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<?xml version="1.0"?><!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1//EN" "">
<book lang="en">
<chapter id="ext.signals">
  <title>Signals and interrupts</title>

  <section id="ext.signals.intro">
    <title>Problems associated to signals</title>

    <para>POSIX contemplates the notion of "signals", which are events that
    cause a process or a thread to be interrupted. Windows uses the term
    "exception", which includes also a more general kind of errors.</para>

    <para>In both cases the consequence is that a thread or process may be
    interrupted at any time, either by causes which are intrinsic to them
    (synchronous signals), such as floating point exceptions, or extrinsic
    (asynchronous signals), such as the process being aborted by the

    <para>Of course, those interruptions are not always welcome. When the
    interrupt is delivered and a handler is invoked, the thread or even the
    whole program may be in an inconsistent state. For instance the thread may
    have acquired a lock, or it may be in the process of filling the fields of
    a structure. Furthermore, sometimes the signal that a thread receive may
    not even be related to it, as in the case when a user presses Cltr-Break
    and a SIGINT signal is delivered to an arbitrary thread, or when the
    processed receives the Windows exception CTRL_CLOSE_EVENT denoting
    that the terminal window is being closed.</para>

    <para>Understanding this POSIX restricts severely what functions can
    be called from a signal handler, thereby limiting its usefulness. However,
    Common Lisp users expect to be able to handle floating point exceptions
    and to gracefully manage user interrupts, program exits, etc. In an
    attempt to solve this seemingly impossible problem, &ECL; has taken
    a pragmatic approach that works, it is rather safe, but involves some
    work on the &ECL; maintainers and also on users that want to embedd &ECL;
    as a library.</para>

  <section id="ext.signals.implementation">
    <title>Signals and interrupts in &ECL;</title>

    <para>&ECL; uses a simple solution, which is to mark the sections of code
    which are interruptible, and in which it is safe for the handler to run
    arbitrary code. All other regions would be considered "unsafe" and would be
    protected from signals and exceptions.</para>

    <para>In principle this "marking" of safe areas can be done using POSIX
    functions such as <function>pthread_sigmask</function> or
    <function>sigprocmask</function>. However in practice this is slow, as it
    involves at least a function call, resolving thread-local variables, etc,
    etc, and it will not work in Windows.</para>

    <para>Furthermore, sometimes we want signals to be detected but not to be
    immediately processed. For instance, when reading from the terminal we want
    to be able to interrupt the process, but we can not execute the code from
    the handler, since the C function which is used to read from the terminal,
    <function>read()</function>, may have left the input stream in an
    inconsistent, or even locked state.</para>

    <para>The approach in &ECL; is more lightweight: we install our own signal
    hander and use a thread-local variable as a flag that determines whether
    the thread is executing interrupt safe code or not. More precisely, if the
    variable <code>ecl_process_env()->disable_interrupts</code> is set, signals
    and exceptions will be postponed and then the information about the signal is
    queued. Otherwise the appropriate code is executed: for instance invoking
    the debugger, jumping to a condition handler, quitting, etc.</para>

  <section id="ext.signals.embedding">
    <title>Considerations when embedding &ECL;</title>

    <para>There are several approaches when handling signals and interrupts in
    a program that uses &ECL;. One is to install your own signal handlers. This
    is perfectly fine, but you should respect the same restrictions as &ECL;.
    Namely, you may not execute arbitrary code from those signal handlers, and
    in particular it will not always be safe to execute Common Lisp code from

    <para>If you want to use your own signal handlers then you should set the
    appropriate options before invoking <function>cl_boot()</function>, as
    explained in <xref linkend="ref.embed.ecl_set_option"/>. Note that in this
    case &ECL; will not always be able to detect floating point exceptions,
    specially if your compiler does not support C99 and the corresponding
    floating point flags.</para>

    <para>The other option is to let &ECL; handle signals itself. This would be
    safer when the dominant part of the code is Common Lisp, but you may need
    to protect the code that embeds &ECL; from being interrupted using either
    the macros <xref linkend="ref.embed.ecl_disable_interrupts"/> and <xref
    linkend="ref.embed.ecl_enable_interrupts"/> or the POSIX functions
    <function>pthread_sigmaks</function> and

  <section id="ext.signals.dict">
    <title>Signals Reference</title>


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