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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE book [
<!ENTITY % eclent SYSTEM "ecl.ent">
%eclent;
]>
<book xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" version="5.0" xml:lang="en">
<chapter>
<title>Numbers</title>
<section xml:id="ansi.numbers.c-dict">
<title>C Reference</title>
<toc/>
<refentry xml:id="ansi.numbers.c-types">
<refnamediv>
<refname>C types</refname>
<refpurpose>Numeric C types understood by ECL</refpurpose>
</refnamediv>
<refsynopsisdiv>
<title>Type names</title>
<simplelist columns="4" type="horiz">
<member><type>cl_fixnum</type></member>
<member><type>fixnum</type></member>
<member></member>
<member></member>
<member><type>cl_index</type></member>
<member><type>(integer 0 most-positive-fixnum)</type></member>
<member></member>
<member></member>
<member><type>float</type></member>
<member><type>short-float</type>, <type>single-float</type></member>
<member></member>
<member></member>
<member><type>double</type></member>
<member><type>double-float</type></member>
<member></member>
<member></member>
<member><type>long double</type> (*)</member>
<member><type>long-float</type></member>
<member><constant>ECL_LONG_FLOAT</constant></member>
<member><symbol>:long-float</symbol></member>
<member><type>uint8_t</type></member>
<member><type>(unsigned-byte 8)</type></member>
<member></member>
<member></member>
<member><type>int8_t</type></member>
<member><type>(signed-byte 8)</type></member>
<member></member>
<member></member>
<member><type>uint16_t</type></member>
<member><type>(unsigned-byte 16)</type></member>
<member><constant>ecl_uint16_t</constant></member>
<member><symbol>:uint16-t</symbol></member>
<member><type>int16_t</type></member>
<member><type>(signed-byte 16)</type></member>
<member><constant>ecl_int16_t</constant></member>
<member><symbol>:uint16-t</symbol></member>
<member><type>uint32_t</type></member>
<member><type>(unsigned-byte 32)</type></member>
<member><constant>ecl_uint32_t</constant></member>
<member><symbol>:uint32-t</symbol></member>
<member><type>int32_t</type></member>
<member><type>(signed-byte 32)</type></member>
<member><constant>ecl_int32_t</constant></member>
<member><symbol>:uint32-t</symbol></member>
<member><type>uint64_t</type></member>
<member><type>(unsigned-byte 64)</type></member>
<member><constant>ecl_uint32_t</constant></member>
<member><symbol>:uint32-t</symbol></member>
<member><type>int64_t</type></member>
<member><type>(signed-byte 64)</type></member>
<member><constant>ecl_int64_t</constant></member>
<member><symbol>:uint32-t</symbol></member>
<member><type>short</type></member>
<member><type>(integer ffi:c-short-min ffi:c-short-max)</type></member>
<member><constant>ecl_uint64_t</constant></member>
<member><symbol>:uint32-t</symbol></member>
<member><type>unsigned short </type></member>
<member><type>(integer 0 ffi:c-ushort-max)</type></member>
<member></member>
<member></member>
<member><type>int</type></member>
<member><type>(integer ffi:c-int-min ffi:c-int-max)</type></member>
<member></member>
<member></member>
<member><type>unsigned int </type></member>
<member><type>(integer 0 ffi:c-uint-max)</type></member>
<member></member>
<member></member>
<member><type>long</type></member>
<member><type>(integer ffi:c-long-min ffi:c-long-max)</type></member>
<member></member>
<member></member>
<member><type>unsigned long </type></member>
<member><type>(integer 0 ffi:c-long-max)</type></member>
<member></member>
<member></member>
<member><type>long long</type></member>
<member><type>(integer ffi:c-long-long-min ffi:c-long-long-max)</type></member>
<member><constant>ecl_long_long_t</constant></member>
<member><symbol>:long-long</symbol></member>
<member><type>unsigned long long</type></member>
<member><type>(integer 0 ffi:c-ulong-long-max)</type></member>
<member><constant>ecl_ulong_long_t</constant></member>
<member><symbol>:long-long</symbol></member>
</simplelist>
</refsynopsisdiv>
<refsect1>
<title>Description</title>
<para>The table above shows the relation between C types and the equivalent Common Lisp types. All types are standard <acronym>C99</acronym> types, except for two. First, <type>cl_fixnum</type> is the smallest signed integer that can fit a <type>fixnum</type>. Second, <type>cl_index</type> is the smallest unsigned integer that fits a fixnum and is typically the unsigned counterpart of <type>cl_fixnum</type>.</para>
<para>(*) The <type>long double</type> does not exist on all platforms. When it exists, the macro <constant>ECL_LONG_DOUBLE</constant> will be defined, and <type>long-double</type> will be equivalent to it.</para>
<para>Many other types might also not exist on all platforms. This includes not only <type>long long</type> and <type>unsigned long long</type>, but also some of the <acronym>C99</acronym> integer types. There are two ways to detect which integer types are available in your system</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>Check for the definition of C macros with a similar name, shown in the fourth column above.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>In Lisp code, check for the presence of the associated features, shown in the fifth column above.</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</refsect1>
</refentry>
<refentry>
<refnamediv>
<refname>Constructors</refname>
<refpurpose>Creating Lisp types from C numbers</refpurpose>
</refnamediv>
<refsynopsisdiv>
<title>Functions and macros</title>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_fixnum</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_fixnum</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_integer</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_fixnum</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_unsigned_integer</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_index</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_single_float</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>float</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_double_float</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>double</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_long_float</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>long double</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_uint8_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>uint8_t</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_int8_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>int8_t</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_uint16_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>uint16_t</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_int16_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>int16_t</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_uint32_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>uint32_t</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_int32_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>int32_t</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_uint64_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>uint64_t</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_int64_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>int64_t</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_short</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>short</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_ushort</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>unsigned short</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_int</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>int</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_uint</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>unsigned int</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_long</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>long</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_ulong</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>unsigned long</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_long_long</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>long long</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_ulong_long</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>unsigned long long</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_ratio</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>numerator</parameter></paramdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>denominator</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_object <function>ecl_make_complex</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>real</parameter></paramdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>imag</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
</refsynopsisdiv>
<refsect1>
<title>Description</title>
<para>These functions create a Lisp object from the corresponding C number. If the number is an integer type, the result will always be an integer, which may be a <type>bignum</type>. If on the other hand the C number is a <type>float</type>, <type>double</type> or <type>long double</type>, the result will be a <type>float</type>.</para>
<para>There is some redundancy in the list of functions that convert from <type>cl_fixnum</type> and <type>cl_index</type> to lisp. On the one hand, <function>ecl_make_fixnum()</function> always creates a fixnum, dropping bits if necessary. On the other hand, <function>ecl_make_integer</function> and <function>ecl_make_unsigned_integer</function> faithfully converts to a Lisp integer, which may a bignum.</para>
<para>Note also that some of the constructors do not use C numbers. This is the case of <function>ecl_make_ratio</function> and <function>ecl_make_complex</function>, because they are composite Lisp types.</para>
<para>These functions or macros signal no errors.</para>
</refsect1>
</refentry>
<refentry>
<refnamediv>
<refname>Accessors</refname>
<refpurpose>Unchecked conversion from Lisp types to C numbers</refpurpose>
</refnamediv>
<refsynopsisdiv>
<title>Functions and macros</title>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_fixnum <function>ecl_fixnum</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>float <function>ecl_single_float</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>double <function>ecl_double_float</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>long double <function>ecl_long_float</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
</refsynopsisdiv>
<refsect1>
<title>Description</title>
<para>These functions and macros extract a C number from a Lisp object. They do not check the type of the Lisp object as they typically just access directly the value from a C structure.</para>
</refsect1>
</refentry>
<refentry>
<refnamediv>
<refname>Coercion</refname>
<refpurpose>Checked conversion from Lisp types to C numbers</refpurpose>
</refnamediv>
<refsynopsisdiv>
<title>Functions and macros</title>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_fixnum <function>ecl_to_fixnum</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>cl_index <function>ecl_to_unsigned_integer</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>flaot <function>ecl_to_float</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>double <function>ecl_to_double</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>long double <function>ecl_to_long_double</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>float <function>ecl_to_float</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>int8_t <function>ecl_to_uint8_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>int8_t <function>ecl_to_int8_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>uint16_t <function>ecl_to_uint16_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>int16_t <function>ecl_to_int16_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>uint32_t <function>ecl_to_uint32_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>int32_t <function>ecl_to_int32_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>uint64_t <function>ecl_to_uint64_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>int64_t <function>ecl_to_int64_t</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>short <function>ecl_to_short</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>unsigned short <function>ecl_to_ushort</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>int <function>ecl_to_int</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>unsigned int <function>ecl_to_uint</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>long <function>ecl_to_long</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>unsigned long <function>ecl_to_ulong</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>long long <function>ecl_to_long_long</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
<funcsynopsis>
<funcprototype>
<?dbhtml funcsynopsis-style='ansi'?>
<funcdef>unsigned long long <function>ecl_to_ulong_long</function></funcdef>
<paramdef><type>cl_object</type> <parameter>n</parameter></paramdef>
</funcprototype>
</funcsynopsis>
</refsynopsisdiv>
<refsect1>
<title>Description</title>
<para>These functions and macros convert a Lisp object to the corresponding C number type. The conversion is done through a coercion process which may signal an error if the argument does not fit the expected type.</para>
</refsect1>
</refentry>
</section>
</chapter>
</book>