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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE book [
<!ENTITY % eclent SYSTEM "ecl.ent">
%eclent;
]>
<book xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" version="5.0" xml:lang="en">
<chapter label="11" xml:id="CLOS">
<title>CLOS</title>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>add-method</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>add-method</function> <varname>generic-function</varname> <varname>method</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>add-method</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>add-method</function> (</screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>call-method</primary></indexterm>&#151; Macro: <function>call-method</function> <varname>method next-method-list</varname></screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>call-next-method</primary></indexterm>&#151; Macro: <function>call-next-method</function> <varname>&amp;rest args</varname></screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>change-class</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>change-class</function> <varname>instance</varname> <varname>new-class</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>change-class</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>change-class</function> (</screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>change-class</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>change-class</function> (</screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>class-name</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>class-name</function> <varname>class</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>class-name</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>class-name</function> (</screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>(setf class-name)</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>(setf class-name)</function> <varname>new-value</varname> <varname>class</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>(setf class-name)</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>(setf class-name)</function> <varname>new-value (class class)</varname></screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>class-of</primary></indexterm>&#151; Function: <function>class-of</function> <varname>object</varname></screen>
<para>The function <literal>class-of</literal> returns the class of which the given object is an
instance.  The argument to class-of may be any Common-Lisp object.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>compute-applicable-methods</primary></indexterm>&#151; Function: <function>compute-applicable-methods</function> <varname>generic-function function-arguments</varname></screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>defclass</primary></indexterm>&#151; Macro: <function>defclass</function> <varname>class-name (@{superclass-name@}*)</varname> (<varname>{</varname><varname>slot-specifier</varname><varname>}</varname><varname>*</varname>) [<varname>class-option</varname>]</screen>
<screen>
<replaceable>class-name</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>symbol</replaceable>
<replaceable>superclass-name</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>symbol</replaceable>
<replaceable>slot-specifier</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>slot-name</replaceable> | (<replaceable>slot-name</replaceable> [<replaceable>slot-option</replaceable>])
<replaceable>slot-name</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>symbol</replaceable>
<replaceable>slot-option</replaceable> ::= {:reader <replaceable>reader-function-name</replaceable>}*
| {:writer <replaceable>writer-function-name</replaceable>}*
| {:accessor <replaceable>reader-function-name</replaceable>}*
| {:allocation <replaceable>allocation-type</replaceable>}
| {:initarg <replaceable>initarg-name</replaceable>}*
| {:initform <replaceable>form</replaceable>}
| {:type <replaceable>type-specifier</replaceable>}
| {:documentation <replaceable>string</replaceable>}
<replaceable>reader-function-name</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>symbol</replaceable>
<replaceable>writer-function-name</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>function-name</replaceable>
<replaceable>function-name</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>symbol</replaceable> |(setf <replaceable>symbol</replaceable>)
<replaceable>initarg-name</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>symbol</replaceable>
<replaceable>allocation-type</replaceable> ::= :instance | :class
<replaceable>class-option</replaceable> ::= (:default-initargs <replaceable>initarg-list</replaceable>)
| (:documentation <replaceable>string</replaceable>)
| (:metaclass <replaceable>class-name</replaceable>)
<replaceable>initarg-list</replaceable> ::= {<replaceable>initarg-name</replaceable> <replaceable>default-initial-value-form</replaceable>}*
</screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>defgeneric</primary></indexterm>&#151; Macro: <function>defgeneric</function> <varname>function-name lambda-list [option | @{method-description@}*]</varname></screen>
<screen>
<replaceable>function-name</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>symbol</replaceable> | (setf <replaceable>symbol</replaceable>)
<replaceable>lambda-list</replaceable> ::= ({<replaceable>var</replaceable>}*
[&amp;optional {<replaceable>var</replaceable> | (<replaceable>var</replaceable>)}*]
[&amp;rest <replaceable>var</replaceable>]
[&amp;key {<replaceable>keyword-parameter</replaceable>}* [&amp;allow-other-keys]])
<replaceable>keyword-parameter</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>var</replaceable> | ( {<replaceable>var</replaceable> | (<replaceable>keywordvar</replaceable> )})
<replaceable>option</replaceable> ::= (:argument-precedence-order {<replaceable>parameter-name</replaceable>}+)
| (declare {<replaceable>declaration</replaceable>}+)
| (:documentation <replaceable>string</replaceable>)
| (:method-combination symbol {<replaceable>arg</replaceable>}*)
| (:generic-function-class <replaceable>class-name</replaceable>)
| (:method-class <replaceable>class-name</replaceable>)
<replaceable>method-description</replaceable> ::=
(:method {<replaceable>method-qualifier</replaceable>}* <replaceable>specialized-lambda-list</replaceable>
[{<replaceable>declaration</replaceable>}* | <replaceable>documentation</replaceable>]
{<replaceable>form</replaceable>}*)
<replaceable>method-qualifier</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>non-nil-atom</replaceable>
<replaceable>specialized-lambda-list</replaceable> ::= ({<replaceable>var</replaceable> | (<replaceable>var</replaceable> <replaceable>parameter-specializer-name</replaceable>)}*
[&amp;optional {<replaceable>var</replaceable> | (<replaceable>var</replaceable> [<replaceable>initform</replaceable> [<replaceable>supplied-p-parameter</replaceable>]])}*]
[&amp;rest <replaceable>var</replaceable>]
[&amp;key {<replaceable>specialized-keyword-parameter</replaceable>}* [&amp;allow-other-keys]])
[&amp;aux {<replaceable>var</replaceable> | (<replaceable>var</replaceable> [<replaceable>initform</replaceable>])}*] )
<replaceable>specialized-keyword-parameter</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>var</replaceable>
| {({<replaceable>var</replaceable> | (<replaceable>keywordvar</replaceable>)} [<replaceable>initform</replaceable> [<replaceable>supplied-p-parameter</replaceable>]])}*
<replaceable>parameter-specializer-name</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>symbol</replaceable> | (eql <replaceable>eql-specializer-form</replaceable>)
</screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>define-method-combination</primary></indexterm>&#151; Macro: <function>define-method-combination</function> <varname>name [short-form-option]</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>define-method-combination</primary></indexterm>&#151; Macro: <function>define-method-combination</function> <varname>name lambda-list (@{method-group-specifier@}*) [(:arguments . lambda-list)] [(:generic-function generic-fn-symbol)] [@{declaration@}* | doc-string] @{form@}*</varname></screen>
<screen>
<replaceable>short-form-option</replaceable> ::= :documentation <replaceable>string</replaceable>
| :identity-with-one-argument <replaceable>boolean</replaceable>
| :operator <replaceable>operator</replaceable>
<replaceable>method-group-specifier</replaceable> ::= (<replaceable>variable</replaceable>  {<replaceable>qualifier-pattern</replaceable>}+ | <replaceable>predicate</replaceable>
[<replaceable>long-form-option</replaceable>])
<replaceable>long-form-option</replaceable> ::= :description <replaceable>format-string</replaceable>
| :order <replaceable>order</replaceable>
| :required <replaceable>boolean</replaceable>
</screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>defmethod</primary></indexterm>&#151; Macro: <function>defmethod</function> <varname>function-name @{method-qualifier@}+ specialized-lambda-list [@{declaration@}* | doc-string] @{form@}*</varname></screen>
<screen>
<replaceable>function-name</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>symbol</replaceable> | (setf <replaceable>symbol</replaceable>)
<replaceable>method-qualifier</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>non-nil-atom</replaceable>
<replaceable>parameter-specializer-name</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>symbol</replaceable> | (eql <replaceable>eql-specializer-form</replaceable> )
</screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>documentation</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>documentation</function> <varname>x</varname> <varname>&amp;optional</varname> <varname>doc-type</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>documentation</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>documentation</function> (</screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>documentation</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>documentation</function> (</screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>documentation</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>documentation</function> (</screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>doumentation</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>doumentation</function> (</screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>documentation</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>documentation</function> (</screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>documentation</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>documentation</function> (</screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>documentation</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>documentation</function> (</screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>(setf documentation)</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>(setf documentation)</function> <varname>new-value</varname> <varname>x</varname> <varname>&amp;optional</varname> <varname>doc-type</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>(setf documentation)</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>(setf documentation)</function> <varname>new-value (method standard-method) @optional{} doc-type</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>(setf documentation)</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>(setf documentation)</function> <varname>new-value (class standard-class) @optional{} doc-type</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>(setf documentation)</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>(setf documentation)</function> <varname>new-value (method-combination method-combination)</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>(setf documentation)</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>(setf documentation)</function> <varname>new-value (slot-description standard-slot-description) @optional{} doc-type</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>(setf documentation)</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>(setf documentation)</function> <varname>new-value (symbol symbol) @optional{} doc-type</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>(setf documentation)</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>(setf documentation)</function> <varname>new-value (list list) @optional{} doc-type</varname></screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>ensure-generic-function</primary></indexterm>&#151; Function: <function>ensure-generic-function</function> <varname>{</varname><varname>function-name</varname> <varname>&amp;key</varname> <varname>lambda-list</varname> <varname>&amp;key</varname> <varname>:argument-precedence-order</varname> <varname>:declare</varname> <varname>:documentation</varname> <varname>:generic-function-class|ekeys</varname><varname>:method-combination :method-class :environment</varname><varname>}</varname></screen>
<screen>
function-name ::= symbol | (setf symbol)
</screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>find-class</primary></indexterm>&#151; Function: <function>find-class</function> <varname>symbol @optional{} errorp environment</varname></screen>
<para>The function find-class returns the class object named by the given symbol in the given environment.
The first argument to find-class is a symbol.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>find-method</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>find-method</function> <varname>generic-function</varname> <varname>method-qualifiers</varname> <varname>specializers</varname> <varname>&amp;optional</varname> <varname>errorp</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>find-method</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>find-method</function> (</screen>                
<para>method-qualifiers specializers  &amp;optional errorp</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>function-keywords</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>function-keywords</function> <varname>method</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>function-keywords</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>function-keywords</function> (</screen>
</blockquote>
<para>The generic function function-keywords is used to return the keyword parameter specifiers for a given method.</para>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>generic-function</primary></indexterm>&#151; Macro: <function>generic-function</function> <varname>{</varname><varname>lambda-list</varname> <varname>\mchoice</varname><varname>option | @{method-description@}*</varname><varname>}</varname></screen>
<screen>
option ::= (:argument-precedence-order {parameter-name}+)
| (declare {declaration}+)
| (:documentation string)
| (:method-combination symbol {arg}*)
| (:generic-function-class class-name)
| (:method-class class-name)
method-description ::= (:method {method-qualifier}*
specialized-lambda-list
{declaration | <replaceable>documentation</replaceable>}*
{form}*)
</screen>
<para>The <literal>generic-function</literal> macro creates an anonymous generic function. The
generic function is created with the set of methods specified by its method
descriptions.  The <replaceable>option</replaceable>, <replaceable>method-qualifier</replaceable>, and
<replaceable>specialized-lambda-list</replaceable> arguments are the same as for <literal>defgeneric</literal>.
The generic function object is returned as the result.  If no method
descriptions are specified, an anonymous generic function with no methods is
created.  See defgeneric, generic-flet,
generic-labels, defmethod.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>initialize-instance</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>initialize-instance</function> <varname>instance</varname> <varname>&amp;rest</varname> <varname>initargs</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>initialize-instance</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>initialize-instance</function> (</screen>
<para>The generic function <literal>initialize-instance</literal> is called by
<literal>make-instance</literal> to initialize a newly created instance.  The generic
function <literal>initialize-instance</literal> is called with the new instance and the
defaulted initialization arguments.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>invalid-method-error</primary></indexterm>&#151; Function: <function>invalid-method-error</function> <varname>method format-string @rest{} args</varname></screen>
<para>The function <literal>invalid-method-error</literal> is used to signal an error when there
is an applicable method whose qualifiers are not valid for the method
combination type.  The error message is constructed by using a format string
and any arguments to it.  Because an implementation may need to add additional
contextual information to the error message, invalid-method-error should be
called only within the dynamic extent of a method combination function.  The
function invalid-method-error is called automatically when a method fails to
satisfy every qualifier pattern and predicate in a define-method-combination
form.  A method combination function that imposes additional restrictions
should call invalid-method-error explicitly if it encounters a method it cannot
accept.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>make-instance</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>make-instance</function> <varname>class</varname> <varname>&amp;rest</varname><varname> initargs</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>make-instance</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>make-instance</function> (</screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>make-instance</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>make-instance</function> (</screen>
<para>The generic function make-instance creates and returns a new instance of the
given class.  The generic function make-instance may be used as described in
section 1.9.  The class argument is a class object or a symbol that names a
class.  The remaining arguments form a list of alternating initialization
argument names and values.  If the second of the above methods is selected,
that method invokes make-instance on the arguments (find-class class) and
initargs.  The initialization arguments are checked within make-instance (see
section 1.9).  The new instance is returned.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>make-instances-obsolete</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>make-instances-obsolete</function> <varname>class</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>make-instances-obsolete</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>make-instances-obsolete</function> (</screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>make-instances-obsolete</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>make-instances-obsolete</function> (</screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>method-combination-error</primary></indexterm>&#151; Function: <function>method-combination-error</function> <varname>format-string @rest{} args</varname></screen>
<para>The function method-combination-error is used to signal an error in method
combination.  The error message is constructed by using a format string and any
arguments to it.  Because an implementation may need to add additional
contextual information to the error message, method-combination-error should be
called only within the dynamic extent of a method combination function.  The
format-string argument is a control string that can be given to format, and
args are any arguments required by that string.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>method-qualifiers</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>method-qualifiers</function> <varname>method</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>method-qualifiers</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>method-qualifiers</function> (</screen>
<para>The generic function method-qualifiers returns a list of the qualifiers
of the given method.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>next-method-p</primary></indexterm>&#151; Function: <function>next-method-p</function> <varname></varname></screen>
<para>The locally defined function next-method-p can be used within the body of a
method defined by a method-defining form to determine whether a next method
exists.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>no-applicable-method</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>no-applicable-method</function> <varname>generic-function</varname> <varname>&amp;rest</varname> <varname>function-arguments</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>no-applicable-method</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>no-applicable-method</function> (</screen>
<para>The generic function no-applicable-method is called when a generic function of
the class standard-generic-function is invoked and no method on that generic
function is applicable. The default method signals an error.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>no-next-method</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>no-next-method</function> <varname>generic-function</varname> <varname>method</varname> <varname>&amp;rest</varname> <varname>args</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>no-next-method</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>no-next-method</function> (</screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>print-object</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>print-object</function> <varname>object</varname> <varname>stream</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>print-object</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>print-object</function> (</screen>
<para>The generic function print-object writes the printed representation of an
object to a stream.  The function print-object is called by the print system;
it should not be called by the user.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>reinitialize-instance</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>reinitialize-instance</function> <varname>instance</varname> <varname>&amp;rest</varname> <varname>initargs</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>reinitialize-instance</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>reinitialize-instance</function> (</screen>
<para>The generic function reinitialize-instance can be used to change the
values of local slots according to initialization arguments.  This
generic function is called by the Meta-Object Protocol.  It can also be
called by users.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>remove-method</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>remove-method</function> <varname>generic-function</varname> <varname>method</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>remove-method</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>remove-method</function> (</screen>
<para>The generic function remove-method removes a method from a generic function.
It destructively modifies the specified generic function and returns the
modified generic function as its result.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>shared-initialize</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>shared-initialize</function> <varname>instance slot-names &amp;rest initargs</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>shared-initialize</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>shared-initialize</function> (</screen>
<para>The generic function shared-initialize is used to fill the slots of an instance
using initialization arguments and :initform forms.  It is called when an
instance is created, when an instance is re-initialized, when an instance is
updated to conform to a redefined class, and when an instance is updated to
conform to a different class.  The generic function <literal>shared-initialize</literal> is
called by the system-supplied primary method for <literal>initialize-instance</literal>,
<literal>reinitialize-instance</literal>, <literal>update-instance-for-redefined-class</literal>, and
<literal>update-instance-for-different-class</literal>.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>slot-boundp</primary></indexterm>&#151; Function: <function>slot-boundp</function> <varname>instance slot-name</varname></screen>
<para>The function slot-boundp tests whether a specific slot in an instance is bound.
The arguments are the instance and the name of the slot.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>slot-exists-p</primary></indexterm>&#151; Function: <function>slot-exists-p</function> <varname>object slot-name</varname></screen>
<para>The function slot-exists-p tests whether the specified object has a slot of the
given name.  The object argument is any object.  The slot-name argument is a
symbol.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>slot-makunbound</primary></indexterm>&#151; Function: <function>slot-makunbound</function> <varname>instance slot-name</varname></screen>
<para>The function slot-makunbound restores a slot in an instance to the unbound
state.  The arguments to slot-makunbound are the instance and the name of the
slot.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>slot-missing</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>slot-missing</function> <varname>class</varname> <varname>object</varname> <varname>slot-name</varname> <varname>operation</varname> <varname>&amp;optional</varname> <varname>new-value</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>slot-missing</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>slot-missing</function> (</screen>
<para>The generic function slot-missing is invoked when an attempt is made to access
a slot in an object whose metaclass is standard-class and the name of the slot
provided is not a name of a slot in that class.  The default method signals an
error.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>slot-unbound</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>slot-unbound</function> <varname>class</varname> <varname>instance</varname> <varname>slot-name</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>slot-unbound</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>slot-unbound</function> (</screen>
<para>The generic function slot-unbound is called when an unbound slot is read in an
instance whose metaclass is standard-class. The default method signals an
error.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>slot-value</primary></indexterm>&#151; Function: <function>slot-value</function> <varname>object slot-name</varname></screen>
<para>The function slot-value returns the value contained in the slot slot-name of
the given object.  If there is no slot with that name, slot-missing is called.
If the slot is unbound, slot-unbound is called.  The macro setf can be used
with slot-value to change the value of a slot.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>update-instance-for-different-class</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>update-instance-for-different-class</function> <varname>previous</varname> <varname>current</varname> <varname>&amp;rest</varname> <varname>initargs</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>update-instance-for-different-class</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>update-instance-for-different-class</function> (</screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>update-instance-for-redefined-class</primary></indexterm>&#151; Generic: <function>update-instance-for-redefined-class</function> <varname>instance</varname> <varname>added-slots</varname> <varname>discarded-slots</varname> <varname>property-list</varname> <varname>&amp;rest</varname> <varname>initargs</varname></screen>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>update-instance-for-redefined-class</primary></indexterm>&#151; Method: <function>update-instance-for-redefined-class</function> (</screen>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>with-accessors</primary></indexterm>&#151; Macro: <function>with-accessors</function> (</screen>
<para>The macro with-accessors creates a lexical environment in which specified slots
are lexically available through their accessors as if they were variables.  The
macro with-accessors invokes the appropriate accessors to access the specified
slots.  Both setf and setq can be used to set the value of the slot.  The
result returned is that obtained by executing the forms specified by the body
argument.</para>
</blockquote>
<blockquote>
<screen><indexterm role="fn"><primary>with-slots</primary></indexterm>&#151; Macro: <function>with-slots</function> (</screen>
<screen>
<replaceable>slot-entry</replaceable> ::= <replaceable>slot-name</replaceable> | (<replaceable>variable-name</replaceable> <replaceable>slot-name</replaceable>)
</screen>
<para>The macro <literal>with-slots</literal> creates a lexical context for referring to
specified slots as though they were variables.  Within such a context the value
of the slot can be specified by using its slot name, as if it were a lexically
bound variable.  Both <literal>setf</literal> and <literal>setq</literal> can be used to set the value
of the slot.</para>
</blockquote>
</chapter>
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