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-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /><title>18.1. The Hash Tables Dictionary
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:cf="http://docbook.sourceforge.net/xmlns/chunkfast/1.0"><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /><title>18.1. The Hash Tables Dictionary
[CLHS-18.2]</th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="hash.html">Prev</a> </td><th width="60%" align="center">Chapter 18. Hash Tables
[CLHS-18]</th><td width="20%" align="right"> <a accesskey="n" href="filenames.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr /></div><div class="section" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a id="hash-dict"></a>18.1. The Hash Tables Dictionary
-   <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/sec_the_hash__s_dictionary.html" target="_top">[CLHS-18.2]</a></h2></div></div><div></div></div><div class="toc"><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash">18.1.1. Function <tt class="function">MAKE-HASH-TABLE</tt></a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="hash-dict.html#defhash">18.1.2. Macro <tt class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</tt></a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="hash-dict.html#ht-test">18.1.3. Function <tt class="function">HASH-TABLE-TEST</tt></a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="hash-dict.html#dohash">18.1.4. Macro <tt class="function">EXT:DOHASH</tt></a></span></dt></dl></div><div class="section" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="make-hash"></a>18.1.1. Function <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_make-hash-table.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">MAKE-HASH-TABLE</tt></a></h3></div></div><div></div></div><p><a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_make-hash-table.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">MAKE-HASH-TABLE</tt></a> supports additional keywords
- <tt class="constant">:INITIAL-CONTENTS</tt>
- and <tt class="constant">:WEAK</tt>:</p><table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0"><tr><td><pre class="programlisting">
-(<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_make-hash-table.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">MAKE-HASH-TABLE</tt></a> <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/sec_3-4-1.html" target="_top"><tt class="literal">&amp;KEY</tt></a> :test :initial-contents :size
-                 :rehash-size :rehash-threshold :weak)
-</pre></td></tr></table><p>The <tt class="constant">:INITIAL-CONTENTS</tt> argument is an
- <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/glo_a.html#association_list" target="_top">alist</a> that is used to initialize the new hash table.
- The <tt class="constant">:REHASH-THRESHOLD</tt> argument is ignored.</p><p>The <tt class="constant">:WEAK</tt> can take the following values:
- </p><table class="simplelist" border="0" summary="Simple list"><tr><td><a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/convar_nil.html" target="_top"><tt class="constant">NIL</tt></a> (default)</td></tr><tr><td><tt class="constant">:KEY</tt></td></tr><tr><td><tt class="constant">:VALUE</tt></td></tr><tr><td><tt class="constant">:EITHER</tt></td></tr><tr><td><tt class="constant">:BOTH</tt></td></tr></table><p>
-and specifies whether the <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><tt class="classname">HASH-TABLE</tt></a> is <span class="emphasis"><em>weak</em></span>:
-if the key, value, either or both are not accessible for the <a href="gc.html" title="Chapter 31. Overview of CLISP's Garbage Collection">garbage-collect</a>ion
-purposes, i.e., if they are only accessible via weak <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><tt class="classname">HASH-TABLE</tt></a>s
-and <a href="weak.html" title="29.6. Extensions-1.6. Weak Pointers"><tt class="classname">EXT:WEAK-POINTER</tt></a>s, it is <a href="gc.html" title="Chapter 31. Overview of CLISP's Garbage Collection">garbage-collect</a>ed and removed from the weak
-<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><tt class="classname">HASH-TABLE</tt></a>.</p><p>The <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/mac_setfcm_psetf.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">SETF</tt></a>able predicate <tt class="function">EXT:HASH-TABLE-WEAK-P</tt>
-checks whether the <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><tt class="classname">HASH-TABLE</tt></a> is weak.</p><p>Just like <a href="weak.html" title="29.6. Extensions-1.6. Weak Pointers"><tt class="classname">EXT:WEAK-POINTER</tt></a>s, weak <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><tt class="classname">HASH-TABLE</tt></a>s cannot be
-printed readably.</p></div><div class="section" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="defhash"></a>18.1.2. Macro <a href="hash-dict.html#defhash" title="18.1.2. Macro EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST"><tt class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</tt></a></h3></div></div><div></div></div><p>You can define a new hash table test using the macro
- <a href="hash-dict.html#defhash" title="18.1.2. Macro EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST"><tt class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</tt></a>: <tt class="sexp">(<a href="hash-dict.html#defhash" title="18.1.2. Macro EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST"><tt class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</tt></a> test-name <i class="replaceable"><tt>test-function</tt></i>
-  <i class="replaceable"><tt>hash-function</tt></i>)</tt>, after which <i class="replaceable"><tt>test-name</tt></i>
- can be passed as the <tt class="constant">:TEST</tt> argument to
- <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_make-hash-table.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">MAKE-HASH-TABLE</tt></a>.  E.g.: </p><table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0"><tr><td><pre class="programlisting">
- (<a href="hash-dict.html#defhash" title="18.1.2. Macro EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST"><tt class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</tt></a> string <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_stringeqc_ng-not-lessp.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">STRING=</tt></a> <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_sxhash.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">SXHASH</tt></a>)
- (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_make-hash-table.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">MAKE-HASH-TABLE</tt></a> :test 'string)
-</pre></td></tr></table><p>
-(which is not too useful because it is equivalent to an <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_equal.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">EQUAL</tt></a>
-<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><tt class="classname">HASH-TABLE</tt></a> but less efficient).</p><p>The fundamental requirement is that the <i class="replaceable"><tt>test-function</tt></i> and <i class="replaceable"><tt>hash-function</tt></i> are
- consistent: </p><table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0"><tr><td><pre class="programlisting">
-  (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_funcall.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">FUNCALL</tt></a> <i class="replaceable"><tt>test-function</tt></i> <i class="replaceable"><tt>x</tt></i> <i class="replaceable"><tt>y</tt></i>) ⇒
-  (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eqcm_sleq__lteqcm_gteq.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">=</tt></a> (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_funcall.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">FUNCALL</tt></a> <i class="replaceable"><tt>hash-function</tt></i> <i class="replaceable"><tt>x</tt></i>) (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_funcall.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">FUNCALL</tt></a> <i class="replaceable"><tt>hash-function</tt></i> <i class="replaceable"><tt>y</tt></i>))
- </pre></td></tr></table><p>
- This means that the following definition: </p><table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0"><tr><td><pre class="programlisting">
-  (<a href="hash-dict.html#defhash" title="18.1.2. Macro EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST"><tt class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</tt></a> number <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eqcm_sleq__lteqcm_gteq.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">=</tt></a> <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_sxhash.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">SXHASH</tt></a>) ; <strong>BAD!</strong>
- </pre></td></tr></table><p>
- is <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> correct because <tt class="sexp">(<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eqcm_sleq__lteqcm_gteq.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">=</tt></a> 1 1d0)</tt> is
- <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/convar_t.html" target="_top"><tt class="constant">T</tt></a> but <tt class="sexp">(<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eqcm_sleq__lteqcm_gteq.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">=</tt></a> (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_sxhash.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">SXHASH</tt></a> 1) (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_sxhash.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">SXHASH</tt></a> 1d0))</tt>
- is <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/convar_nil.html" target="_top"><tt class="constant">NIL</tt></a>.  The correct way is, e.g.: </p><table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0"><tr><td><pre class="programlisting">
-  (<a href="hash-dict.html#defhash" title="18.1.2. Macro EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST"><tt class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</tt></a> number <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eqcm_sleq__lteqcm_gteq.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">=</tt></a> (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/mac_lambda.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">LAMBDA</tt></a> (x) (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_sxhash.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">SXHASH</tt></a> (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_coerce.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">COERCE</tt></a> x '<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/typ_short-flo_m_long-float.html" target="_top"><tt class="classname">SHORT-FLOAT</tt></a>))))
- </pre></td></tr></table><p>
- (note that
- <tt class="sexp">(<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_coerce.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">COERCE</tt></a> <i class="replaceable"><tt>x</tt></i> <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/typ_short-flo_m_long-float.html" target="_top"><tt class="classname">SHORT-FLOAT</tt></a>)</tt>
- does <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> cons up <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/glo_f.html#fresh" target="_top">fresh</a> objects while
- <tt class="sexp">(<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_coerce.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">COERCE</tt></a> <i class="replaceable"><tt>x</tt></i> <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/typ_short-flo_m_long-float.html" target="_top"><tt class="classname">DOUBLE-FLOAT</tt></a>)</tt>
- does).</p></div><div class="section" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="ht-test"></a>18.1.3. Function <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_hash-table-test.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">HASH-TABLE-TEST</tt></a></h3></div></div><div></div></div><p>Function <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_hash-table-test.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">HASH-TABLE-TEST</tt></a> returns either one of the four standard
- symbols <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eq.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">EQ</tt></a>, <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eql.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">EQL</tt></a>, <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_equal.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">EQUAL</tt></a>, <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_equalp.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">EQUALP</tt></a>, or, for <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><tt class="classname">HASH-TABLE</tt></a>s
- created with a user-defined <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_hash-table-test.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">HASH-TABLE-TEST</tt></a> (see macro <a href="hash-dict.html#defhash" title="18.1.2. Macro EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST"><tt class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</tt></a>),
- a <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_cons.html" target="_top"><tt class="classname">CONS</tt></a> cell <tt class="sexp">(<i class="replaceable"><tt>test-function</tt></i> . <i class="replaceable"><tt>hash-function</tt></i>)</tt>.</p></div><div class="section" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="dohash"></a>18.1.4. Macro <a href="hash-dict.html#dohash" title="18.1.4. Macro EXT:DOHASH"><tt class="function">EXT:DOHASH</tt></a></h3></div></div><div></div></div><p>For iteration through a <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><tt class="classname">HASH-TABLE</tt></a>, a macro <a href="hash-dict.html#dohash" title="18.1.4. Macro EXT:DOHASH"><tt class="function">EXT:DOHASH</tt></a>,
- similar to <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/mac_dolist.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">DOLIST</tt></a>, can be used instead of <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_maphash.html" target="_top"><tt class="function">MAPHASH</tt></a>:</p><table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0"><tr><td><pre class="programlisting">
-(<a href="hash-dict.html#dohash" title="18.1.4. Macro EXT:DOHASH"><tt class="function">EXT:DOHASH</tt></a> (<i class="replaceable"><tt>key-var</tt></i> <i class="replaceable"><tt>value-var</tt></i> <i class="replaceable"><tt>hash-table-form</tt></i> [<i class="replaceable"><tt>resultform</tt></i>])
-  {<i class="replaceable"><tt>declaration</tt></i>}*
-  {<i class="replaceable"><tt>tag</tt></i>|<i class="replaceable"><tt>form</tt></i>}*)
-</pre></td></tr></table><p><a href="hash-dict.html#dohash" title="18.1.4. Macro EXT:DOHASH"><tt class="function">EXT:DOHASH</tt></a> forms are <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/glo_i.html#iteration_form" target="_top">iteration form</a>s.</p></div></div><div class="navfooter"><hr /><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="hash.html">Prev</a> </td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="hash.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right"> <a accesskey="n" href="filenames.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">Chapter 18. Hash Tables
+   <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/sec_the_hash__s_dictionary.html" target="_top">[CLHS-18.2]</a></h2></div></div></div><div class="toc"><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash">18.1.1. Function <code class="function">MAKE-HASH-TABLE</code></a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="hash-dict.html#hashtable-gc-rehash">18.1.1.1. Interaction between <code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code>s and garbage-collection.</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="section"><a href="hash-dict.html#defhash">18.1.2. Macro <code class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</code></a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="hash-dict.html#ht-test">18.1.3. Function <code class="function">HASH-TABLE-TEST</code></a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="hash-dict.html#dohash">18.1.4. Macro <code class="function">EXT:DOHASH</code></a></span></dt></dl></div><div class="section" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="make-hash"></a>18.1.1. Function <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_make-hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="function">MAKE-HASH-TABLE</code></a></h3></div></div></div><div class="toc"><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="hash-dict.html#hashtable-gc-rehash">18.1.1.1. Interaction between <code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code>s and garbage-collection.</a></span></dt></dl></div><p><a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_make-hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="function">MAKE-HASH-TABLE</code></a> accepts two additional keyword arguments
+ <code class="constant">:INITIAL-CONTENTS</code> and <code class="constant">:WEAK</code>:</p><pre class="programlisting">
+(<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_make-hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="function">MAKE-HASH-TABLE</code></a> <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/sec_3-4-1.html" target="_top"><code class="literal">&amp;KEY</code></a> :TEST :INITIAL-CONTENTS :SIZE
+                 :REHASH-SIZE :REHASH-THRESHOLD
+                 :WARN-IF-NEEDS-REHASH-AFTER-GC :WEAK)
+</pre><p>The <code class="constant">:TEST</code> argument can be, other than one of the symbols <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eq.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQ</code></a>,
+ <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eql.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQL</code></a>, <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_equal.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQUAL</code></a>, <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_equalp.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQUALP</code></a>, one of the symbols <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:FASTHASH-EQ</code></a> and
+ <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:STABLEHASH-EQ</code></a>.  Both of these tests use <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eq.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQ</code></a> as the comparison
+ function; they differ in their performance characteristics.
+ </p><div class="variablelist"><dl><dt><a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:FASTHASH-EQ</code></a></dt><dd>This uses the fastest possible hash function.
+     Its drawback is that its hash codes become invalid at every <a href="gc.html" title="Chapter 34. Overview of CLISP's Garbage Collection">garbage-collect</a>ion
+     (except if all keys are <a href="lisp-obj-in-c.html#immediate-o">immediate object</a>s),
+     thus requiring a reorganization of the hash table at the first
+     access after each <a href="gc.html" title="Chapter 34. Overview of CLISP's Garbage Collection">garbage-collect</a>ion. Especially when generational <a href="gc.html" title="Chapter 34. Overview of CLISP's Garbage Collection">garbage-collect</a>ion is used,
+     which leads to frequent small <a href="gc.html" title="Chapter 34. Overview of CLISP's Garbage Collection">garbage-collect</a>ions, large hash table with this test
+     can lead to scalability problems.</dd><dt><a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:STABLEHASH-EQ</code></a></dt><dd>This uses a slower hash function that has the
+     property that its hash codes for instances of the classes <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_symbol.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">SYMBOL</code></a>,
+     <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="classname">EXT:STANDARD-STABLEHASH</code></a> (subclass of <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/cla_standard-object.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">STANDARD-OBJECT</code></a>) and
+     <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="classname">EXT:STRUCTURE-STABLEHASH</code></a> (subclass of <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/cla_structure-object.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">STRUCTURE-OBJECT</code></a>) are
+     stable across GCs.
+     This test can thus avoid the scalability problems if all keys,
+     other than <a href="lisp-obj-in-c.html#immediate-o">immediate object</a>s, are <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_symbol.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">SYMBOL</code></a>, <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="classname">EXT:STANDARD-STABLEHASH</code></a> or
+     <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="classname">EXT:STRUCTURE-STABLEHASH</code></a> instances.</dd></dl></div><p>
+ One can recommend to use <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:FASTHASH-EQ</code></a> for short-lived hash tables.
+ For tables with a longer lifespan which can be big or accessed
+ frequently, it is recommended to use <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:STABLEHASH-EQ</code></a>, and to modify the
+ objects that are used as its keys to become instances of
+ <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="classname">EXT:STANDARD-STABLEHASH</code></a> or <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="classname">EXT:STRUCTURE-STABLEHASH</code></a>.
+</p><p>When the symbol <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eq.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQ</code></a> or the function <code class="literal">#'eq</code> is
+used as a <code class="constant">:TEST</code> argument, the value of the variable
+<code class="varname">EXT:*EQ-HASHFUNCTION*</code> is used instead. This value must
+be one of <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:FASTHASH-EQ</code></a>, <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:STABLEHASH-EQ</code></a>.</p><p>Similarly, the <code class="constant">:TEST</code> argument can also be one
+ of the symbols <code class="constant">EXT:FASTHASH-EQL</code>,
+ <code class="constant">EXT:STABLEHASH-EQL</code>,
+ <code class="constant">EXT:FASTHASH-EQUAL</code>,
+ <code class="constant">EXT:STABLEHASH-EQUAL</code>.
+ The same remarks apply as for <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:FASTHASH-EQ</code></a> and <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:STABLEHASH-EQ</code></a>.
+ When the symbol <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eql.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQL</code></a> or the function <code class="literal">#'eql</code> is used
+ as a <code class="constant">:TEST</code> argument, the value of the variable
+ <code class="varname">EXT:*EQL-HASHFUNCTION*</code> is used instead; this value must
+ be one of <code class="constant">EXT:FASTHASH-EQL</code>,
+ <code class="constant">EXT:STABLEHASH-EQL</code>.
+ Similarly, when the symbol <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_equal.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQUAL</code></a> or the function <code class="literal">#'equal</code>
+ is used as a <code class="constant">:TEST</code> argument, the value of the variable
+ <code class="varname">EXT:*EQUAL-HASHFUNCTION*</code> is used instead; this value
+ must be one of <code class="constant">EXT:FASTHASH-EQUAL</code>,
+ <code class="constant">EXT:STABLEHASH-EQUAL</code>.</p><p>The <code class="constant">:WARN-IF-NEEDS-REHASH-AFTER-GC</code> argument,
+if true, causes a <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/contyp_warning.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">WARNING</code></a> to be <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_signal.html" target="_top"><code class="function">SIGNAL</code></a>ed when an object is stored
+into the table which will force table reorganizations at the first
+access of the table after each <a href="gc.html" title="Chapter 34. Overview of CLISP's Garbage Collection">garbage-collect</a>ion.
+This keyword argument can be used to check whether <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:STABLEHASH-EQ</code></a>
+should be preferred over <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:FASTHASH-EQ</code></a> for a particular table.
+Use <code class="function">HASH-TABLE-WARN-IF-NEEDS-REHASH-AFTER-GC</code>
+to check and <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/mac_setfcm_psetf.html" target="_top"><code class="function">SETF</code></a> this parameter after the table has been created.</p><p>The <code class="constant">:INITIAL-CONTENTS</code> argument is an
+ <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/glo_a.html#association_list" target="_top">alist</a> that is used to initialize the new hash table.</p><p>The <code class="constant">:REHASH-THRESHOLD</code> argument is ignored.</p><p>The <code class="constant">:WEAK</code> argument can take the following values:
+ </p><table class="simplelist" border="0" summary="Simple list"><tr><td><a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/convar_nil.html" target="_top"><code class="constant">NIL</code></a> (default)</td></tr><tr><td><code class="constant">:KEY</code></td></tr><tr><td><code class="constant">:VALUE</code></td></tr><tr><td><code class="constant">:KEY-AND-VALUE</code></td></tr><tr><td><code class="constant">:KEY-OR-VALUE</code></td></tr></table><p>
+and specifies whether the <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code></a> is <span class="emphasis"><em>weak</em></span>:
+if the key, value, either or both are not accessible for the <a href="gc.html" title="Chapter 34. Overview of CLISP's Garbage Collection">garbage-collect</a>ion
+purposes, i.e., if they are only accessible via weak <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code></a>s
+and <a href="weak.html#weak-pointer" title="30.7.1. Weak Pointers"><code class="classname">EXT:WEAK-POINTER</code></a>s, it is <a href="gc.html" title="Chapter 34. Overview of CLISP's Garbage Collection">garbage-collect</a>ed and removed from the weak
+<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code></a>.</p><p>The <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/mac_setfcm_psetf.html" target="_top"><code class="function">SETF</code></a>able predicate <code class="function">EXT:HASH-TABLE-WEAK-P</code>
+checks whether the <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code></a> is weak.</p><p>Note that the only test that makes sense for weak hash tables are
+<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eq.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQ</code></a> and its variants <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:FASTHASH-EQ</code></a> and <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:STABLEHASH-EQ</code></a>.</p><p>Just like all other <a href="weak.html" title="30.7. Weak Objects">weak objects</a>, weak
+<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code></a>s cannot be printed readably.</p><p>See also <a href="weak.html#weak-ht" title="30.7.9. Weak Hash Tables">Section 30.7.9, “Weak Hash Tables”</a>.</p><div class="section" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="hashtable-gc-rehash"></a>18.1.1.1. Interaction between <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code></a>s and <a href="gc.html" title="Chapter 34. Overview of CLISP's Garbage Collection">garbage-collect</a>ion.</h4></div></div></div><p>When a hash table contains keys to be compared by identity - such
+ as <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_number.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">NUMBER</code></a>s in <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code></a>s with the <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_hash-table-test.html" target="_top"><code class="function">HASH-TABLE-TEST</code></a> <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eq.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQ</code></a>;
+ or <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_cons.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">CONS</code></a>es in tables which test with <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eq.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQ</code></a> or <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eql.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQL</code></a>;
+ or <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_vector.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">VECTOR</code></a>s in tables which test with <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eq.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQ</code></a>, <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eql.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQL</code></a> or <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_equal.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQUAL</code></a>;
+ or <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/cla_standard-object.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">STANDARD-OBJECT</code></a> or <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/cla_structure-object.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">STRUCTURE-OBJECT</code></a> instances in tables which
+ test with <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eq.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQ</code></a>, <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eql.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQL</code></a>, <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_equal.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQUAL</code></a> or <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_equalp.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQUALP</code></a>;
+ - the hash code will in general depend on the object's address in
+ memory.  Therefore it will in general be invalidated after a <a href="gc.html" title="Chapter 34. Overview of CLISP's Garbage Collection">garbage-collect</a>ion,
+ and the hash table's internal structure must be recomputed at the next
+ table access.</p><p>While <code class="constant">:WARN-IF-NEEDS-REHASH-AFTER-GC</code> can help
+ checking the efficiency of a particular <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code></a>, the variable
+<strong class="first"><em class="firstterm"><a href="hash-dict.html#hashtable-gc-rehash-warn"><code class="varname">CUSTOM:*WARN-ON-HASHTABLE-NEEDING-REHASH-AFTER-GC*</code></a>
+ <a id="hashtable-gc-rehash-warn" class="indexterm"></a></em></strong>
+ achieves the same effect for all <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code></a>s in the system at once:
+ when <a href="hash-dict.html#hashtable-gc-rehash-warn"><code class="varname">CUSTOM:*WARN-ON-HASHTABLE-NEEDING-REHASH-AFTER-GC*</code></a> is true and a
+ <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code></a> needs to be rehashed after a <a href="gc.html" title="Chapter 34. Overview of CLISP's Garbage Collection">garbage-collect</a>ion, a warning is
+ issued that shows the inefficient <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code></a>.</p><p>What can be done to avoid the inefficiencies detected by these warnings?
+ </p><div class="orderedlist"><ol type="1"><li>In many cases you can solve the problem
+    by using the <code class="function">STABLEHASH</code> variant of the hash
+    test.</li><li>In other cases, namely <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/cla_standard-object.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">STANDARD-OBJECT</code></a> or
+    <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/cla_structure-object.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">STRUCTURE-OBJECT</code></a> instances, you can solve the problem by making
+    the key object classes inherit from <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="classname">EXT:STANDARD-STABLEHASH</code></a> or
+    <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="classname">EXT:STRUCTURE-STABLEHASH</code></a>, respectively.</li><li>In the remaining cases, you should store a hash key
+    inside the object, of which you can guarantee uniqueness through
+    your application (for example the ID of an object in a database, or
+    the serial number of an object), and use this key as hash key
+    instead of the original object.</li></ol></div></div></div><div class="section" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="defhash"></a>18.1.2. Macro <a href="hash-dict.html#defhash" title="18.1.2. Macro EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST"><code class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</code></a></h3></div></div></div><p>You can define a new hash table test using the macro
+ <a href="hash-dict.html#defhash" title="18.1.2. Macro EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST"><code class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</code></a>: <code class="code">(<a href="hash-dict.html#defhash" title="18.1.2. Macro EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST"><code class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</code></a> test-name <em class="replaceable"><code>test-function</code></em> <em class="replaceable"><code>hash-function</code></em>)</code>, after
+ which <em class="replaceable"><code>test-name</code></em> can be passed as the
+ <code class="constant">:TEST</code> argument to <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_make-hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="function">MAKE-HASH-TABLE</code></a>.
+ E.g.: </p><pre class="programlisting">(<a href="hash-dict.html#defhash" title="18.1.2. Macro EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST"><code class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</code></a> string <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_stringeqc_ng-not-lessp.html" target="_top"><code class="function">STRING=</code></a> <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_sxhash.html" target="_top"><code class="function">SXHASH</code></a>)
+ (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_make-hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="function">MAKE-HASH-TABLE</code></a> :test 'string)</pre><p>
+(which is not too useful because it is equivalent to an <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_equal.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQUAL</code></a>
+<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code></a> but less efficient).</p><p>The fundamental requirement is that the <em class="replaceable"><code>test-function</code></em> and <em class="replaceable"><code>hash-function</code></em> are
+ consistent: </p><pre class="programlisting">
+(<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_funcall.html" target="_top"><code class="function">FUNCALL</code></a> <em class="replaceable"><code>test-function</code></em> <em class="replaceable"><code>x</code></em> <em class="replaceable"><code>y</code></em>) ⇒
+(<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eqcm_sleq__lteqcm_gteq.html" target="_top"><code class="function">=</code></a> (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_funcall.html" target="_top"><code class="function">FUNCALL</code></a> <em class="replaceable"><code>hash-function</code></em> <em class="replaceable"><code>x</code></em>) (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_funcall.html" target="_top"><code class="function">FUNCALL</code></a> <em class="replaceable"><code>hash-function</code></em> <em class="replaceable"><code>y</code></em>))
+ </pre><p>
+ This means that the following definition: </p><pre class="programlisting">
+(<a href="hash-dict.html#defhash" title="18.1.2. Macro EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST"><code class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</code></a> number <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eqcm_sleq__lteqcm_gteq.html" target="_top"><code class="function">=</code></a> <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_sxhash.html" target="_top"><code class="function">SXHASH</code></a>) <em class="lineannotation"><span class="lineannotation">; broken!</span></em>
+ </pre><p>
+ is <span class="strong"><strong>not</strong></span> correct because <code class="code">(<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eqcm_sleq__lteqcm_gteq.html" target="_top"><code class="function">=</code></a> 1 1d0)</code> is
+ <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/convar_t.html" target="_top"><code class="constant">T</code></a> but <code class="code">(<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eqcm_sleq__lteqcm_gteq.html" target="_top"><code class="function">=</code></a> (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_sxhash.html" target="_top"><code class="function">SXHASH</code></a> 1) (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_sxhash.html" target="_top"><code class="function">SXHASH</code></a> 1d0))</code>
+ is <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/convar_nil.html" target="_top"><code class="constant">NIL</code></a>.  The correct way is, e.g.: </p><pre class="programlisting">
+(<a href="hash-dict.html#defhash" title="18.1.2. Macro EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST"><code class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</code></a> number <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eqcm_sleq__lteqcm_gteq.html" target="_top"><code class="function">=</code></a> (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/mac_lambda.html" target="_top"><code class="function">LAMBDA</code></a> (x) (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_sxhash.html" target="_top"><code class="function">SXHASH</code></a> (<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_coerce.html" target="_top"><code class="function">COERCE</code></a> x '<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/typ_short-flo_m_long-float.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">SHORT-FLOAT</code></a>))))
+ </pre><p>
+ (note that <code class="code">(<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_coerce.html" target="_top"><code class="function">COERCE</code></a> <em class="replaceable"><code>x</code></em> <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/typ_short-flo_m_long-float.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">SHORT-FLOAT</code></a>)</code> does <span class="strong"><strong>not</strong></span>
+ cons up <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/glo_f.html#fresh" target="_top">fresh</a> objects while <code class="code">(<a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_coerce.html" target="_top"><code class="function">COERCE</code></a> <em class="replaceable"><code>x</code></em>
+ <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/typ_short-flo_m_long-float.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">DOUBLE-FLOAT</code></a>)</code> does).</p></div><div class="section" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="ht-test"></a>18.1.3. Function <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_hash-table-test.html" target="_top"><code class="function">HASH-TABLE-TEST</code></a></h3></div></div></div><p>Function <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_hash-table-test.html" target="_top"><code class="function">HASH-TABLE-TEST</code></a> returns either one of <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:FASTHASH-EQ</code></a>,
+ <a href="hash-dict.html#make-hash" title="18.1.1. Function MAKE-HASH-TABLE"><code class="constant">EXT:STABLEHASH-EQ</code></a>, <code class="constant">EXT:FASTHASH-EQL</code>,
+ <code class="constant">EXT:STABLEHASH-EQL</code>,
+ <code class="constant">EXT:FASTHASH-EQUAL</code>,
+ <code class="constant">EXT:STABLEHASH-EQUAL</code>, <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_equalp.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQUALP</code></a> (but not <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eq.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQ</code></a>, <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_eql.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQL</code></a>
+ nor <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_equal.html" target="_top"><code class="function">EQUAL</code></a> anymore), or, for <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code></a>s
+ created with a user-defined <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_hash-table-test.html" target="_top"><code class="function">HASH-TABLE-TEST</code></a> (see macro <a href="hash-dict.html#defhash" title="18.1.2. Macro EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST"><code class="function">EXT:DEFINE-HASH-TABLE-TEST</code></a>),
+ a <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_cons.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">CONS</code></a> cell <span class="data"><code class="literal">(<em class="replaceable"><code>test-function</code></em> . <em class="replaceable"><code>hash-function</code></em>)</code></span>.
+</p></div><div class="section" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="dohash"></a>18.1.4. Macro <a href="hash-dict.html#dohash" title="18.1.4. Macro EXT:DOHASH"><code class="function">EXT:DOHASH</code></a></h3></div></div></div><p>For iteration through a <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/syscla_hash-table.html" target="_top"><code class="classname">HASH-TABLE</code></a>, a macro <a href="hash-dict.html#dohash" title="18.1.4. Macro EXT:DOHASH"><code class="function">EXT:DOHASH</code></a>,
+ similar to <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/mac_dolist.html" target="_top"><code class="function">DOLIST</code></a>, can be used instead of <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/fun_maphash.html" target="_top"><code class="function">MAPHASH</code></a>:</p><pre class="programlisting">
+(<a href="hash-dict.html#dohash" title="18.1.4. Macro EXT:DOHASH"><code class="function">EXT:DOHASH</code></a> (<em class="replaceable"><code>key-var</code></em> <em class="replaceable"><code>value-var</code></em> <em class="replaceable"><code>hash-table-form</code></em> [<em class="replaceable"><code>resultform</code></em>])
+  {<em class="replaceable"><code>declaration</code></em>}*
+  {<em class="replaceable"><code>tag</code></em>|<em class="replaceable"><code>form</code></em>}*)
+</pre><p><a href="hash-dict.html#dohash" title="18.1.4. Macro EXT:DOHASH"><code class="function">EXT:DOHASH</code></a> forms are <a href="http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/glo_i.html#iteration_form" target="_top">iteration form</a>s.</p></div></div><div class="bookinfo"><hr width="100%" /><table width="100%" summary="impnotes meta info"><th><td align="left">These notes document <a href="http://clisp.cons.org" target="_top"><span><strong class="command">CLISP</strong></span></a> version 2.34.</td><td align="right">Last modified: 2005-07-20</td></th></table></div><div class="custom-footer"><hr width="100%" /><table width="100%"><tr><td align="left"><a href="http://clisp.cons.org"><img src="clisp.png" width="48" height="48" alt="[CLISP home]" /></a></td><td align="center"><a href="http://www.gnu.org"><img src="http://www.gnu.org/graphics/gnubanner.jpg" width="468" height="60" alt="[Come and see what GNU creates for YOU]" /></a></td><td align="right"><a href="http://sourceforge.net"><img width="125" height="37" alt="[SourceForge]" src="http://sflogo.sourceforge.net/sflogo.php?group_id=1355&amp;type=2&amp;page=hash-dict" /></a></td></tr></table></div><div class="navfooter"><hr /><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="hash.html">Prev</a> </td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="hash.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right"> <a accesskey="n" href="filenames.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">Chapter 18. Hash Tables
[CLHS-18] </td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="index.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top"> Chapter 19. Filenames
-   [CLHS-19]</td></tr></table></div><div class="custom-footer"><hr width="100%" /><table width="100%"><tr><td align="left"><a href="http://clisp.cons.org"><img src="clisp.png" width="48" height="48" alt="[CLISP home]" /></a></td><td align="center"><a href="http://www.gnu.org"><img src="http://www.gnu.org/graphics/gnubanner.jpg" width="468" height="60" alt="[Come and see what GNU creates for YOU]" /></a></td><td align="right"><a href="http://sourceforge.net"><img src="http://sourceforge.net/sflogo.php?group_id=1355&amp;amp;type=2" width="125" height="37" alt="[SourceForge]" /></a></td></tr></table></div></body></html>
+   [CLHS-19]</td></tr></table></div></body></html>
```