Principle has ever been made by any writer, and partly also because no one can accuse Adam Smith of being a "wicked Socialist
trying to set class against class." He says: "The workmen
desire to get as much, the masters to give as little as possible. The former are disposed to combine in order to raise, the latter in order to lower the wages

of labor.... Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform,

combination, not to raise the wages of labor above

their actual rate. To violate this combination is
every where a most unpopular action, and a sort of a reproach to a master among his neighbors and equals.... Masters

too sometimes enter into particular combinations
to sink the wages of labor.... These are always conducted with
the utmost silence and secrecy, till the moment of execution." That is very plainly
put, Jonathan. Adam Smith was a great thinker and an honest one. He was not afraid

to tell the truth. I am going to quote a little further what he says about the combinations of workingmen to increase their wages: "Such combinations, [i.e.,
to lower wages] however, are frequently resisted by a contrary defensive combination of the workmen; who sometimes too, without any provocation of this kind, combine
of their
own accord to raise the price of labor. Their usual pretenses are, sometimes the high
price of provisions;
sometimes the great profit which their
masters make by their work. But whether these combinations be offensive or defensive, they are always abundantly heard of. In order to bring the point to a
decision, they have always recourse to the loudest clamour, and sometimes to the most shocking violence and outrage. They are desperate, and act with the extravagance and folly of des