimenuitem>Repeat Last Quantize</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice> in the Matrix editor to do so.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Quantize durations as well as start times</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>If this option is enabled, the quantizer will quantize
	  the notes' end times to the same grid as their start times.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>

    <para>The quantize dialog also has an optional Advanced section
      containing further options for 
	  <link linkend="nv-quantization">notation quantization</link>.
    </para>
    
    <para>
      Another simple way to apply a grid quantizer is to do it in the
      main window, using the <guimenuitem>Quantize</guimenuitem> menu
      on the <link linkend="segment-view-segmentparameterbox">Segment
      Parameter Box</link>.  If you select some segments and change
      the value shown in the menu, the segments will immediately be
      grid-quantized to the resolution shown in the menu.
    </para>

    <para>
      Finally, there is also a <link
      linkend="matrix-grid-quantize">quantize control</link> in the matrix
      view.</para>
    
  </chapter>
  
  <chapter id="matrix-view">
    <title>The Matrix editor</title>
    <para>
      The &rosegarden; matrix editor enables you to view and edit
      music in a simple, logical format: each note represented as a
      block in a grid, at a height corresponding to the pitch.
    </para>
    <para>
      <screenshot>
	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="rg-matrixview.png" format="PNG"/>
    </imageobject>
      <textobject>
	<phrase>&rosegarden;'s matrix editor</phrase>
      </textobject>
    </mediaobject>
    </screenshot>
      Each matrix editor window shows a single segment.  To edit a
      segment, just right-click on it in the main canvas and select
      the matrix editor from the menu.  Alternatively, you can
      configure Rosegarden to make the matrix editor the default
      editor available when you double-click on a segment.
    </para>

    <sect1 id="matrix-grid-quantize">
      <title>The Grid and Quantize controls</title>
      <para>
	The matrix view contains Grid and Quantize menus in its main
	toolbar.
      </para>
      <para>The Grid menu controls the size of the visible grid in the
      background of the matrix view, as well as the time resolution
      used when entering and moving notes.  After you set it to a
      particular time value, the normal note insertion and drag
      operations will then snap automatically to grid points spaced at
      that time width.  You can override the snap-to-grid effect
      temporarily by holding down Shift during editing, or you can
      disable it by setting the Grid menu to None.
      </para>
      <para>The Quantize menu works rather differently.  Rather than
      controlling the behaviour of other editing tools, it actually
      performs an action.  When you change the value in this menu, the
      selected notes -- or the whole segment if nothing is selected
      -- will immediately be quantized using a grid quantizer of the
      chosen resolution.
      </para>
      <para>The Quantize menu also shows you continuously what
      resolution the current segment or selection is quantized to.
      For example, if you select a set of notes that start on
      consecutive quarter-note beats, the Quantize menu will update
      itself to show 1/4, as this is the coarsest resolution
      consistent with the existing quantization of the current
      selection.
      </para>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="matrix-insertion">
      <title>Inserting notes</title>
      <para>
	The simplest way to enter a note in the matrix view is to
	use the mouse.  To do this, select the pencil tool on the
	toolbar, and then click and drag on the matrix editor.  The
	note will be entered at the time and pitch corresponding to
	the point you click at, and will have a duration
	corresponding to the distance you drag before releasing the
	mouse button.</para>

      <para>By default, the time and duration are snapped to a
	particular grid unit, according to the Grid setting on the
	View menu or the toolbar.  You can prevent this effect by
	holding down Shift while clicking and dragging.
      </para>

      <sect2 id="matrix-insertion-keyboard">
	<title>Typing notes with the PC keyboard</title>

	<sect3>
	  <title>Duration</title>

	  <para>The durations of notes entered from the keyboard are
	    controlled by the Grid setting on the View menu or
	    toolbar.  You can set this using the number keys:</para>

	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>5</keycap> &ndash; Whole bar</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>1</keycap> &ndash; Beat</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>2</keycap> &ndash; Half note (minim)</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>4</keycap> &ndash; Quarter note (crotchet)</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>8</keycap> &ndash; Eighth note (quaver)</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>6</keycap> &ndash; Sixteenth note (semiquaver)</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>3</keycap> &ndash; Thirty-second note (demisemiquaver)</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>0</keycap> &ndash; Sixty-fourth note (hemidemisemiquaver)</para></listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	  
	</sect3>

	<sect3>
	  <title>Pitch</title>

	  <para>Once the correct duration is selected in the Grid
	    menu, you can insert a note at the current position of the
	    <link linkend="nv-rulers">insert cursor</link> by pressing
	    one of the pitch keys:</para>

	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>A</keycap> &ndash; Do (the tonic of the current key in the current clef)<!-- !!! FIXME: no clef in matrix view --></para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>S</keycap> &ndash; Re</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>D</keycap> &ndash; Mi</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>F</keycap> &ndash; Fa</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>J</keycap> &ndash; So</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>K</keycap> &ndash; La</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>L</keycap> &ndash; Ti</para></listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>

	  <para>Holding <keycap>Shift</keycap> while pressing a key
	    will sharpen the note (except for Mi and Ti, which don't
	    have sharpened versions) and holding <keycap>Shift</keycap>
	    and <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> together will flatten it (except
	    for Fa and Do).</para>

	  <para>To enter notes an octave higher, use the corresponding
	    keys on the next row up: <keycap>Q</keycap>,
	    <keycap>W</keycap>, <keycap>E</keycap>, <keycap>R</keycap>,
	    <keycap>U</keycap>, <keycap>I</keycap>, and
	    <keycap>O</keycap>.  Likewise to enter notes an octave
	    lower, use <keycap>Z</keycap>, <keycap>X</keycap>,
	    <keycap>C</keycap>, <keycap>V</keycap>, <keycap>B</keycap>,
	    <keycap>N</keycap> and <keycap>M</keycap>.</para>

	</sect3>

	<sect3>
	  <title>Other remarks</title>

	  <para>All of the insertion commands are also available on a
	    submenu of the Tools menu.  It's unlikely you'd ever want to
	    navigate the menus just to insert a single note, but the
	    menus show the keyboard shortcuts and so provide a useful
	    reference in case you forget which key is which.</para>

	  <para>The keyboard shortcuts are currently designed for use
	    with a QWERTY-layout keyboard.  There is not yet any way to
	    remap the keys for another layout, short of reassigning each
	    key individually using <menuchoice>
	  <guimenu lang="en">Settings</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Configure Shortcuts...</guimenuitem>
	</menuchoice>.</para>

	</sect3>

      </sect2>

      <sect2 id="matrix-insertion-midi">
	<title>Entering notes using a MIDI keyboard</title>

	<para>
	  You can enter notes into the matrix editor one at a time
	  using a MIDI keyboard or other MIDI control device.  The
	  matrix editor uses the pitches you play on the keyboard,
	  but the durations you have selected in the Grid setting of
	  the editor itself.  This is known as "step recording".
	</para>

	<para>
	  To start entering notes from a MIDI keyboard, first make
	  sure the keyboard is configured as a MIDI
	  record device.  Then make sure you have the right Grid
	  setting in the View menu or toolbar, as this controls the
	  note duration.  Then press the <!-- !!!  image of button
	  --> step recording button on the matrix editor's toolbar,
	  or select Step Recording from the Tools menu.  From that
	  point on all notes pressed on the MIDI keyboard will be
	  inserted at the current insertion time in that window,
	  until step recording is switched off again or activated in
	  a different window or the window is closed.
	</para>

	<para>
	  You can change the Grid setting while step recording is in
	  progress, in order to insert notes of different durations.
	</para>
      </sect2>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="matrix-selection">
      <title>Selecting notes</title> <para>To select notes in the
	matrix editor, switch to the Select (arrow) tool and then
	outline a rectangular area containing the notes you want to
	select.  The selected events will then be highlighted in blue.
	If you instead click on a single event, just that event will
	be selected.

      </para><para>If you hold <keycap>Shift</keycap> while dragging
	out a rectangle or clicking on a note, the new selection will
	be added to any existing selection instead of replacing it.
      </para>

      <para>
	To clear a selection, click in an empty space on the matrix
	editor, or hit the Escape key.</para>
      
      <para>You can also select all of the notes of a given pitch,
	by shift-clicking on a key in the piano keyboard down the left
	side of the matrix editor.  You can also shift-click and drag
	to select a range of pitches.  This selection is added to any
	existing selection you have, so if you want a clean new
	selection, clear the old one first.
      </para>

	  <sect2 id="matrix-selectionfilter">
          <title>Filtering the selection</title>
		  <para>The <menuchoice>
		  <guimenu>Edit</guimenu>
		  <guimenuitem>Filter Selection</guimenuitem>
		</menuchoice> function offers you the ability to filter a range of events in
		  any of several categories out of your selection.  You can use this to refine the selection, if you want some action to apply to only certain events in it.
	        </para>
		<para>
		  <screenshot>
		    <mediaobject>
		      <imageobject>
			<imagedata fileref="rg-eventfilter.png" format="PNG"/>
		</imageobject>
		  <textobject>
		    <phrase>The event filter dialog</phrase>
		  </textobject>
		</mediaobject>
		</screenshot>
	        </para>
		<para>
		  All ranges may be either inclusive or exclusive.
		</para>
	        <para>
		  An inclusive range will remove events on either side of it
		  from the selection.  You can use this, for example, to
		  filter everything below middle C and above the A above
		  middle C out of your selection.
		</para>
	        <para>
		  An exclusive range will remove the events within the range
		  itself, leaving everything on either side of it selected.
		  Using the same search points as in the previous example,
		  you would use an exclusive range to remove everything
		  between middle C and the A above middle C from your
		  selection, while leaving everything above and below that
		  range selected.
		</para>
		<para>
		  Once your selection has been filtered, you can manipulate
		  it by any conventional means.
		</para>
 	</sect2>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="matrix-editing">
      <title>Moving and copying notes</title>
      <para>
	You can move notes in both time and pitch on the matrix
	editor by either clicking and dragging them with the Move
	tool, or selecting them and then dragging them with the
	Select tool.
      </para>
      <para>
	To copy notes, select them and then use the standard copy
	and paste functions.  After the paste the pasted notes will
	be selected instead, and you can then drag them wherever you
	need them.  You may also copy notes by selecting them with
	the Select tool, then keeping Ctrl pressed click-and-drag
	the selected notes in a new position.
      </para>
    </sect1>

  </chapter>
  
  <chapter id="percussion-matrix-view">
    <title>The Percussion Matrix editor</title>
    
    <para>The Percussion Matrix editor is identical to the <link
    linkend="matrix-view">Matrix editor</link>, except that it shows
    pitch names on the vertical scale instead of a piano keyboard, and
    it does not show the duration for each note.  This is intended for
    use with percussion programs on MIDI instruments, in which each
    note pitch plays a different percussion sound.</para>

    <para>
      <screenshot>
	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="rg-percussionmatrix.png" format="PNG"/>
    </imageobject>
      <textobject>
	<phrase>&rosegarden;'s percussion matrix editor</phrase>
      </textobject>
    </mediaobject>
    </screenshot>
      The pitch names are only shown if the segment being edited is
      playing through a percussion instrument that has an associated
      key mapping to define the names; otherwise the standard matrix
      view piano keyboard will appear instead.  See <link
      linkend="studio-keymappings">Percussion Key Mappings</link> for
      more information about key mappings.</para>
  </chapter>

  <chapter id="notation-view">
    <title>The Notation editor</title>

    <!-- Introduction, purpose -->

    <sect1 id="nv-introduction">
      <title>Introduction</title>

      <para>

	The &rosegarden; notation editor enables you to view and edit
	one or more staffs in traditional score notation.

      </para><para>

	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-notationview.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s notation editor</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
	</para>
      <para>
	&rosegarden; aims to present scores with the best possible
	layout compatible with its primary focus as a sequencer
	application.  This means that although the editor supports
	chords, overlapping and nested beamed groups, triplets and
	arbitrary tuplets, grace notes, dynamics, accents, text and so
	on, it does not provide as much fine control over layout
	(especially in contrapuntal music) as a dedicated score
	editing program might. &rosegarden; does not aim to produce
	typeset-quality score, although it can export LilyPond files,
	which may form a good basis for typesetting.

      </para>
    </sect1>

    <!-- Single and multiple staffs, and "current staff" -->

    <sect1 id="nv-staffs">
      <title>Single and multiple staffs</title>

      <para>
	There are three ways to open a notation editor from the
	&rosegarden; main window.  (They all require that you
	have some existing segments in the main window first,
	so if you're starting a new composition, you should
	create your segments before you start thinking about
	how to edit them.)

	<variablelist>

	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>Double-clicking on segments</term>
	    <listitem>
	      
	      <para>The most obvious way is just to double-click on
		a segment in the main canvas.  This opens the segment
		in whatever you have configured <!-- !!!Link --> as
		the default editor (notation, matrix, or event list),
		and by default this is the notation editor.  So
		double-clicking a single segment will open it as a
		single staff in a Notation editor window.</para>
	      
	      <para>You can also open a multi-staff editor this way:
		holding down the Shift key, select (with a single
		mouse click) each of the segments on the main view
		that you want to open, but double-click on the last
		one.  All of the selected segments will then be opened
		together in a single notation window.</para>

	    </listitem>
	  </varlistentry>

	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>The Open in Default Editor menu function (the Return key)</term>
	    <listitem>

	      <para>The Return key is a shortcut for the Open in
		Default Editor menu function, which does much the same
		thing as double-clicking: opens all of the currently
		selected segments together in a notation editor, or in
		whichever other editor you have configured as your
		default. </para>
	    </listitem>
	  </varlistentry>
	  
	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>The Open in Notation Editor menu functions</term>
	    <listitem>

	      <para>Alternatively, you can use the main window's
		Open in
		Notation Editor menu function, either on
		the Segments menu or on the right-button popup menu on
		a segment in the canvas.  Select the segments you want
		to edit (by shift-clicking as above, or by using the
		Select All Segments function) and
		then select Open in
		Notation Editor.</para>
	    </listitem>
	    
	  </varlistentry>
	</variablelist>

      </para>

      <para>
	If you have more than one staff (i.e. segment) visible in the notation
	editor, only one of them can be "current" at once.  The
	current staff can be distinguished because it has the insert
	cursor on it (see <link linkend="nv-rulers">Rulers and
	  Cursors</link>), and this is the staff on which any editing
	operations that use the insert cursor will take place.  The
	topmost staff is the current one by default, but you can
	switch to a different staff by ctrl-clicking on it, or by using the
	<menuchoice><guimenu>Tools</guimenu><guimenuitem>Local
	  Cursor</guimenuitem><guimenuitem>Cursor Up Staff</guimenuitem></menuchoice> and
	<menuchoice><guimenuitem>Cursor Down Staff</guimenuitem></menuchoice> menu functions.
      </para>

    </sect1>

    <!-- Linear and page layouts -->

    <sect1 id="nv-layout">
      <title>Linear and page layouts</title>

      <para>
	The usual way the notation editor displays staffs is known
	as Linear layout: one staff on top of another, with each
	staff as a single, horizontally scrollable long line.  Some
	of the functions of the editor (such as the <link
	  linkend="nv-rulers">Rulers</link>) are only available in
	Linear layout.
      </para>

      <para>
	However, you can also display staffs in two different
	page-based layouts: Continuous Page and Multiple Page.</para>

      <para>In Continuous Page layout, the music is arranged in one
	infinitely-tall page of the same width as the window.  Each
	staff breaks at the end of a line, starting a new line below
	the remaining staffs.</para>

      <para>In Multiple Page layout, the music is divided up into
	real pages much as it will be when printed.  The size of each
	page is calculated so that approximately the same amount of
	music will fit on each line as it will when actually printed
	(according to the point size specified for the printing
	resolution in the configuration dialog).  The printed version
	is unlikely to be exactly the same, as it depends on the
	precise paper size and margins in use when printing, but it
	should be fairly close if you happen to be using A4
	paper.</para>

      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-notationview-multipage.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s notation editor in Multiple Page layout</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
	</para><para>
        Most, but not all, of the display and editing functions
	work in the page layout modes as well as in linear layout.
      </para>

      <para>
	To switch between these layout modes, use the Linear Layout, Continuous Page Layout and Multiple Page Layout menu functions.
      </para>
    </sect1>

    <!-- Rulers and Cursors -->

    <sect1 id="nv-rulers">
      <title>Rulers and cursors</title>

      <para>
	The &rosegarden; Notation editor window includes two graduated rulers,
	each associated with its own cursor.  The rulers are the horizontal strips
	divided up with tickmarks at top and bottom of the main
	notation canvas, and the cursors are the coloured vertical
	lines shown initially at the start of the top staff in the
	editor.  In addition to these main two, there are the <guimenuitem>chord
	    name</guimenuitem> ruler, the <guimenuitem>tempo</guimenuitem> ruler,
	and the <guimenuitem>raw note</guimenuitem> ruler.
    </para>
      <para>
	Note that the rulers are only shown in <link
	  linkend="nv-layout">Linear layout</link> mode, and several of them
      are not displayed by default.
      </para>


    <para>
      <screenshot>
	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="rg-cursors.png" format="PNG"/>
    </imageobject>
      <textobject>
	<phrase>The notation editor's two cursors</phrase>
      </textobject>
    </mediaobject>
    </screenshot>
    </para>

      <para>
	The purple cursor is the insert cursor.  It shows the point
	at which operations such as insert and paste will take
	place.  You can reposition the insert cursor by clicking or
	dragging on the top ruler, or by clicking with the Select
	tool on an empty part of the staff (avoiding any events), or
	by clicking anywhere with <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> held down.
      </para>

      <para>You can also use the left and right arrow keys to move
	the insert cursor one event at a time.  If you hold <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> while
	pressing the arrow keys, the cursor will move a whole bar at a
	time; if you hold Shift, the cursor will <link
	  linkend="nv-tools-selections">select the events</link> as it
	passes over them.
      </para>

      <para>
	The blue cursor is the playback pointer.  Just like the
	similar cursors in the main window and the matrix views,
	this shows the location of the current playback or record
	position, and it sweeps across the notation while the transport is
	rolling.  It can be repositioned using the bottom ruler.
      </para>
      <sect2 id="nv-raw-note-ruler">
	  <title>The raw note ruler</title>
	  <para>The raw note ruler is particularly
	      useful when editing <link linkend="nv-quantization">quantized
		  notation</link> where the display duration on the page
	      differs from the duration of the actual performance.
	      Enabled via
	      <menuchoice>
	        <guimenu>Settings</guimenu>
                <guimenuitem>Rulers</guimenuitem>
                <guimenuitem>Show Raw Note Ruler</guimenuitem>
              </menuchoice>, it draws a small bar above
	      each note, similar to the way notes appear in the matrix.  In this
	      example screenshot, you can see how interpreted, quantized notes
	      appear on this ruler.  The tenuto notes have full performance
	      durations, while the staccato notes are considerably shorter, and
	      the accented notes have a higher velocity (more red colour) than
	      their neighbors.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	      Raw note ruler marks only notes in the selected segment in the track.
	      The colour of the selected segment is used in the background of
	      the raw note ruler between the start and end time of the segment.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	      <screenshot>
		  <mediaobject>
		      <imageobject>
			  <imagedata
			    fileref="rg-rawnoteruler.png" format="PNG"/>
		      </imageobject>
		      <textobject>
			  <phrase>The raw note ruler,
			showing notation whose performance duration value differs
			from what appears on the staff</phrase>
		      </textobject>
		  </mediaobject>
	      </screenshot>
	  </para>
      </sect2>
      <sect2 id="nv-chord-name-ruler">
	  <title>The chord name ruler</title>
	<para>The chord name ruler analyzes the tonality of the piece, and
	    attempts to display which chords are sounding.  This is for
	    informational purposes only, and you can neither print nor edit the
	    contents of this ruler.
	    <!-- !!! throw in a link to how to do proper chords with text, and
	    should probably get into fretboards too, but I'm not going to mention
	    fretboards in this manual at this time (for 1.3) because it's too
	    rough, and I just don't care to get into that yet -->
	</para>
    </sect2>
    <sect2 id="nv-tempo-ruler">
	<title>The tempo ruler</title> <para>The tempo ruler displays
	the global tempo, and provides a vehicle for entering,
	editing, and manipulating it.  It works the same way as the
	tempo rulers in the main window and the matrix editor.  See
	<link linkend="tempo-ruler">Tempo Rulers</link> for more
	information.</para>
    </sect2>

    </sect1>

    <!-- Display conventions (annotated picture with some selected notes,
    some quantized notes, a bar of incorrect length etc) -->

    <!-- Tools and Selections -->

    <sect1 id="nv-tools-selections">
      <title>Tools and selections</title>
      <para>
	Most of the menu and toolbar editing functions in the
	&rosegarden; Notation editor fall into one of three
	categories: <quote>tools</quote>, <quote>functions that
	  operate on selections</quote>, and <quote>drag
	  operations</quote>.
      </para>

      <variablelist>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Tools</term>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>
	      The basic tools are the selection tool, the erase
	      tool, and those for inserting notes, rests, text and so
	      on, which are usually accessed from the toolbar buttons.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	      <screenshot>
		  <mediaobject>
		      <imageobject>
			  <imagedata
			    fileref="rg-notationtools.png" format="PNG"/>
		      </imageobject>
		      <textobject>
			  <phrase>The insert, erase, text, and guitar chord tools</phrase>
		      </textobject>
		  </mediaobject>
	      </screenshot>
	  </para>

	    <para>
	      Choosing a tool changes the default behaviour of the
	      mouse buttons on the main notation canvas, at least
	      until another tool is chosen instead.  For example,
	      choosing the selection tool allows you to make
	      selections and so to use the selection-based functions
	      (below); choosing an insertion tool (such as one of the
	      notes) switches the <acronym>GUI</acronym>'s behaviour so as to insert
	      notes by clicking on the canvas; choosing the erase tool
	      allows you to remove events by clicking on them.
	    </para>
	    <para>
	      You can also change the current tool using the Tools menu.
	    </para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Functions that operate on selections</term>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>
	      The majority of the remaining menu functions require a
	      selection to be made on the canvas before they can be
	      used. Some of them (such as <guimenuitem>Cut</guimenuitem> 
	      or the <guimenuitem>Note Style</guimenuitem>
	      functions) will operate on any selected events; others
	      (<guimenuitem>Stem Directions</guimenuitem> function)
	      will refuse to work unless the selection contains 
	      some notes.
	    </para>
	    <para>
	      To select some events on the canvas, switch to the
	      Select (arrow) tool and then outline a rectangular area
	      containing the events you want to select. The selected
	      events will then be highlighted in blue. If you click
	      on a single event, just that event will be selected <footnote> 
		<para> You can also double-click on a single event to open an
		  editing dialog for that event, but that's got nothing to
		  do with selections.</para> </footnote>).
	    </para><para>If you hold 
	      <keycap>Shift</keycap> while dragging
	      out a rectangle, its contents will be added to any
	      existing selection instead of replacing it.
	    </para>
	    <para>
	      To select a whole bar, double-click with the Select tool
	      on some empty space within that bar; to select the whole
	      staff, click three times. The Edit menu carries
	      functions for selecting extended areas based on the
	      location of the insert cursor, and you can also select
	      events around the insert cursor by holding Shift and
	      pressing the left or right arrow keys.
	    </para>
	    <para>
	      It is not possible to select events from more than
	      one staff at once.
	    </para>
		  <para>After selecting some events, you can filter your selection further using the <menuchoice>
		  <guimenu>Edit</guimenu>
		  <guimenuitem>Filter Selection</guimenuitem>
		</menuchoice> function.  For more details, refer to <link linkend="matrix-selectionfilter">the corresponding function in the matrix editor</link>.
	        </para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Drag operations</term>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>
	      You can also do a certain amount of editing just by
	      dragging things around.  Switch to the Select (arrow)
	      tool, and then you can change the pitch of notes by
	      just click-and-dragging their heads up or down, and
	      change the times of notes and other events by dragging
	      them left or right.  (You can't drag rests or time
	      signatures, but you can drag everything else.  If you
	      have more than one event selected, the whole selection
	      will be dragged at once.)
	    </para>
	    <para>
	      Dragging is usually a less accurate way of editing
	      things than using the menu or toolbar functions, but
	      it can be easier.
	    </para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
      </variablelist>

      <sect2>
	<title>Transposing</title>
	
	<para>
	  <screenshot>
	    <mediaobject>
	      <imageobject>
	        <imagedata fileref="transpose-by-interval.png" format="PNG"/>
		  </imageobject>
	  	  <textobject>
	        <phrase>Transposing by interval</phrase>
	      </textobject>
	    </mediaobject>
	  </screenshot>
	</para>
	<para>
	  In Notation view menu there are two functions which can be
	  used to transpose notes by an arbitrary interval, namely
	    <menuchoice>
	      <guimenu lang="en">Adjust</guimenu>
	      <guimenuitem>Transpose</guimenuitem>
	      <guimenuitem>Transpose by Semitones</guimenuitem>
	    </menuchoice>
	  function which asks just the number of semitones to be
	  transposed, and
	    <menuchoice>
	      <guimenu lang="en">Adjust</guimenu>
	      <guimenuitem>Transpose</guimenuitem>
	      <guimenuitem>Transpose by Interval</guimenuitem>
	    </menuchoice>
	  function which shows a neat dialog that can be used to 
	  transpose notes. In the latter, the dialog shows an example 
	  notes before and after transposing and expresses the
	  interval in written form. The interval may be changed either
	  by dragging the notes shown by the dialog or by changing
	  separately the base note, its octavation and accidentals.
	</para>
	<para>
	  In Segment view, Notation view, and Track view there is also
	    <menuchoice>
	      <guimenu lang="en">Segment(s)</guimenu>
	      <guimenuitem>Transpose by Interval</guimenuitem>
	    </menuchoice>
	  function which makes a transpose to entire segment. In this
	  dialog you may also choose whether only the notes are
	  transposed or the keys of the segment are transposed also.
	</para>
      </sect2>
    </sect1>

    <!-- Insertion: notes, auto-ties, accidentals -->

    <sect1 id="nv-insertion">
      <title>Inserting notes and rests</title>

      <para>To insert a note, select one of the note tools by clicking
      on a particular duration of note on the toolbar, and then click
      on the staff at the point where you want to add the note.</para>
      <para>
	  <screenshot>
	      <mediaobject>
		  <imageobject>
		      <imagedata
			fileref="rg-notation-toolbars.png" format="PNG"/>
		  </imageobject>
		  <textobject>
		      <phrase>The duration, rests, and accidentals toolbars</phrase>
		  </textobject>
	      </mediaobject>
	  </screenshot>
      </para>

      <para>You can also select one of the accidentals on the toolbar
      to insert sharpened or flattened notes.  If no accidental is
      selected, the note inserted will follow the key signature.
      Alternatively, you can select the "Follow previous accidental"
      icon (shown as a note with an arrow pointing back from where the
      accidental would appear) to make the note follow whatever
      accidental was last used at the same height on the staff.</para>

      <para>If you add a note at the same time as an existing note of
	different duration, the editor will generally assume that you
	want to create chords and will split the existing or new note
	accordingly so as to create one or more chords with ties.  If
	you really do want to chord two different durations, you can
	select the tied noteheads and use the Collapse Equal-Pitch Notes
	function to merge them together. Alternatively, the default
	behaviour can be changed in the &rosegarden; configuration dialog
	so as not to do the split at all.</para>

      <para>If you add a note exactly over an existing note of
	different duration (i.e. at the same pitch), the duration of the
	existing note will be changed to that of the new one.</para>

      <para>If you add a rest at the same time as an existing note,
	the note will be silenced for the duration of the rest,
	shortening or possibly removing it altogether.</para>

      <sect2 id="nv-insertion-keyboard">
	<title>Typing notes and rests with the PC keyboard</title>

	<sect3>
	  <title>Duration</title>

	  <para>First, ensure a notation tool is selected to indicate
	    the duration of note (or rest) you wish to insert.  You can
	    select the various note types using the number keys:</para>

	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>5</keycap> &ndash; Breve</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>1</keycap> &ndash; Whole note (semibreve)</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>2</keycap> &ndash; Half note (minim)</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>4</keycap> &ndash; Quarter note (crotchet)</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>8</keycap> &ndash; Eighth note (quaver)</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>6</keycap> &ndash; Sixteenth note (semiquaver)</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>3</keycap> &ndash; Thirty-second note (demisemiquaver)</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>0</keycap> &ndash; Sixty-fourth note (hemidemisemiquaver)</para></listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	  
	  <para>You can switch to a triplet version of the note
	    duration by pressing the <keycap>G</keycap> key.  Pressing it
	    again will switch back to the normal duration.  The status
	    bar at the bottom of the window will notify you of when a
	    triplet duration is active.</para>
	</sect3>

	<sect3>
	  <title>Pitch</title>

	  <para>Once a notation tool is selected, you can insert a
	    note at the current position of the <link
	      linkend="nv-rulers">insert cursor</link> by pressing one of
	    the pitch keys:</para>

	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>A</keycap> &ndash; Do (the tonic of the current key in the current clef)</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>S</keycap> &ndash; Re</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>D</keycap> &ndash; Mi</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>F</keycap> &ndash; Fa</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>J</keycap> &ndash; So</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>K</keycap> &ndash; La</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para><keycap>L</keycap> &ndash; Ti</para></listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>

	  <para>Press the "." key to togggle between dotted and
	  undotted durations.</para>

	  <para>Holding <keycap>Shift</keycap> while pressing a key
	    will sharpen the note (except for Mi and Ti, which don't
	    have sharpened versions) and holding <keycap>Shift</keycap>
	    and <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> together will flatten it (except
	    for Fa and Do).</para>

	  <para>To enter notes an octave higher, use the corresponding
	    keys on the next row up: <keycap>Q</keycap>,
	    <keycap>W</keycap>, <keycap>E</keycap>, <keycap>R</keycap>,
	    <keycap>U</keycap>, <keycap>I</keycap>, and
	    <keycap>O</keycap>.  Likewise to enter notes an octave
	    lower, use <keycap>Z</keycap>, <keycap>X</keycap>,
	    <keycap>C</keycap>, <keycap>V</keycap>, <keycap>B</keycap>,
	    <keycap>N</keycap> and <keycap>M</keycap>.</para>

	</sect3>

	<sect3>
	  <title>Rests</title>
	  
	  <para>To insert a rest instead of a note, press
	    <keycap>P</keycap>.  Alternatively, you can use the
	    <keycap>T</keycap> and <keycap>Y</keycap> keys to switch the
	    current tool to a rest tool and back to a note tool again.</para>

	</sect3>

	<sect3>
	  <title>Chords</title>

	  <para>The default behaviour of the notation editor is to
	    move the insert cursor forward after inserting a note, so as
	    to be ready to insert another note after it in a melody;
	    this can be changed using the <keycap>H</keycap> key, which
	    switches to chord mode so that subsequent insertions occur
	    at the same time as the last one.  Pressing
	    <keycap>H</keycap> again switches back to the melody
	    insertion behaviour.</para>

	</sect3>

	<sect3>
	  <title>Changing note durations</title>

	  <para>You can use the keyboard to change the durations of
	  notes that you've already entered.  Make sure the notes you
	  want to change are selected, and then press
	  <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> plus the number key for the note you
	  want.  You can also add or remove dots, by pressing
	  <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> plus "." &mdash; use this repeatedly to
	  select between one dot, two dots and no dots.</para>

	  <para>If you also hold <keycap>Alt</keycap> as well as
	  <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>, you will change the durations of the
	  notes as displayed in the notation editor without changing
	  their performed durations.  This can be very useful for
	  tidying up a score: see also <link
	  linkend="nv-quantization">notation from performance
	  data</link>.
	  </para>
	</sect3>

	<sect3>
	  <title>Other remarks</title>

	  <para>All of the insertion commands are also available on a
	    submenu of the Tools menu.  It's unlikely you'd ever want to
	    navigate the menus just to insert a single note, but the
	    menus show the keyboard shortcuts and so provide a useful
	    reference in case you forget which key is which.</para>

	  <para>The keyboard shortcuts are currently designed for use
	    with a QWERTY-layout keyboard.  There is not yet any way to
	    remap the keys for another layout, short of reassigning each
	    key individually using the "Configure Shortcuts..." option
	    on the Settings menu.</para>

	  <para>Holding the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> key while pressing a
	    number will select the corresponding dotted-note
	    tool.</para>

	</sect3>

      </sect2>

      <sect2 id="nv-insertion-midi">
	<title>Entering notes using a MIDI keyboard</title>

	<para>
	  You can enter notes into the notation editor one at a time
	  using a MIDI keyboard or other MIDI control device &mdash; a
	  process known as step recording.  The notation editor uses
	  the pitches you play on the keyboard, but the durations you
	  have selected in the editor itself.
	</para>

	<para>
	  To start entering notes from a MIDI keyboard, first make
	  sure the keyboard is configured as your default MIDI
	  record device.  Then make sure a notation tool is selected
	  to set a duration.  Then press the <!-- !!!  image of
	  button --> step recording button on the notation editor's
	  toolbar, or select Step Recording from the Tools menu.
	  From that point on all notes pressed on the MIDI keyboard
	  will be inserted at the current insertion time in that
	  notation window, until step recording is switched off
	  again or activated in a different window or the window is
	  closed.
	</para>

	<para>
	  You can select another notation tool while step recording
	  is in progress, in order to insert notes of different
	  durations; and you can also switch into Chord mode <!--
	  !!! link --> to insert chords.
	</para>
      </sect2>
      
    </sect1>

    <!-- Keys, Clefs and Time Signatures -->

    <sect1 id="nv-signatures">
      <title>Clef and key</title>

<!-- !!! rework -->      
      <para>The first thing to know about the way &rosegarden; handles
	these is that time-related changes (tempos and time
	signatures) are treated entirely differently from clefs and
	keys. In order to simplify managing playback and recording as
	well as notation, &rosegarden; requires that when the tempo or
	time signature changes, it does so in all staffs at once.  You
	can't have one staff in 2/4 and another in 6/8 simultaneously,
	or one staff playing at 120 to the beat and another at 90.
	This applies only to time: there is no such restriction on the
	use of clef and key changes.  See also <link linkend="tempo">Tempo in Rosegarden</link>.</para>

      <para>To change the clef, key, tempo or time signature within a
      notation editor window, position the <link
      linkend="nv-rulers">insert cursor</link> at the point where you
      want the change to happen, and use one of the Edit menu's Add
      Clef Change..., Add Key Change..., Add Tempo Change... and Add
      Time Signature Change... functions.  You will then see a dialog
      box in which you can choose the particular clef, key, tempo or
      time signature setting you want to apply, as follows.</para>

      <sect2 id="nv-signatures-clef">
	<title>Clef</title>
	<para>
	  <screenshot>
	    <mediaobject>
	      <imageobject>
		<imagedata fileref="rg-clefdialog.png" format="PNG"/>
	</imageobject>
	  <textobject>
	    <phrase>&rosegarden;'s clef dialog</phrase>
	  </textobject>
	</mediaobject>
	</screenshot>
	</para>

	<para>The dialog allows you to choose a clef, but also
	  to choose how you want the clef to be applied, in
	  cases where there are already some notes following
	  the point where the clef is to be inserted.  You
	  must choose one of the following:

	  <variablelist>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>Maintain current pitches</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>
		  Any notes following the clef will keep
		  their current performance pitches.
		</para>
		<para>
		  For example, inserting a
		  tenor clef in the middle of a previously
		  treble-clef section will cause the notes following
		  the clef to be moved an octave
		  higher up the staff, because they will still have
		  their treble-clef pitches.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>
	    
	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>Transpose into appropriate octave</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>
		  Any notes following the clef will
		  retain their pitch within the octave, but
		  may be moved into a different octave to
		  match the new clef, and therefore will play
		  at a new pitch.
		</para>
		<para>
		  For example, inserting a tenor clef in the
		  middle of a previously treble-clef section
		  will cause the notes following the clef to
		  move by one staff line only to adjust to the new
		  clef, but to play an octave lower than before.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>
	    
	  </variablelist>
	  
	</para>
      </sect2>
      
      <sect2 id="nv-signatures-key">
	<title>Key</title>
	<para>
	  <screenshot>
	    <mediaobject>
	      <imageobject>
		<imagedata fileref="rg-keysigdialog.png" format="PNG"/>
	</imageobject>
	  <textobject>
	    <phrase>&rosegarden;'s key signature dialog</phrase>
	  </textobject>
	</mediaobject>
	</screenshot>
	</para>
	<para>The dialog allows you to choose a key signature, but also
	  to choose how you want the key signature to be applied.  You
	  must choose among the following:
	</para>

	  <variablelist>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>Key signature</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>
		  Used to dial up the actual key signature.  The dialog will
		  attempt to analyze the tonality of the piece, and guess at
		  the key signature if no key is already in effect at that
		  point in the notation.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>
	    
	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>Key transposition</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>You must choose whether to transpose the key according
		    to segment transposition, or to use the key exactly as
		    specified.
		</para>
		<para>
		  For example, if you are inserting a key of Bb major into a
		  transposed Bb trumpet part that's sounding at a
		  transposition of -2, you use this option to tell
		  &rosegarden; whether the key of Bb you have entered should
		  be written as a Bb (concert Ab), or should be transposed
		  against the segment to result in the trumpet key of C major
		  (concert Bb).
		</para>
	      </listitem>
            </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
		<term>Scope</term>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			You must choose whether to apply this key signature to
			the current segment only, or to all segments, on all
			tracks, at this time.
		    </para>
		    <para>
			If you elect to apply the change to all segments at
			this time, the previous key transposition choice will
			govern whether all segments receive the specified key,
			or a key appropriately transposed segment by segment.
			(This is a convenient way to deal with notation for
			transposing instruments, because it frees you to think
			of all keys in concert pitch, and allow &rosegarden;
			to work out what key is used for what transposition.)
		    </para>
		</listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
		<term>Existing notes following key change</term>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			You must choose whether any existing notes following
			this key change will maintain their current pitches,
			maintain their current accidentals in the key, or
			whether Rosegarden should make an attempt to transpose
			the part into the new key.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
	    </varlistentry>
	    
	  </variablelist>
      </sect2>
      
    </sect1>

    <!-- Text -->

    <sect1 id="nv-text">
      <title>Text, Lyrics, and LilyPond directives</title>
      
      <para>A staff can contain various sorts of text, in text
	events.  There are two basic classes of user-editable text event: single
	text items used for point annotations etc., and lyrics, plus a third
	type used especially for tweaking LilyPond export.  User-editable
	types can be created (and so associated with a particular
	time in the staff) using the Text tool, which is available on
	the
	<inlinemediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
		<imagedata fileref="rg-text-cursor.png" format="PNG"/>
      	    </imageobject>
  	</inlinemediaobject>
	button in the toolbar.  Lyrics can
	also be created this way, but are more easily created using
	the <link linkend="nv-text-lyrics">lyric editor</link>.</para>

      <para>To add a piece of text, select the Text tool and click
	at the point where you want to add it.  If you want the text
	associated with a particular note or rest, it may be helpful to click
	the T cursor directly on that note, so as to ensure proper placement
	in time.  A dialog box will appear, into which you can type the text
	and choose its intended purpose.  (Rosegarden prefers to store what
	the text is for, rather than how it should look; this is so that in
	future we may be able to configure how the various sorts of text are
	presented for each individual user.)

	  <screenshot>
	    <mediaobject>
	      <imageobject>
		<imagedata fileref="rg-textdialog.png" format="PNG"/>
	</imageobject>
	  <textobject>
	    <phrase>&rosegarden;'s text dialog</phrase>
	  </textobject>
	</mediaobject>
	</screenshot>
	
	The available
	purposes (or styles) are:</para>

    <variablelist>

	<!-- NOTE: I have removed the "by default" in the following
	descriptions.  There is no "by default" to this.  It does
	what it does, and there is no changing it without editing
	source code. (dmm) -->

	<varlistentry><term>Dynamic</term><listitem><para> Used for
	      minor local indications such as the dynamic marks "p", "mf"
	      etc. Shown below the staff in small italic
	      type.  </para></listitem></varlistentry>

	<varlistentry><term>Direction</term><listitem><para> Used
	      when indicating significant changes in style or mood.  Shown
	      above the staff in large roman type.
	    </para></listitem></varlistentry>

	<varlistentry><term>Local Direction</term><listitem><para>
	      Used to indicate less significant changes in style or mood.
	      Shown below the staff in a smaller bold-italic roman
	      type. </para></listitem></varlistentry>

	<varlistentry><term>Tempo</term><listitem><para> Used to
	      indicate significant changes in tempo.  Shown above the
	      staff in large bold roman type.
	    </para></listitem></varlistentry>

	<varlistentry><term>Local Tempo</term><listitem><para> Used
	      to indicate more minor or local changes in tempo.  Shown
	      above the staff in a small bold roman type.
        </para></listitem></varlistentry>

	<varlistentry><term>Chord</term><listitem><para> Used
	      to indicate chord changes for guitarists, etc.  Shown
	      above the staff in a small bold roman type.
	    </para></listitem></varlistentry>

	<varlistentry><term>Lyric</term><listitem><para> Although
	      lyrics are usually created in the <link
		linkend="nv-text-lyrics">lyric editor</link>, they can also
	      be entered word by word if necessary using this style.  This
	      style is shown below the text in a small roman typet.
	      (Warning: if you enter lyrics this way and later
	      edit the staff's lyrics using the lyric editor, any lyrics
	      entered this way may be modified or moved if their
	      positioning is not compatible with that expected by the
	      lyric editor.)  </para></listitem></varlistentry>

	<varlistentry><term>Annotation</term><listitem><para> Used
	      for helpful text that is not strictly considered part of the
	      score.  Shown below the staff, boxed-out in a yellow
	      sticky-label-style box.  These may not be visible
	      initially, and can be turned on via
	      <guimenu>Settings</guimenu>
	      <guimenuitem>Show Annotations</guimenuitem>
	    </para></listitem></varlistentry>

	<varlistentry><term>LilyPond Directive</term><listitem><para> Used
	      as the mechanism for exporting special tags that are
	      only understood by the LilyPond exporter.  These
	      provide a means to extend &rosegarden;'s capabilities
	      beyond what it can do within its own native interface.
	      Shown above the staff, in a green box.  These may not be visible
	      initially, and can be turned on via
	      <guimenu>Settings</guimenu>
	      <guimenuitem>Show LilyPond Directives</guimenuitem>
	    </para></listitem></varlistentry>
	</variablelist>

      <para>For many of the styles, a new combo box will appear that allows
	  you to select from a variety of commonly-used texts appropriate for
	  that style, such as "Allegro" and "ritardando."  Selecting one of
	  these texts saves typing, but in no way impedes your ability to type
	  your own text by hand, should you so desire.
      </para>

      <para>You can also edit text after creating it, by clicking on
	the existing text with the text tool.</para>
      
      <sect2 id="nv-text-lyrics">
	<title>Editing lyrics</title>
	
	<para>The Lyric editor, available from the 
	  <menuchoice>
	    <guimenu lang="en">View</guimenu>
            <guimenuitem>Open Lyric Editor</guimenuitem>
          </menuchoice>
	  function, allows you to edit all of
	  the lyric events for a single staff at once, using a fairly
	  rudimentary textual editing system.  To use it, just
	  activate the menu option, edit the lyric text in the
	  resulting dialog, and then hit OK.</para>

	<para>The lyrics you enter should follow a particular
	  format.  Bar lines are vital to avoid the editor getting
	  confused, and are represented with a slash ("/").  Within
	  each bar the individual syllables are separated by spaces
	  (at least one space: the editor doesn't care about any extra
	  whitespace). Each syllable in turn will be attached to the
	  next subsequent note or chord within that bar (although at
	  the moment the editor can get quite confused by chords that
	  are not exact, i.e. that require smoothing or
	  quantizing).</para>

	<para>If you want a note to have no syllable attached to it,
	  you need to provide a dot (".") as the syllable for that
	  note.  (This is why the default lyric text for a segment is
	  usually full of dots.)  Remember to separate the dots with
	  spaces, so that they are clearly separate syllables.</para>
	
	<para>If you want more than one syllable on the same note,
	  with a space between them, use a tilde ("~") instead of the
	  space.  It will be shown as a space on the score.</para>

	<para>If you want to split a syllable across two notes, with
	  a hyphen, you need to enter a space following the hyphen so
	  the editor knows to treat it as two syllables.  (Hyphens get
	  no special treatment within syllables.)</para>

	<para>Syllables consisting only of numbers surrounded by
	  square brackets (like "[29]") will be ignored; this is the
	  format used for the automatically-generated bar numbers
	  shown in the editor.</para>

	<para>You should also be aware that the textual format of
	  lyrics is only used for editing:  the lyrics are actually
	  stored as distinct text events (one per syllable).  This
	  means that the text format may potentially change in the
	  future to accommodate more advanced editing capabilities,
	  although the event format should not change and so your
	  saved files should continue to be compatible.</para>

	<para>&rosegarden; supports also multiple lines of lyrics.
	  You may always attach one more verse into a single staff
	  by clicking Add Verse in the lyrics editor.  All the verses
	  are entered with the same syntax.  If you leave the last verse
	  without syllables, or make it empty, it is removed from
	  the list of verses next time you open the lyrics editor.
	  </para>

      </sect2>
      <sect2 id="nv-lilypond-directives">
	  <!-- text has a link here because the reading chain is:
	  intro -> lilypond directives, which puts you at a point well away
	  from any explanation of the whole text dialog and whatnot -->
	  <title>Using special LilyPond directives</title>
	  <para>LilyPond directives are a special kind of <link
		  linkend="nv-text">text</link> that you can
	      use to export .ly files that take advantage of
	      functionality not yet available directly through &rosegarden;'s
	      own native interface.
	  </para>
	  <para>Some of these are a bit fiddly with respect to how their
	      placement in time affects their function.  It is not always
	      immediately apparent at a glance just where they are, or what notes
	      or barlines they will affect, so I have made placement suggestions
	      to help ease the process of getting them in the right spot.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	  	These directives are:
	  </para>

	  <variablelist>
	      <varlistentry>
		  <term>Segno</term><listitem><para>used to export a 
		    <inlinemediaobject>
			<imageobject>
			    <imagedata fileref="rg-segno.png" format="PNG"/>
			</imageobject>
		    </inlinemediaobject>
		   </para></listitem>
	      </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		  <term>Coda</term><listitem><para>used to export a 
		    <inlinemediaobject>
			<imageobject>
			    <imagedata fileref="rg-coda.png" format="PNG"/>
			</imageobject>
		    </inlinemediaobject>
		   </para></listitem>
	       </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		  <term>Alt1</term><listitem><para>Placed anywhere in a
			  measure, designates that the measure(s)
			  that follow this one should be exported as the
			  first alternate ending (see file 
			  lilypond-alternative-endings.rg for example)
		   </para></listitem>
	      </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		  <term>Alt2</term><listitem><para>Placed anywhere in a
			  measure, designates that the measure(s)
			  that follow this one should be exported as the
			  second alternate ending (see file 
			  lilypond-alterantive-endings.rg for example)
		   </para></listitem>
	       </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		  <term>|| -></term><listitem><para>Placed anywhere in a
			  measure, designates that the next calculated barline will be
			  rendered as a double barline (see file
			  lilypond-directives.rg for example)
		   </para></listitem>
	       </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		  <term>|. -></term><listitem><para>Placed anywhere in a
			  measure, designates that the next calculated barline will be
			  rendered as a terminating barline (see file
			  lilypond-directives.rg for example)
		   </para></listitem>
	      </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		  <term>: -></term><listitem><para>Placed anywhere in a
			  measure, designates that the next calculated barline will be
			  rendered as a dashed barline (see file
			  lilypond-directives.rg for example)
		   </para></listitem>
	       </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		  <term>Gliss.</term><listitem><para>Placed by clicking
			  directly on a notehead, draws a glissando between
			  the target note and the note immediately following (see file
			  lilypond-directives.rg for example)
		   </para></listitem>
	       </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		  <term>Arp.</term><listitem><para>Placed by clicking
			  directly on a chord, draws a wavy line arpeggio
			  symbol immediately to the left of the affected chord (see file
			  lilypond-directives.rg for example)
		   </para></listitem>
	       </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		  <term>Tiny ->.</term><listitem><para>Placed anywhere,
			  designates that notation immediately following this
			  directive should be rendered at the "tiny" size (see file
			  lilypond-directives.rg for example)
		   </para></listitem>
	       </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		  <term>Small ->.</term><listitem><para>Placed anywhere,
			  designates that notation immediately following this
			  directive should be rendered at the "small" size (see file
			  lilypond-directives.rg for example)
		   </para></listitem>
	       </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		  <term>Norm. ->.</term><listitem><para>Placed anywhere,
			  designates that notation immediately following this
			  directive should be rendered at the normal size;
			  usually used to cancel a Tiny -> or Small ->. (see file
			  lilypond-directives.rg for example)
		   </para></listitem>
	       </varlistentry>
	   </variablelist>
      </sect2>
    </sect1>

    <!-- Indications -->

    <sect1 id="nv-guitarchords">
      <title>Guitar Chords</title>

      <para>
      	Like text, it is possible to add guitar chord diagrams to a
      	notation track (or to edit previously added ones). This is
      	done by toggling the
      	<guimenuitem>Guitar Chord</guimenuitem>
      	button, and then clicking on the same area as for adding text.
      	This will open the Guitar Chord dialog. With it you can select
      	which guitar chord diagram you want to add from a chord
      	dictionary which comprises most of the common chord fingerings
      	by specifying a chord's root and its extension. For
      	convenience, the fingerings are sorted in three different
      	categories :
      	<guimenuitem>beginner</guimenuitem>
      	,
      	<guimenuitem>common</guimenuitem>
      	and
      	<guimenuitem>all</guimenuitem>
      	. These categories are actually based on the chord extension
      	(A7 is a beginner chord, while A13 isn't), not on the
      	fingering itself, so you can still see "advanced" chord
      	fingerings listed, even in beginner mode.
      </para>


      <para>
      	<screenshot>
      		<mediaobject>
      			<imageobject>
      				<imagedata fileref="rg-guitarchorddialog.png"
      					format="PNG" />
      			</imageobject>
      			<textobject>
      				<phrase>&rosegarden;'s chord selector dialog
      				</phrase>
      			</textobject>
      		</mediaobject>
      	</screenshot>
      </para>

      <para>
      	It is also possible to add your own fingerings if needed. To
      	do this, click on the 'New' button. This will pop up a chord
      	editor, where you can "draw" which fingering you want to add,
      	and specify its root, chord extension, and starting fret
      	number.
      	<screenshot>
      		<mediaobject>
      			<imageobject>
      				<imagedata
      					fileref="rg-guitarchordeditordialog.png" format="PNG" />
      			</imageobject>
      			<textobject>
      				<phrase>&rosegarden;'s chord editor dialog
      				</phrase>
      			</textobject>
      		</mediaobject>
      	</screenshot>

      	Note that while you can choose the extension from a list of
      	predefined values, you can also type whatever value you want.
      	However, in that case, the new fingering will only be
      	available in the 'all' list. Also, you can only delete and
      	edit your own chords. Those from the predefined dictionary
      	cannot be changed. If you spot a mistake in one of them,
      	please report it to the development team.
      </para>

    </sect1>

    <!-- Indications -->

    <sect1 id="nv-indication">
      <title>Slurs and hairpins</title>

      <para>Slur and hairpin (crescendo/decrescendo) dynamic markings are stored as events,
	just like notes or rests.  To create one, select the area you
	want it to cover (a series of notes or whatever), and then use
	the <guimenuitem>Add Slur</guimenuitem>, 
	<guimenuitem>Add Crescendo</guimenuitem> or 
	<guimenuitem>Add Decrescendo</guimenuitem> options from
	the <guimenu>Phrase</guimenu> menu.</para>

     <para>Placement of hairpins can be somewhat tricky, and this is
	 especially so with haripins that run in line with dynamic markings.
	 It is commonly the case that a hairpin that doesn't quite look right
	 in &rosegarden;'s own notation editor will nevertheless come out just
	 fine once exported to LilyPond.  &rosegarden;'s slurs generally come
	 out best when all the stems are running in the same direction, and
	 occasionally need to be <link
	     linkend="nv-microposition">repositioned</link> by hand to achieve
	 better placement.  Slurs also tend to fare slightly better once
	 exported to LilyPond.
     </para>

      <para>You remove a slur or hairpin in the same way as any
	other event: either select it with the selection tool and then
	hit <keycap>Delete</keycap>, or click on it with the erase tool active.</para>

    </sect1>

    <!-- Stem direction, slashes etc -->

    <sect1 id="nv-note-qualities">
      <title>Note stems and slashes</title>

      <para>You can set the stem direction of any selected notes
	(provided they are a sort that have stems) using the three
	Stem Direction options on the Notes menu.  The options allow
	you to either fix the stems up or down, or revert to the stem
	direction that &rosegarden; would otherwise have chosen.  See
	also <link linkend="nv-beamed-groups">Beams</link>.</para>

      <para>The <guimenu>Note</guimenu> menu also contains options for adding slashes
	across note stems, for example to indicate short repeated
	notes or drum rolls.  These are currently purely notational;
	&rosegarden; will not take them into account when playing the
	staff or generating &MIDI;.</para>
    </sect1>
    
    <!-- Beamed groups, including overlapping and nesting them -->

    <sect1 id="nv-beamed-groups">
      <title>Beams</title>
      
      <para>Adding beams to notes is considered a grouping operation
	in the &rosegarden; Notation editor, available on the <guimenu>Phrase</guimenu>
	menu.  Select the notes you want to beam, and use the
	<guimenuitem>Beam Group</guimenuitem> menu option.  To remove a beam, select the notes and use
	the <guimenuitem>Unbeam</guimenuitem> menu option.</para>

      <para>It is possible to have more than one beamed group
	happening at the same time &mdash; you just select and beam the
	separate groups one at a time &mdash; but Rosegarden is usually not
	yet clever enough to work out which notes should have stems up
	and which should have stems down for simultaneous beamed
	groups, so you will probably have to set the stem directions
	of the notes in the groups explicitly as well as beaming them.</para>

      <para>&rosegarden; can attempt to guess a sensible beaming for a
	piece of music, provided it's not too complicated.  To invoke
	this, select the notes you want to calculate the beaming for
	(for example by triple-clicking to select a whole staff) and
	then use the <guimenuitem>Auto-Beam</guimenuitem> option on the 
	<guimenu>Phrase</guimenu> menu.  Auto-beaming
	is also done automatically when loading a &MIDI; file, for
	example, and the editor also does some automatic beaming as
	you enter notes (this can be disabled by changing the
	"Auto-Beam when appropriate" setting on the configuration
	dialog or the insertion tool's right-button menu).</para>

    </sect1>

    <!-- Tuplets -->

    <sect1 id="nv-tuplets">
      <title>Triplets and other tuplets</title>

      <para>A triplet group consists of three notes or chords played
	in the time of two.  (More precisely, it consists of notes
	with a total duration of three arbitrary units played in the
	time of two of those units.)</para>

      <para>We use the word <quote>tuplet</quote> to describe the general
	situation in which notes with a total duration of any given
	number of units are played in the time of a different number
	of those units: nine notes in the time of eight, or six in the
	time of four, or a crotchet and a quaver in the time of a
	single crotchet, or even two notes in the time of three.  (At
	present &rosegarden; does not support the last example &mdash; tuplet
	groups must always be played with a shorter duration than
	written.)</para>

      <para>The triplet and tuplet menu functions work by taking an
	existing series of notes or rests and squashing them so they
	play quicker, filling in the left-over space at the end of the
	series with a final rest and drawing the whole as a tuplet
	group.  You can therefore create a new series of triplets by
	entering the first two notes of the series (in their normal
	form), making them into triplets, and then filling in the rest
	left over by the triplet operation with the final note of the
	triplet.  Or you can apply the triplet operation before you
	enter any notes, thus turning the original rest itself into
	triplet form, and then insert the notes of the triplet on top
	of it.  Some examples may help:</para>

      <!-- Need examples and screenshots -->
      
      <!-- Then discuss general tuplet dialog... -->

      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-tupletdialog.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s general tuplet dialog</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>

      <para>To specify a general tuplet group, we need to know what
	the base note is (for example, if we play three crotchets in
	the time of two then the base is a crotchet) and the ratio of
	the number of base notes written to the number played.</para>

      <!-- Then discuss "tuplet mode": with a subtitle? -->

    </sect1>

    <!-- Grace notes -->

    <!-- Paste -->

    <sect1 id="nv-paste-types">
      <title>Paste types</title>

      <para>
	The meaning of <quote>cut and paste</quote> is less obvious for a music
	editing program than it is for something like a word
	processor in which the letters and words go in a simple
	linear order.  Accordingly, &rosegarden;'s Notation editor
	offers several different types of Paste operation, as well
	as separate Cut and Cut and
	  Close functions.
      </para>

      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-pastedialog.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s paste-type dialog</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>

	The types of Paste operation are:</para>

      <variablelist>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Restricted</term>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>Requires an existing gap (containing nothing but
	      rests) of enough duration to completely contain the
	      clipboard's contents.  The contents are pasted into
	      the gap.  If there is no gap long enough, the paste
	      is not carried out.
	    </para>
	    <para>
	      This is the default paste type.
	    </para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Simple</term>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>Erases enough events to make a gap long enough to
	      paste into, and then pastes into that.  The pasted 
	      events therefore completely replace any existing ones 
	      in the time covered by the paste.
	    </para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Open and Paste</term>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>The opposite of Cut and
		Close. <!-- !!! define that --> Makes room for the paste by moving all of the
	      subsequent events further towards the end of the
	      composition.
	    </para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Note Overlay</term>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>Carries out a paste in the way that it would
	      happen if you entered each of the notes in the clipboard
	      yourself using the notation editor: if there are other
	      notes overlapping with them, the new or existing notes
	      will be split into ties appropriately.
	    </para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Matrix Overlay</term>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>Carries out a paste in the way that it would
	      happen if you entered each of the notes in the clipboard
	      yourself using the matrix editor: the notes presently
	      in the way of the paste will be ignored, allowing the new 
	      notes to overlap arbitrarily with them.
	    </para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

      </variablelist>

      <para>All of these take effect at the current position of the 
	insert cursor on the current staff.  To choose between the various 
	paste types, use the Paste...
	menu option (with dots) on the Edit menu.
      </para>

    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="nv-adjustments">
      <title>Adjusting Notation</title>


      <sect2 id="nv-adjustments-note-rest-durations">
	<title>Adjusting note and rest durations</title>
	
	<sect3 id="nv-normalize-rests">
	  <title>Normalizing rests</title>

	  <para>Sometimes as a result of editing or quantization
	  operations, a piece of notation can end up with incorrect
	  rest durations for the current time signature.  You can use
	  the <menuchoice><guimenu>Adjust</guimenu><guimenuitem>Rests</guimenuitem><guimenuitem>Normalize Rests</guimenuitem></menuchoice> function to
	  fix these.  This examines each sequence of
	  consecutive rests found in the selection, and adjusts,
	  splits and merges rests as necessary to ensure that the
	  rests have theoretically correct durations and fall on the
	  correct boundaries.
	  </para>
	  
	  <para>For example, a 4/4 bar containing a crotchet
	    (quarter-note), then a minim (half-note) rest and a
	    crotchet rest will be rearranged to place the crotchet
	    rest first, as the minim rest should not cross the
	    central beat boundary of the bar.
	  </para>
	</sect3>

	<sect3 id="nv-make-viable">
	  <title>Splitting very long notes</title> <para>The
	  <menuchoice> <guimenu>Adjust</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Notes</guimenuitem> <guimenuitem>Tie Notes at
	  Barlines</guimenuitem> </menuchoice> is intended to deal
	  with notes that have excessively long durations, and
	  therefore overflow barlines or are too long to be
	  displayed as a single note.  It takes any such notes and
	  splits them into shorter, tied notes.
	  </para>
	</sect3>

	<sect3 id="nv-de-counterpoint">
	  <title>Splitting overlapping notes</title>
	  <para>The 
<menuchoice> <guimenu>Adjust</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Notes</guimenuitem> <guimenuitem>Split-and-Tie Overlapping Chords</guimenuitem> </menuchoice> function can be used to turn "counterpoint" notes into a series of split-and-tied notes and chords.</para>

	  <para>It can be applied to a selection that contains
	  overlapping notes.  It will split overlapping notes at the
	  point where they overlap, and tie together the resulting
	  split notes, ensuring that the music takes the form of a
	  series of chords and/or single notes starting and ending in
	  neat blocks, with some notes possibly tied.
	  </para>
	</sect3>

	<sect3 id="nv-rescale">
	  <title>Rescaling note durations</title>
	  <para>The 
	  <menuchoice> <guimenu>Adjust</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Rescale</guimenuitem> <guimenuitem>Halve
	  Durations</guimenuitem> </menuchoice> and
	  <menuchoice> <guimenu>Adjust</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Rescale</guimenuitem> <guimenuitem>Double
	  Durations</guimenuitem> </menuchoice> functions can be
	  used to perform the most simple rescaling functions.
	  </para>

	  <para>For more elaborate rescalings, use the
	  <menuchoice> <guimenu>Adjust</guimenu>
	  <guimenuitem>Rescale</guimenuitem> <guimenuitem>Stretch
	  or Squash...</guimenuitem> </menuchoice> function with
	  which you scale the total lenth of the selection.
	  </para>
	</sect3>

<!-- need a proper section for this and diatonic transpose
	    <varlistentry id="nv-transpose">
	    <title>Transpose</title>
		<para><action>Alters the pitch of the selected
		    notes.</action> This submenu contains basic
		  transposition functions which move the selected notes
		  up or down a semitone or a whole octave in pitch, as
		  well as a general transpose function that allows you
		  to choose how far up or down you want to transpose the
		  selection.
		</para>

		<para>These functions simply change the stored pitches
		of the notes in the selection, so that they both play
		and appear at the new pitches.  They do not deal with
		performance transposition (displaying one pitch and
		playing another), for which see the main window's
		segment parameter box; nor do they help you with
		transposing from one key into another, for which see
		<link linkend="nv-signatures-key">Key
		Signatures</link>.
		</para>
	    </varlistentry>
-->
      </sect2>

      <sect2>
	  <title id="nv-microposition">Repositioning notation elements</title>
	  <para>
	      You may occasionally wish to to nudge the positioning of some
	      element of notation that Rosegarden's layout algorithm has not
	      placed in an optimal location.  Use Ctrl-click and drag to move slurs, hairpins,
	      text events, and several other sorts of events.  You may not reposition notes in
	      this fashion.
	  </para>
      </sect2>



    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="nv-interpret">
      <title>Interpreting Performance Cues in Notation</title>
      <!-- !!! -->
      <para>
	  You can use the Interpret function<menuchoice>
	      <guimenu>Adjust</guimenu><guimenuitem>Interpret...</guimenuitem>
	  </menuchoice>
	  to modify the velocities and timings of notes according to any
	  written or indicated dynamics found. The selection of
	  interpretations available is as follows:
	
	<variablelist>
	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>Apply text dynamics (p, mf, ff etc)
	    </term>
	    <listitem><para> Sets a velocity to each note
		based on the last piece of text of "Dynamic"
		type seen on the same staff (only texts of the
		form pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff, fff, etc., are matched; these are
		the texts that are available by default when entering text events
		of this style).
	      </para></listitem>
	  </varlistentry>
	  
	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>Apply hairpin dynamics
	    </term>
	    <listitem><para> Makes the notes gradually
		increase or decrease in velocity during a
		crescendo or decrescendo hairpin.
	      </para></listitem>
	  </varlistentry>
	  
	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>
	      Stress beats
	    </term>
	    <listitem><para> Makes notes that land on bar or
		beat boundaries slightly louder (greater
		velocity) than the surrounding notes.
	      </para></listitem>
	  </varlistentry>
	  
	  <varlistentry>
	    <term>
	      Articulate slurs, staccato, tenuto etc
	    </term>
	    <listitem><para> Shortens unslurred notes,
		shortens staccato notes more, and gives notes
		inside slurs and tenuto notes their full length.
	      </para></listitem>
	  </varlistentry>
	</variablelist>
	
      </para>
      
    </sect1>

    <!-- Quantization, smoothing, and display of quantized notes -->

    <sect1 id="nv-quantization">
      <title>Notation from performance data</title>

      <para>
	&rosegarden; is a multi-purpose program: it is a notation
	editor, but it is primarily a sequencer and editor for
	performed music.  And in performance, of course, the times
	and durations of notes are rarely as precise as they are on
	a printed score.
      </para>

      <para>
	This means that it's often desirable for &rosegarden; to do
	a lot of tidying of the basic note times and durations when
	attempting to make meaningful notes to show in the notation
	editor.  This is a kind of quantization, but a kind that
	requires a surprising amount of guesswork to do well.
	&rosegarden; includes a quantizer designed to do a slightly
	better job of this than the plain grid quantizer.
      </para>

      <para>Applying
	quantization strictly for notation is rather unimaginatively
	referred to as <quote>notation quantization</quote>: it only
	applies to the notes you see and edit in notation, and
	doesn't affect the notes that play, or that you edit in
	other views such as the matrix.  This quantization is
	automatically applied to music imported or recorded from
	MIDI, although not all of its possible capabilities are
	enabled by default.
      </para>

      <para>
	There are two ways to see which notes have been quantized
	for notation.  By default, each notation view contains a <link
	    linkend="nv-raw-note-ruler">raw
	    note ruler</link> (in the group of rulers above the score) showing
	a rectangular block for each note.  This block is positioned
	so as to represent the time and duration of the note as
	performed, but with the top and bottom edges of the
	rectangle extended or shortened to represent the time after
	notation quantization.  If this is too much information for
	you, you can alternatively choose (in the configuration
	dialog) to show in a green colour all note heads in the
	score that have had their timings altered by notation
	quantization.
      </para>

      <para>

	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-notationquantizer.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s notation quantize dialog</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
	</para><para>
	If the quantization &rosegarden; has used is not suitable,
	either for the entire score or for a selection of notes, you
	can choose to use a different level of quantization or none
	at all.  To apply a different quantization to some notes,
	select the notes and use the Quantize...
	menu function (tick the box labelled <quote>Quantize for
	  notation only</quote>).  The quantization level or type used
	by default can be changed in the configuration dialog.
      </para>

      <sect2 id="nv-quantization-parameters">
	<title>Configurable parameters for the heuristic notation quantizer</title>

	<sect3 id="nv-quantization-parameters-during">
	  <title>Parameters for quantization itself</title>
	  
	  <variablelist>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>Complexity</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>The "complexity" of a notation quantizer is its
		  most fundamental parameter.  A "complex" quantizer
		  will be more prepared to accept that complex-looking
		  music is in fact intended to be complex, whereas a
		  "simple" quantizer is more likely to assume that
		  complex-looking music results from an imprecise
		  performance of simple music.
		</para>
		<para>The default setting is intended to produce
		  reasonable results for a fairly wide range of music.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>Base grid unit</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>The base grid unit (set to a note duration
		  value) specifies the absolute minimum unit of note
		  that will be permitted to remain in the score after
		  quantization.  For example, if set to a semiquaver,
		  all notes will be placed on boundaries of a multiple
		  of a semiquaver, with durations also a multiple of a
		  semiquaver.
		</para>
		<para>The setting of the base grid unit is not quite
		  as significant for a notation quantizer as it is for a
		  plain grid quantizer, because all it does is impose an
		  absolute limit on the level of precision permitted by
		  the complexity parameter.  Mostly, when you find a
		  case in which increasing the grid unit produces better
		  results, you've actually found a case in which the
		  quantizer simply didn't do as good a job as it should
		  have been able to with the smaller unit.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>Tuplet level</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>The notation quantizer is capable of identifying
		  tuplets (triplets and other time-squashed groups),
		  within reasonable limits.  This parameter controls how
		  ambitious it will attempt to be when looking for
		  tuplets, by setting a limit on how many notes per
		  tuplet group it will attempt to identify.  If it is
		  set to <quote>None</quote>, the quantizer will not
		  attempt to identify tuplets at all.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	  </variablelist>

	</sect3>

	<sect3 id="nv-quantization-parameters-after">
	  <title>Parameters that control tidying up after quantization</title>

	  <variablelist>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>Re-beam</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>
		  Causes the notes to be re-beamed into groups
		  appropriately after quantization.  This is usually
		  desirable.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>Add articulations (staccato, tenuto,
		slurs)</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>
		  Causes the quantizer to attempt to identify, based
		  on the durations of individual and consecutive
		  notes, which notes should be notated with staccato
		  marks (for notes that fall significantly short of
		  the following note, but not apparently short
		  enough to merit a rest), tenuto (for notes that
		  almost or just overlap the following note) and
		  slurs (for series of notes that meet or overlap).
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>Tie notes at barlines etc</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Causes any notes that are still found after
		  quantization to overlap barlines or to have
		  durations not exactly expressible with single note
		  heads to be split into multiple notes appropriately,
		  and tied.  This has the same effect as applying the
		  <!-- !!! link --> "Tie Notes at Barlines" function
		  in the notation view.
		</para>
		<para>
		  This parameter is not set by default because it
		  changes the number of note events, which is
		  undesirable when using &rosegarden; partly or
		  principally as a MIDI sequencer.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>Split-and-tie overlapping chords</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>
		  Causes overlapping notes to be split and tied, so
		  as to make strict chords with individual noteheads
		  tied as necessary.  This has the same effect as
		  applying the <!-- !!! link --> "Split-and-Tie
		  Overlapping Chords" function in the notation view.
		</para>
		<para>
		  This parameter is not set by default partly because
		  it changes the number of note events, which is
		  undesirable when using &rosegarden; partly or
		  principally as a MIDI sequencer.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>
	  </variablelist>
	</sect3>
      </sect2>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="nv-ornaments">

      <title>Playing ornaments</title>

      <para>Rosegarden supports playback of ornaments using its <link
      linkend="triggered-segments">triggered segments</link>
      mechanism.  You can create triggered segments containing any of
      the various types of trill or ornament you might want, and
      associate them with the notes that want to play them.</para>
 
      <para>To create a new type of ornament, first write out the
      notes "in longhand" that you want the ornament to play, and then
      select the notes and use <menuchoice>
      <guimenu>Note</guimenu><guimenuitem>Ornaments</guimenuitem><guimenuitem>Make
      Ornament...</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.  This cuts the notes to
      the clipboard, pastes them into a new triggered segment, and
      replaces them with a single note of the same duration that
      triggers this segment.</para>
 
      <para>To make a note play an existing ornament, select it and
      use <menuchoice>
      <guimenu>Note</guimenu><guimenuitem>Ornaments</guimenuitem><guimenuitem>Trigger
      Ornament...</guimenuitem></menuchoice>.</para>

      <para>
	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-useornament.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s Trigger Ornament dialog</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>

      <para>To edit the notes played in a triggered ornament, you can
      double-click on the note that triggers it.  This will
      change all uses of that ornament, not just the one that you
      double-clicked on.</para>

      <para>Note that while Rosegarden can shift triggered segments up
      and down in pitch to match their triggering notes, it is not
      clever enough to perform transposition into a different
      key or scale position.</para>

      <para>See <link linkend="triggered-segments">triggered
      segments</link> for more details about ornaments and other uses
      of triggered segments.</para>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="nv-note-styles">
      <title>Note styles</title>

      <para>
	&rosegarden; also allows you to change various aspects of the
	way the various types of notes are drawn, such as the choice
	of note heads, the number of tails, whether notes are filled
	or unfilled and so on.
      </para>

      <para>
	A set of standard styles (Classical, Cross, Triangle and
	Mensural) is provided, and you can change the style used for
	individual notes by selecting them and then using the Note
	Style menu options.  Each note remembers which
	style has been chosen for it, and this information is saved
	as part of the composition.  You can also change the default
	style for new notes using the 
	<guimenuitem>Configure Rosegarden...</guimenuitem> option in the 
	<guimenu>Settings</guimenu> menu.
      </para>

      <para>
	It is also possible to create your own note styles by
	describing them in <acronym>XML</acronym> files.  (Even the
	standard styles are defined this way: the only reason the
	editor knows that a Classical semiquaver has a tilted oval
	filled head, a stem, two flags, etc., is that the description
	in Classical.xml says so.)  See <link
	linkend="developers-note-styles">Customising Rosegarden</link>
	for more information.
      </para>
    </sect1>

    <sect1 id="nv-note-fonts">
      <title>Note fonts</title>
      <para>
	&rosegarden; is supplied with a single scalable notation
	font, the Feta font developed by the LilyPond project.  Feta
	is an extremely high quality font that should be suitable
	for nearly all classical work.
      </para>

      <para>&rosegarden; also includes support as standard for a
	number of other notation fonts.  You will need to provide the
	fonts themselves in TrueType (.ttf) or PostScript Type-1
	(.pfb, .pfa) format, and you will need the relevant
	permissions to install them to the same place as &rosegarden;
	was installed.  To install a supported notation font, locate
	the share directory for the &rosegarden; installation (usually
	a subdirectory of the KDE desktop installation tree, such as
	/opt/kde/share/apps/rosegarden).  You will find that this
	directory has a subdirectory called "fonts": copy the font
	files into there, and restart &rosegarden;.  If your font is
	supported, it should now appear on the font menu in the
	notation editor.</para>

      <para>Complete or partial support is currently provided for
	the following fonts: Fughetta, by Blake Hodgetts; Petrucci,
	the "original" Finale font; Maestro, the "new" Finale font;
	Opus, the Sibelius font; Inkpen, the Sibelius jazz font;
	Sonata from Adobe; Steinberg, from the Cubase sequencer; and
	Xinfonia.  (Most of the above font names are registered
	trademarks of the respective companies.)  THE ROSEGARDEN TEAM
	MAKES NO REPRESENTATION AS TO THE LEGAL STATUS OF ANY USE OF
	THESE FONTS WITH ROSEGARDEN.  It is your responsibility to
	ensure you are in compliance with the licence (if any) under
	which a font was provided to you, before attempting to use it.
	If you are not sure whether you have the right to use a font,
	don't: apart from anything else, the standard Feta font is
	better than most of these anyway.</para>

      <para>It is also possible to provide new mapping files so as
	to use new fonts.  For some fonts that have similar mappings
	or metrics to fonts in the above list, this may be as simple
	as editing the name of the font in the mapping file.  See
	<link linkend="developers-note-fonts">Customising Rosegarden</link>
	for more information.

      </para>
  </sect1>
  </chapter>

  <chapter id="event-view">
    <title>The Event List editor</title>
    <sect1 id="ev-introduction">
      <title>Introduction</title>

      <para>

	The &rosegarden; Event List editor shows the events in a
	single segment in a raw form, and enables you to edit the
	precise properties of those events individually.

	<screenshot>
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="rg-eventlisteditor.png" format="PNG"/>
      </imageobject>
	<textobject>
	  <phrase>&rosegarden;'s event list editor</phrase>
	</textobject>
      </mediaobject>
      </screenshot>
      </para>
    </sect1>
  </chapter>




  <!--
  **********************************
  
  PART III:
  Technical material

  **********************************
  -->

  <chapter id="developers">
    <title>Customising Rosegarden</title>

    <sect1 id="developers-note-fonts">
      <title>Configuring custom notation fonts</title>

      <para>If you have a notation font installed on your system in a
	scalable format (TrueType or Type-1) but it is not currently
	supported by Rosegarden, you can create your own mapping XML
	file to describe the font's character map and metrics in a way
	Rosegarden can use.  These files are installed in the
	fonts/mappings subdirectory of the Rosegarden installation
	directory, and a number of samples are included with the
	distribution.</para>

      <para>You can also use these mapping files to define new
	pixmap-based fonts, in which every shape in a particular size is
	loaded from a separate pixmap file.  The two standard notation
	fonts supplied with Rosegarden are pixmap fonts defined in
	exactly this way.
      </para>

      <para>It is even possible to define a notation font as using one
	or more scalable system fonts, augmented with pixmaps for
	particular sizes or for characters not found in the scalable
	fonts.  This is because most of the mapping file format is the
	same for scalable and pixmap fonts, and where there are
	different elements for the different sorts of fonts, it is
	usually possible to include both of them.  Rosegarden will
	usually use pixmaps where available and scalable fonts
	otherwise.
      </para>

      <para>You may also wish to edit the mapping files supplied with
	Rosegarden if you find their measurements for alignment or
	sizing are not to your liking.  (If you believe that any of the
	supplied files are actually wrong, please let us know.)
      </para>

      <sect2 id="developers-note-fonts-codes-glyphs">
        <title>Codes and Glyphs</title>

        <para></para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2 id="developers-note-fonts-mapping-format">
	<title>Notation font mapping XML format</title>

	<para>Here is a summary of the XML elements that may be used
	  in the font mapping file.</para>

	<sect3 id="developers-note-fonts-mapping-format-font-encoding">
	  <title>rosegarden-font-encoding</title>

	  <para>This element must exist in every mapping file, and
	    should contain all the other elements.  The only attribute
	    is "name", which contains the font's name as shown in the
	    font selection dropdown.  Although the file format will
	    permit any name to be used here, Rosegarden will only pick
	    up the font corectly if the XML file has the same name as
	    the contents of this attribute (except that the XML file
	    should be named in lower-case and should end in ".xml").
	  </para>
	</sect3>

	<sect3 id="developers-note-fonts-mapping-format-font-information">
	  <title>font-information</title>

	  <para>This should normally be the first child element of
	    "rosegarden-font-encoding".  It may have any of the
	    following attributes, all of which are optional:

	    <variablelist>
	      <varlistentry>
		<term>origin</term>
		<listitem>
		  <para>A textual description of the likely origin of
		    the mapped font (not the origin of the mapping
		    file).</para>
		</listitem>
	      </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		<term>copyright</term>
		<listitem>
		  <para>A textual description of the likely copyright
		    status of the mapped font (not the copyright status
		    of the mapping file).  Note that because the mapping
		    file contains information such as origin and
		    copyright of the font itself, it is usually
		    advisable to make separate mapping files for
		    separate fonts where practical, even if the fonts
		    share other mapping data.</para>
		</listitem>
	      </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		<term>mapped-by</term>
		<listitem>
		  <para>The name of the creator of the mapping file
		    (i.e. you, presumably).</para>
		</listitem>
	      </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		<term>type</term>
		<listitem>
		  <para>The type of the font.  This attribute should
		    contain one of the values "pixmap" or "scalable".
		    Fonts that are loaded into the windowing system and
		    are available to Rosegarden as standard system fonts
		    have type "scalable"; fonts that need to be loaded
		    from pixmap files corresponding to individual sizes
		    of pixmap (such as the feta and rg21 fonts included
		    with Rosegarden) have type "pixmap".</para>

		  <para>This information is only intended for the user
		    reference; it isn't actually used by Rosegarden.  It is
		    legitimate in practice for a font to be a mixture of the
		    two, but in general we will assume in this documentation
		    that a font is either scalable or pixmap.</para>
		</listitem>
	      </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		<term>smooth</term>
		<listitem>
		  <para>A boolean attribute indicating whether the
		    font is antialiased (smooth) or not.  Should have
		    the value "true" or "false".  If the font is smooth,
		    other display elements such as beams and slurs that
		    are not generated from the font will also be
		    antialiased.</para>
		</listitem>
	      </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		<term>autocrop</term>
		<listitem>
		  <para>Only relevant for scalable (system) fonts.
		    Rosegarden usually expects the metrics for a font to
		    contain the vertically smallest bounding boxes for
		    elements such as note heads and accents, rather than
		    including empty space above or below these elements
		    for alignment purposes.  Most fonts do not do what
		    Rosegarden expects.  Therefore for these fonts you
		    should set the autocrop attribute to "true"; then
		    Rosegarden will crop any unnecessary space from the
		    top and bottom of these elements when rendering
		    them.</para>
		</listitem>
	      </varlistentry>

	    </variablelist>

	  </para>
	</sect3>

	<sect3 id="developers-note-fonts-mapping-format-font-requirements">
	  <title>font-requirements</title>
	  <para>
	    This element is only relevant for scalable fonts.  It is
	    used to specify that this font should only be offered if
	    certain system fonts are available, as well as to
	    associate IDs with those system fonts to refer to in the
	    <link
	      linkend="developers-note-fonts-mapping-format-font-symbol-map">font-symbol-map</link>
	    element.  This scheme is used to decide which notation
	    fonts should be offered to the user, and also allows you
	    to compose a Rosegarden notation font from more than one
	    system font if desired.
	  </para>
	  <para>The "font-requirements" element should contain a list
	    of "font-requirement" child elements.  Each of these has two
	    attributes: "font-id", containing a numerical ID of your
	    choice for reference elsewhere in the file, and either a
	    "name" or a "names" attribute.  If "name" is provided, it
	    will be used as the name of a single system font to be
	    associated with the font id; if "names" is provided, it will
	    be treated as a comma-separated list of system fonts and the
	    first one found will be associated with the font id.
	  </para>
	</sect3>

	<sect3 id="developers-note-fonts-mapping-format-font-sizes">
	  <title>font-sizes</title>

	  <para>The "font-sizes" element specifies which notation font
	    sizes are available, and how the nominal font size relates
	    to the dimensions of non-font elements such as stems, staff
	    lines and beams.  The "size" of a notation font is assumed
	    to be the distance in pixels between staff lines, or more
	    precisely, the height of a conventional note head that
	    completely fills the space between lines: the size therefore
	    does not include the thickness of either of the neighbouring
	    staff lines.
	  </para>

	  <para>
	    <!-- !!! TODO throughout this section: how to mark up XML element/attribute names? equiv of <code> in HTML would do -->
	    There are two possible child elements of "font-sizes":
	    "font-scale" and "font-size".  Their use depends on the
	    type of font being described.</para>

	  <para>
	    For pixmap (non-scalable) fonts, the "font-sizes" element
	    should contain a list of "font-size" elements, one for
	    each size of pixmaps available.  The pixmaps themselves
	    must be installed in the
	    fonts/&lt;font-name&gt;/&lt;font-size&gt; subdirectory of
	    the Rosegarden installation directory, where
	    &lt;font-name&gt; is the name of the font (as specified in
	    the "rosegarden-font-encoding" element at the start of the
	    mapping file), or a lower-case version of the name, and
	    &lt;font-size&gt; is the pixel size of the font.  A font
	    size will only be made available to the user if it has an
	    entry in the "font-sizes" list and the pixmap directory is
	    found.
	  </para>
	  
	  <para>
	    For scalable fonts, the "font-sizes" element should
	    contain one "font-scale" element that defines the
	    relationships between font and non-font elements in a
	    general way, and also defines the relationship between
	    Rosegarden's nominal font size and the size of the
	    corresponding system font.  If this "font-scale" element
	    is found, then Rosegarden will assume the font is
	    available in any size.  You can however still include one
	    or more "font-size" elements to define precise proportions
	    for any particular size for which the general proportions
	    do not quite work correctly, for example because of
	    rounding error.
	  </para>

	  <para>
	    The attributes of "font-scale" and "font-size" are very
	    similar.  The main difference is that all attributes of
	    "font-scale" are floating-point values relative to the
	    font size, where 1.0 is the base font size (i.e. the
	    distance between staff lines), whereas attributes of
	    "font-size" are integer pixel values.  The attributes
	    available are as follows.  (Those marked "optional" have
	    vaguely sensible defaults, so it's a good idea to try not
	    setting them first.)
	  </para>
	  
	  <variablelist>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>note-height</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>This attribute is only available for the
		  "font-size" element, and it is mandatory in that
		  element.  It defines the base size of font to which the
		  other attributes in this element apply, and a size that
		  will be offered to the user and used when looking up
		  pixmaps for this font.</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>font-height</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>May be used in either "font-size" or "font-scale".
		  This is only relevant for scalable fonts, but is
		  mandatory for them if used in the "font-scale" element.
		  This defines the size of the system font used to draw a
		  given size of notation font.</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>beam-thickness</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Optional.  Defines the thickness of a beam.</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>staff-line-thickness</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Optional.  Defines the thickness of a staff line.</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>stem-thickness</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Optional.  Defines the thickness of a note stem.</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>flag-spacing</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Optional.  Defines the gap between note flags in
		  cases where multiple flags are drawn by drawing a single
		  flag several times.</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>border-x</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Optional.  Specifies that the note head pixmaps
		  have a fixed area to left and right that should not be
		  considered part of the note head.  This attribute gives
		  the thickness of that area.</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>border-y</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Optional.  Specifies that the note head pixmaps
		  have a fixed area to top and bottom that should not be
		  considered part of the note head.  This attribute gives
		  the thickness of that area.</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	  </variablelist>
	</sect3>

	<sect3 id="developers-note-fonts-mapping-format-font-symbol-map">
	  <title>font-symbol-map</title>
	  <para>
	    This element lists the symbols available in this notation
	    font, and which pixmap files or system font code points
	    they should be drawn from.</para>

	  <para>It should contain a list of "symbol" elements.  These
	    have several possible attributes, the choice of which will
	    normally depend on whether the font is based on pixmaps or
	    system fonts:
	  </para>

	  <variablelist>
	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>name</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Mandatory.  This attribute should contain the
		  name of the notation symbol.  If the symbol exists in
		  the <ulink
		    url="http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U1D100.pdf">Unicode
		    3.2 standard</ulink>, the name should be that used to
		  identify the symbol in the standard.</para>

		<para>Most of the symbols Rosegarden expects to find
		  are in the standard; one exception is that many fonts
		  have a special version of the flag symbol that is
		  intended to be used when composing multiple flags from
		  individual single flags.  Rosegarden refers to this as
		  "MUSICAL SYMBOL COMBINING FLAG-0", a name not used in
		  the Unicode standard (which has flags 1-5 only).</para>

		<para>For a definitive set of the symbol names
		  Rosegarden knows about, see the file
		  "gui/notecharname.cpp" in the Rosegarden source
		  distribution.  Note however that it is possible to use
		  additional symbol names by introducing them in a <link
		    linkend="developers-note-styles">notation
		    style</link>.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>src</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>The name of the pixmap file from which this
		  symbol should be loaded, without a directory or
		  extension.  This is the usual way of describing a
		  symbol in a pixmap font.  The file itself should be
		  installed to
		  fonts/&lt;font-name&gt;/&lt;font-size&gt;/&lt;src&gt;.xpm
		  under the Rosegarden installation directory.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>inversion-src</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>The name of a pixmap file from which an inverted
		  version of this symbol may be loaded, without a
		  directory or extension.  If this attribute is absent
		  and an inverted version of the symbol is required, it
		  will be generated simply by loading the normal version
		  and reflecting it in a central x-axis.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>code</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>The code point at which this symbol may be found
		  in the relevant system font, as a decimal integer.
		  This is a way of describing a symbol in a scalable
		  font.  This attribute will only be referred to if no
		  pixmap file is supplied, or if the pixmap file fails
		  to load.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>inversion-code</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>The code point at which an inverted version of
		  this symbol may be found in the relevant system font.
		  If this attribute is absent and an inverted version of
		  the symbol is required, it will be generated simply by
		  loading the normal version and reflecting it in a
		  central x-axis.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>glyph</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>The raw glyph index at which this symbol may be found
		  in the relevant system font, as a decimal integer.
		  This is a way of describing a symbol in a scalable
		  font.  This attribute will only be referred to if no
		  pixmap file is supplied, or if the pixmap file fails
		  to load.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>inversion-glyph</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>The raw glyph index at which an inverted version of
		  this symbol may be found in the relevant system font.
		  If this attribute is absent and an inverted version of
		  the symbol is required, it will be generated simply by
		  loading the normal version and reflecting it in a
		  central x-axis.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>font-id</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>The id of the system font from which this symbol
		  should be loaded, as defined in the <link
		    linkend="developers-note-fonts-mapping-format-font-requirements">font-requirements</link>
		  element.  The default is 0.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>codebase</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>This (decimal integer) attribute may be of use
		  if many of the symbols in a scalable font cover a
		  short range of code points starting at a relatively
		  high code page.  If supplied, the codebase value will
		  be added to each of the subsequent code and
		  inversion-code values when looking up a symbol.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	  </variablelist>

	  <para>
	    Although none of these attributes is mandatory except for
	    the name, a symbol obviously needs to supply at least one
	    of "src", "inversion-src", "code", "inversion-code",
	    "glyph", or "inversion-glyph" to stand any chance of being
	    rendered at all.  It is of course perfectly legitimate to
	    supply several or all of these attributes.
	  </para>

	</sect3>

	<sect3 id="developers-note-fonts-mapping-format-font-hotspots">
	  <title>font-hotspots</title>
	  <para>&nbsp;
	  </para>
	</sect3>

      </sect2>
      
    </sect1>
    
    <sect1 id="developers-note-styles">
      <title>Creating new notation styles</title>

      <para>
	Rosegarden's notation editor has the ability to display and
	edit notes in various standard styles: classical, diamond
	heads and so on.  These styles are all defined in XML style
	definition files installed along with the application, and
	it's possible to create a new one by writing a simple XML
	file.  Rosegarden simply looks at the set of installed files
	to determine which styles to offer the user.  You can refer to
	the default set of files in the styles subdirectory of the
	Rosegarden installation directory for examples.
      </para>

      <para>
	The file format is not yet especially comprehensive; at the
	moment it has been designed to be powerful enough to describe
	the standard styles that come with Rosegarden, but not much
	more.  If you should try to create new styles this way, we'd
	be very interested in your feedback on the Rosegarden
	mailing-lists.
      </para>
      
      <sect2 id="developers-note-styles-format">
	<title>Notation style XML format</title>

	<para>
	  Here is a summary of the XML elements that may be used in
	  a style definition file.
	</para>

	<sect3 id="developers-note-styles-note-style">
	  <title>rosegarden-note-style</title>

	  <para>This element must exist in every style file, and
	    should contain all the other elements.  It has one optional
	    attribute, "base-style", which may be used to name a style
	    from which this style takes the default values for any
	    parameters not specified elsewhere in the present file.
	    It's often good practice to define a style in terms of the
	    minimal difference from a given base style: see the supplied
	    Cross.xml for a particularly simple example.
	  </para>

	  <para>Note that the "rosegarden-note-style" element does not
	    give the name of the style being defined, which is instead
	    currently drawn from the name of the file.  At some point in
	    the future we may add internationalizable style name
	    attributes to this element.</para>
	</sect3>

	<sect3 id="developers-note-styles-global-note">
	  <title>global, note</title>
	  
	  <para>Within the "rosegarden-note-style" element, there may
	    be one "global" element and any number of "note" elements.
	    We describe these together, as they have almost identical
	    sets of attributes.  The "global" element simply provides
	    default values for those parameters not specified for a
	    particular note type in any following "note" element.
	  </para>

	  <para>The attributes for these elements are as follows.  All
	    of these are optional except as described:</para>

	  <variablelist>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>type</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Only relevant to the "note" element, and
		  mandatory for that element.  This attribute specifies
		  which sort of note is being styled.  Legal values are
		  textual American or British note names (from "64th",
		  "sixth-fourth note", "hemidemisemiquaver" etc to
		  "double whole note").
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>shape</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Defines a note head shape for this style.  Any
		  string is a legal value, but the only values
		  implemented so far are "angled oval", "level oval",
		  "breve", "cross", "triangle up", "triangle down",
		  "diamond" and "rectangle".  The value "number" is also
		  recognised but not yet implemented.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>charname</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Defines a note font character name to be used as
		  the note head for this style.  An element may supply a
		  "shape" or "charname" attribute, but not both.  The
		  name should be one of those defined in the current
		  notation font's <link
		    linkend="developers-note-fonts-mapping-format-font-symbol-map">symbol
		    map</link> (in a "name" attribute).
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>filled</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Specifies whether this note should have a filled
		  head (where applicable, i.e. where the shape attribute
		  supplies a shape that is available both filled and
		  unfilled).  Must be "true" or "false".
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>stem</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Specifies whether this note should have a stem.
		  Must be "true" or "false".
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>flags</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Defines how many flags or beams this note should
		  have.  The valid range is 0 to 4.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>slashes</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Defines how many slashes this note should have
		  across its stem.
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>hfixpoint</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Specifies in which x position the stem fixes to
		  the note head.  Acceptable values are "normal" (the
		  right side when the stem points up, the left when it
		  points down), "central", and "reversed" (left side
		  when the stem points up, right when it points down).
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term>vfixpoint</term>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Specifies in which y position the stem fixes to
		  the note head.  Acceptable values are "near" (the stem
		  fixes to the top when pointing up, the bottom when
		  pointing down), "middle", or "far".
		</para>
	      </listitem>
	    </varlistentry>

	  </variablelist>
	</sect3>
      </sect2>
    </sect1>
    

    <!-- (OPTIONAL) A Programming/Scripting reference chapter should be
    used for apps that use plugins or that provide their own scripting hooks
    and/or development libraries. -->

    <!-- cc: I think we should document the DCOP API here, but I don't
    think we should include extensive developer docs, although we should
    point to where they can be found in the source tree or online. -->
    <!--
    <para>
    Programming <application>Rosegarden</application> plugins is 
    a joy to behold. Just read through the next
    66 pages of <acronym>API</acronym>'s to learn how!
  </para>
    -->
    <!-- Use refentries to describe APIs.  Refentries are fairly
    complicated and you should consult the docbook reference for
    further details. The example below was taken from that reference
    and shortened a bit for readability. -->
    <!--
    <refentry id="re-1007-unmanagechildren-1">
    <refmeta>
    <refentrytitle>XtUnmanageChildren</refentrytitle>
    <refmiscinfo>Xt &ndash; Geometry Management</refmiscinfo>
  </refmeta>
    <refnamediv>
    <refname>XtUnmanageChildren
  </refname>
    <refpurpose>remove a list of children from a parent widget's managed list.
  </refpurpose>
  </refnamediv>
    <refsynopsisdiv>
    <refsynopsisdivinfo>
    <date>4 March 1996</date>
  </refsynopsisdivinfo>
    <synopsis>
    void XtUnmanageChildren(<replaceable>children</replaceable>, <replaceable>num_children</replaceable>)
    WidgetList <replaceable>children</replaceable>;
    Cardinal <replaceable>num_children</replaceable>;
  </synopsis>

    <refsect2 id="r2-1007-unmanagechildren-1">
    <title>Inputs</title>
    <variablelist>
    <varlistentry>
    <term><replaceable>children</replaceable>
  </term>
    <listitem>
    <para>
    Specifies an array of child widgets. Each child must be of
    class RectObj or any subclass thereof.
  </para>
  </listitem>
  </varlistentry>
    <varlistentry>
    <term><replaceable>num_children</replaceable>
  </term>
    <listitem>
    <para>Specifies the number of elements in <replaceable>children</replaceable>.
  </para>
  </listitem>
  </varlistentry>
  </variablelist>
  </refsect2></refsynopsisdiv>

    <refsect1 id="r1-1007-unmanagechildren-1">
    <title>Description
  </title>
    <para>
    <function>XtUnmanageChildren()</function> unmaps the specified widgets
    and removes them from their parent's geometry management.
    The widgets will disappear from the screen, and (depending
    on its parent) may no longer have screen space allocated for
    them.
  </para>
    <para>Each of the widgets in the <replaceable>children</replaceable> array must have
    the same parent.
  </para>
    <para>See the &ldquo;Algorithm&rdquo; section below for full details of the
    widget unmanagement procedure.
  </para>
  </refsect1>

    <refsect1 id="r1-1007-unmanagechildren-2">
    <title>Usage</title>
    <para>
    Unmanaging widgets is the usual method for temporarily
    making them invisible.  They can be re-managed with
    <function>XtManageChildren()</function>.
  </para>
    <para>
    You can unmap a widget, but leave it under geometry
    management by calling <function>XtUnmapWidget()</function>.  You can
    destroy a widget's window without destroying the widget by
    calling <function>XtUnrealizeWidget()</function>.  You can destroy a
    widget completely with <function>XtDestroyWidget()</function>.
  </para>
    <para>
    If you are only going to unmanage a single widget, it is
    more convenient to call <function>XtUnmanageChild()</function>.  It is
    often more convenient to call <function>XtUnmanageChild()</function>
    several times than it is to declare and initialize an array
    of widgets to pass to <function>XtUnmanageChildren()</function>.  Calling
    <function>XtUnmanageChildren()</function> is more efficient, however,
    because it only calls the parent's <function>change_managed()</function>
    method once.
  </para>
  </refsect1>

    <refsect1 id="r1-1007-unmanagechildren-3">
    <title>Algorithm
  </title>
    <para><function>XtUnmanageChildren()</function> performs the following:
  </para>
    <variablelist>
    <varlistentry>
    <term>-
  </term>
    <listitem>
    <para>Ignores the child if it already is unmanaged or is being
    destroyed.
  </para>
  </listitem>
  </varlistentry>
    <varlistentry>
    <term>-
  </term>
    <listitem>
    <para>Otherwise, if the child is realized, it makes it nonvisible
    by unmapping it.
  </para>
  </listitem>
  </varlistentry>
  </variablelist>
    <para>
  </para>
  </refsect1>

    <refsect1 id="r1-1007-unmanagechildren-4">
    <title>Structures</title>
    <para>
    The <type>WidgetList</type> type is simply an array of widgets:
  </para>
    <screen id="sc-1007-unmanagechildren-1">
    typedef Widget *WidgetList;
  </screen>
  </refsect1>
  </refentry>
    -->
  </chapter>


  <chapter id="credits">

    <title>Credits and License</title>

    <para>
      <application>Rosegarden</application>
    </para>
    <para>
      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para>

	    Rosegarden is Copyright 2000-2007 Guillaume Laurent,
	    Chris Cannam and Richard Bown.  The moral rights of
	    Guillaume Laurent, Chris Cannam and Richard Bown to be
	    identified as the authors of this work have been asserted.

	  </para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>

	    Parts of Rosegarden are derived from X11 Rosegarden 2.1,
	    which is Copyright 1994 &ndash; 2001 Chris Cannam, Andrew Green,
	    Richard Bown and Guillaume Laurent.

	  </para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>

	    For musical notation display Rosegarden uses pixmaps
	    derived from the Feta font, part of the <ulink
	      url="http://lilypond.org/">LilyPond</ulink> software,
	    which is Copyright 1997 &ndash; 2001 Jan Nieuwenhuizen and
	    Han-Wen Nienhuys.

	  </para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>

	    Other major contributors include Randall Farmer, Ron
	    Kuris, Hans Kieserman, Michael McIntyre, and Pedro
            Lopez-Cabanillas.

	  </para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>

  The Rosegarden splash-screen image is Copyright 2006 Carolyn H. McIntyre,
  used by permission.

	  </para>
	</listitem>

      </itemizedlist>
    </para>

    <para>
      Documentation copyright 2002-2006 Chris Cannam, Richard Bown, Guillaume Laurent
    </para>
    <!--
    <para>
    Translations done by:
    <itemizedlist>
    <listitem>
    <para>Babel D. Fish <email>babelfish@kde.org</email> (Sanskrit)</para>
  </listitem>
  </itemizedlist>
  </para>
    -->
    <!-- For URL links to common stuff like the one below,
    always use paths like "common/gpl-licence".
    In this path, "common" will be a symbolic link built at "make install" time.
    This link will normally point to $KDEDIR/share/doc/HTML/en/common,
    where "en" should be replaced with the current language. -->

    <para>
      This program is licensed under the terms of the
      <ulink url="common/gpl-license.html">GNU General Public License</ulink>.
    </para>
  </chapter>

    <!-- Note that the revhistory tags apply to the documentation
    version and not to the app version. That is why we use an
    ItemizedList instead for this list of revisions to the app. -->

    <chapter id="rosegarden-revhistory">
      <title>Rosegarden Revision History</title>
      <para>
        <itemizedlist>
	  <listitem><para>
	      1.6.0 &ndash; November 2007: fretboards, diatonic transpose, multiple lines of lyrics, marker ruler improvements, overlapping notes visibility, LilyPond export enhancements and new dialog, better infrared remote control support, better configuration dialog, fixes
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      1.5.1 &ndash; March 2007: bug fixes
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      1.5 &ndash; February 2007: audio timestretching and input format conversion, matrix usability improvements, tempo tapping, context help, some features, code reorganisation and new build system (again)
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
              1.4 &ndash; September 2006: LilyPond export vastly improved,
	      exportable LilyPond directives, cut/copy/paste by ranges that
	      include tempo and time data, tempo entry and manipulation vastly
	      improved, multi-track MIDI recording, MIDI recording filters,
	      track paramter box, create segments using preset parameters from
	      a database of over 300 real-world instruments, texts like
	      "Allegro" offered as a parallel alternative to typing, LilyPond
	      preview, assorted smaller features, many bug fixes
          </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      1.2.4 &ndash; July 2006: bug fixes
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      1.2.3 &ndash; February 2006: new segment canvas, percussion matrix, multi-track audio recording, project packager, external MIDI controllers, MTC sync, proper ALSA MIDI ports, new icons, new build system
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      1.0 &ndash; February 2005: many fixes, DSSI effects, latency compensation
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.9.9 &ndash; July 2004: plugin synths, triggered segments, notation improvements
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.9.8 &ndash; May 2004: better audio subsystem
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.9.7 &ndash; February 2004: 
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.9.6 &ndash; December 2003: bug fixes
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.9.5 &ndash; November 2003: a great lot of stuff
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.9.1 &ndash; May 2003: step recording, Mup export, many many bug fixes
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.9 &ndash; April 2003: many notation improvements, improved bank editor, audio enhancements and refinements, translations
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.8.5 &ndash; December 2002: bank editor, MIDI filters, panic button
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.8 &ndash; October 2002: printing, LADSPA plugins, improved Matrix View
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.2.0 &ndash; August 2002: WAV file support, sweep selections, contrapuntal staves
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.1.6 &ndash; June 2002: configuration dialog, LilyPond support, quantize dialog
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.1.5 &ndash; May 2002: KDE 3, ALSA support, JACK audio support
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.1.4 &ndash; March 2002: more undo, segment editing, audio playback
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.1.3 &ndash; January 2002: piano-roll/matrix view, &MIDI; recording
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.1.2 &ndash; November 2001: notation undo, transport dialog, position pointer
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.1.1 &ndash; October 2001: scalable notation
	  </para></listitem>
	  <listitem><para>
	      0.1   &ndash; June 2001: first public release of Rosegarden-4
	  </para></listitem>
	</itemizedlist>
      </para>
    </chapter>

  &documentation.index; 
</book>