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<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"/>
<meta http-equiv="description" content="CLISP as a login shell"/>
<link rev="made" href="mailto:peter.wood@worldonline.dk"/>
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<title>CLASH: CLisp As SHell</title>
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<body>
<h1>CLASH: CLisp As SHell</h1>
<h2>Summary</h2>
<p>Thus document describes how you can make
<a href="http://clisp.cons.org">CLISP</a> your login
<a href="http://www.faqs.org/faqs/unix-faq/shell/shell-differences/">shell</a>
on <a href="http://www.gnu.org">GNU</a>/<a
href="http://www.linux.org">Linux</a>.</p>
<p>You can probably use these instructions on other UNIX systems
too.</p>
<h2>DISCLAIMER</h2>
<ul>
<li><strong>Use at your own risk.</strong></li>
<li><strong>Exercise care.</strong></li>
<li><strong>Backup everything you change on your system.</strong></li>
<li><strong>If anything goes wrong, do NOT blame us!</strong></li>
</ul>
<h2>Author</h2>
<address><a href="mailto:peter.wood@worldonline.dk">Peter
Wood</a></address>
<p>last modified: 2001-06-01</p>
<p>Notes marked <cite>NB from SDS</cite> were added by
<a href="http://www.podval.org/~sds/">Sam Steingold</a>.</p>
<h1>Step 1: Compile CLISP</h1>
<p>On Linux, you need to have built your
<a href="http://clisp.cons.org">CLISP</a> with the
<code>--with-module=bindings/glibc</code> option,
and you should make sure that you have it compiled with readline.
See the CLISP build instructions and Makefile.</p>
<h1>Step 2: Make CLISP a valid shell</h1>
<p>Put <code>/usr/bin/clisp</code> (or <code>/usr/local/bin/clisp</code>)
in <code>/etc/shells</code> so it looks (something) like this:</p>
<pre>
# /etc/shells: valid login shells
#/bin/ash
/bin/bash
/bin/sh
/usr/bin/clisp
</pre>
<h1>Step 3: Modify your PATH to be able to run X</h1>
<p>You can set up your <code>$PATH</code> in
<code>/etc/login.defs</code> by modifying the entry for
<code>ENV_PATH</code> to look (something) like this:</p>
<pre>
ENV_PATH PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/X11R6/bin
</pre>
<p>Once you have your CLISP shell set up, you can control the
environment variables (on Linux) via the glibc bindings (see
<code>${clisp-src}/modules/bindings/glibc/linux.lisp</code>):
setenv, putenv, getenv, etc.</p>
<h2>NB from SDS</h2>
<p>CLISP has a <code>setf</code>able built-in
<a href="impnotes.html#getenv"><code>ext:getenv</code></a>,
e.g., <code>(setf (ext:getenv "foo") "bar")</code>.</p>
<h1>Step 4: start X</h1>
<p>The <code>startx</code> command is a shell script, so we cannot use it.
As a temporary fix, I have defunned thus:</p>
<pre>
(defun startx ()
(execute "/usr/X11R6/bin/xinit"))
</pre>
<p>Which works for me. Although I haven't investigated all the
consequences of not going via shell's startx. Also I do not use
<a href="http://www.gnome.org/">GNOME</a> or
<a href="http://www.kde.org/">KDE</a> which may complicate
things for you if you do.
I use <a href="http://www.fvwm.org">fvwm2</a>
and have this in my <code>.xinitrc</code>:</p>
<pre>
exec fvwm2
</pre>
<p>Once CLISP is set up, you will also be able to type:</p>
<pre>
&gt; #[xinit]
</pre>
<p>from Lisp to start X.</p>
<h2>NB from SDS</h2>
<p>You should be able to run a shell script using the
CLISP built-in function
<a href="impnotes.html#exec"><code>ext:shell</code></a>.</p>
<h1>Step 5: set up the reader macro</h1>
<p>For conveniently running external programs (i.e., I do not want to
have to type <code>(run-program "ls" :arguments '("-lh"))</code> every
time) I have set up a read macro.
Put the following in <code>somefile.lisp</code>:</p>
<pre>
(set-macro-character #\] (get-macro-character #\)))
(set-dispatch-macro-character #\# #\[
(lambda (stream char1 char2)
(declare (ignore char1 char2))
(setf (readtable-case *readtable*) :preserve)
(unwind-protect
(let ((command-line (read-delimited-list #\] stream t)))
(list 'ext:run-program (princ-to-string (car command-line))
:arguments `',(mapcar #'princ-to-string (rest command-line))))
(setf (readtable-case *readtable*) :upcase))))
</pre>
<h2>NB from SDS</h2>
<p>I heavily modified this macro.</p>
<p>Note that
<a href="impnotes.html#run-prog"><code>ext:run-program</code></a>
will not execute shell scripts, while
<a href="impnotes.html#exec"><code>ext:shell</code></a>
will invoke a shell for each command - these are the trade-offs.</p>
<h1>Step 6: set up the readline shortcut</h1>
<p>It's also a PITA to have to type "#[" and "]" everytime you want to
run a command, so add the following in your
<code>$HOME/.inputrc</code>:</p>
<pre>
#for clash: prints the square brackets to run an external command
"\ec": "#[]\C-b"
</pre>
<p>When you type ESC-c (or META-c) readline will print "#[]" to the
console and put the cursor inside the brackets. If you are running
CLISP as your shell, and do this, you will then be able to run programs
(more or less) normally. You will need to escape the dot in any
filenames that start with a dot, e.g.,</p>
<pre>
&gt; #[cat \.xinitrc]
</pre>
<p>and sometimes (eek) a colon.</p>
<h1>Step 7: try it out</h1>
<p><strong>Do NOT</strong> modify your <code>/etc/passwd</code> yet!</p>
<p>Start up a clisp with</p>
<pre>
$ clisp -K full -i somefile.fas
</pre>
<p>Hit <kbd>ESC c</kbd>, type <kbd>ls -l</kbd>, hit <kbd>Enter</kbd>
and see if it works.</p>
<p>You <em>do not</em> have command line completion for external
programs inside the read-macro. So hitting tab will just give you a
list of all CLISP's possibilties, which is not much use here. However,
<code>ext:run-program</code> (which is part of what's hiding behind the
read macro) does search your path for executables so you don't have to
do <code>#[/bin/ls -l]</code></p>
<h2>NB from SDS</h2>
<p>There are CLISP built-ins like
<a href="impnotes.html#dir"><code>ext:dir</code></a> and
<a href="impnotes.html#cd"><code>ext:cd</code></a>, and most other
shell built-ins can be implemented in CLISP pretty easily.</p>
<h1>Step 8: Dump a memory image</h1>
<p>If you are happy, and think you can live with this setup then you
must do the following:</p>
<ol>
<li>Dump a memory image from a CLISP with the read macro and any
convenience stuff loaded, as described in
<a href="impnotes.html#image">impnotes</a>.</li>
<li>Make a backup of <code>/usr/[local]/lib/clisp</code>.
(wherever yours is installed)</li>
<li>Rename the "base" directory in <code>/usr/lib/clisp</code>
to "orig-base".</li>
<li>Now rename the "full" directory to "base".</li>
<li>Replace the memory image in your <strong>new</strong> "base"
directory with the one you dumped.</li>
</ol>
<h1>Step 9: Dive in!</h1>
<p>Change your <code>/etc/passwd</code> to reflect your new shell.</p>
<p>Light 13 candles in a circle round your Linux box,
Sacrifice a white rooster, invoke Saint IGNUcious and ...
</p>
<p>Login again.</p>
<p>If you start pining for Bash, you can run:</p>
<pre>
&gt; #[bash]
</pre>
<p>You will have to explicitly source all your configuration files
(.profile etc)</p>
<h1>TODO</h1>
<ol>
<li>Get indentation on the command line.</li>
<li>Do command redirection.</li>
<li>Get name completion for arguments which are filenames.</li>
</ol>
<p>Have fun,</p>
<p>Peter</p>
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