I examine changes in Emacs 23.2, I found:
"
    ** Byte compilation changes
    ---
    *** Changing the file-names generated by byte-compilation by redefining
    the function `byte-compile-dest-file' before loading bytecomp.el is obsolete.
    Instead, customize byte-compile-dest-file-function.
"
And just at this point, I have test cedet-cvs with Emacs 23.1.96, the compile errors go on.(ede-gnustep.el:552:1:Error: Symbol's value as variable is void: filename)

So, maybe it's Emacs 23.2 - Byte compilation changes that lead to the compile errors.