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+/*
+** 2001 September 15
+**
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+**
+**    May you do good and not evil.
+**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+**
+*************************************************************************
+** This header file defines the interface that the SQLite library
+** presents to client programs.  If a C-function, structure, datatype,
+** or constant definition does not appear in this file, then it is
+** not a published API of SQLite, is subject to change without
+** notice, and should not be referenced by programs that use SQLite.
+**
+** Some of the definitions that are in this file are marked as
+** "experimental".  Experimental interfaces are normally new
+** features recently added to SQLite.  We do not anticipate changes
+** to experimental interfaces but reserve the right to make minor changes
+** if experience from use "in the wild" suggest such changes are prudent.
+**
+** The official C-language API documentation for SQLite is derived
+** from comments in this file.  This file is the authoritative source
+** on how SQLite interfaces are suppose to operate.
+**
+** The name of this file under configuration management is "sqlite.h.in".
+** The makefile makes some minor changes to this file (such as inserting
+** the version number) and changes its name to "sqlite3.h" as
+** part of the build process.
+*/
+#ifndef _SQLITE3_H_
+#define _SQLITE3_H_
+#include <stdarg.h>     /* Needed for the definition of va_list */
+
+/*
+** Make sure we can call this stuff from C++.
+*/
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" {
+#endif
+
+
+/*
+** Add the ability to override 'extern'
+*/
+#ifndef SQLITE_EXTERN
+# define SQLITE_EXTERN extern
+#endif
+
+#ifndef SQLITE_API
+# define SQLITE_API
+#endif
+
+
+/*
+** These no-op macros are used in front of interfaces to mark those
+** interfaces as either deprecated or experimental.  New applications
+** should not use deprecated interfaces - they are support for backwards
+** compatibility only.  Application writers should be aware that
+** experimental interfaces are subject to change in point releases.
+**
+** These macros used to resolve to various kinds of compiler magic that
+** would generate warning messages when they were used.  But that
+** compiler magic ended up generating such a flurry of bug reports
+** that we have taken it all out and gone back to using simple
+** noop macros.
+*/
+#define SQLITE_DEPRECATED
+#define SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL
+
+/*
+** Ensure these symbols were not defined by some previous header file.
+*/
+#ifdef SQLITE_VERSION
+# undef SQLITE_VERSION
+#endif
+#ifdef SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER
+# undef SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER
+#endif
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Compile-Time Library Version Numbers
+**
+** ^(The [SQLITE_VERSION] C preprocessor macro in the sqlite3.h header
+** evaluates to a string literal that is the SQLite version in the
+** format "X.Y.Z" where X is the major version number (always 3 for
+** SQLite3) and Y is the minor version number and Z is the release number.)^
+** ^(The [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER] C preprocessor macro resolves to an integer
+** with the value (X*1000000 + Y*1000 + Z) where X, Y, and Z are the same
+** numbers used in [SQLITE_VERSION].)^
+** The SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER for any given release of SQLite will also
+** be larger than the release from which it is derived.  Either Y will
+** be held constant and Z will be incremented or else Y will be incremented
+** and Z will be reset to zero.
+**
+** Since version 3.6.18, SQLite source code has been stored in the
+** <a href="http://www.fossil-scm.org/">Fossil configuration management
+** system</a>.  ^The SQLITE_SOURCE_ID macro evaluates to
+** a string which identifies a particular check-in of SQLite
+** within its configuration management system.  ^The SQLITE_SOURCE_ID
+** string contains the date and time of the check-in (UTC) and an SHA1
+** hash of the entire source tree.
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_libversion()],
+** [sqlite3_libversion_number()], [sqlite3_sourceid()],
+** [sqlite_version()] and [sqlite_source_id()].
+*/
+#define SQLITE_VERSION        "3.7.9"
+#define SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER 3007009
+#define SQLITE_SOURCE_ID      "2011-11-01 00:52:41 c7c6050ef060877ebe77b41d959e9df13f8c9b5e"
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Library Version Numbers
+** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_version, sqlite3_sourceid
+**
+** These interfaces provide the same information as the [SQLITE_VERSION],
+** [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER], and [SQLITE_SOURCE_ID] C preprocessor macros
+** but are associated with the library instead of the header file.  ^(Cautious
+** programmers might include assert() statements in their application to
+** verify that values returned by these interfaces match the macros in
+** the header, and thus insure that the application is
+** compiled with matching library and header files.
+**
+** <blockquote><pre>
+** assert( sqlite3_libversion_number()==SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER );
+** assert( strcmp(sqlite3_sourceid(),SQLITE_SOURCE_ID)==0 );
+** assert( strcmp(sqlite3_libversion(),SQLITE_VERSION)==0 );
+** </pre></blockquote>)^
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_version[] string constant contains the text of [SQLITE_VERSION]
+** macro.  ^The sqlite3_libversion() function returns a pointer to the
+** to the sqlite3_version[] string constant.  The sqlite3_libversion()
+** function is provided for use in DLLs since DLL users usually do not have
+** direct access to string constants within the DLL.  ^The
+** sqlite3_libversion_number() function returns an integer equal to
+** [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER].  ^The sqlite3_sourceid() function returns 
+** a pointer to a string constant whose value is the same as the 
+** [SQLITE_SOURCE_ID] C preprocessor macro.
+**
+** See also: [sqlite_version()] and [sqlite_source_id()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXTERN const char sqlite3_version[];
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_libversion(void);
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_sourceid(void);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_libversion_number(void);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Library Compilation Options Diagnostics
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_compileoption_used() function returns 0 or 1 
+** indicating whether the specified option was defined at 
+** compile time.  ^The SQLITE_ prefix may be omitted from the 
+** option name passed to sqlite3_compileoption_used().  
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_compileoption_get() function allows iterating
+** over the list of options that were defined at compile time by
+** returning the N-th compile time option string.  ^If N is out of range,
+** sqlite3_compileoption_get() returns a NULL pointer.  ^The SQLITE_ 
+** prefix is omitted from any strings returned by 
+** sqlite3_compileoption_get().
+**
+** ^Support for the diagnostic functions sqlite3_compileoption_used()
+** and sqlite3_compileoption_get() may be omitted by specifying the 
+** [SQLITE_OMIT_COMPILEOPTION_DIAGS] option at compile time.
+**
+** See also: SQL functions [sqlite_compileoption_used()] and
+** [sqlite_compileoption_get()] and the [compile_options pragma].
+*/
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_COMPILEOPTION_DIAGS
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_compileoption_used(const char *zOptName);
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_compileoption_get(int N);
+#endif
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Test To See If The Library Is Threadsafe
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_threadsafe() function returns zero if and only if
+** SQLite was compiled mutexing code omitted due to the
+** [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] compile-time option being set to 0.
+**
+** SQLite can be compiled with or without mutexes.  When
+** the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] C preprocessor macro is 1 or 2, mutexes
+** are enabled and SQLite is threadsafe.  When the
+** [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] macro is 0, 
+** the mutexes are omitted.  Without the mutexes, it is not safe
+** to use SQLite concurrently from more than one thread.
+**
+** Enabling mutexes incurs a measurable performance penalty.
+** So if speed is of utmost importance, it makes sense to disable
+** the mutexes.  But for maximum safety, mutexes should be enabled.
+** ^The default behavior is for mutexes to be enabled.
+**
+** This interface can be used by an application to make sure that the
+** version of SQLite that it is linking against was compiled with
+** the desired setting of the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] macro.
+**
+** This interface only reports on the compile-time mutex setting
+** of the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] flag.  If SQLite is compiled with
+** SQLITE_THREADSAFE=1 or =2 then mutexes are enabled by default but
+** can be fully or partially disabled using a call to [sqlite3_config()]
+** with the verbs [SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD], [SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD],
+** or [SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX].  ^(The return value of the
+** sqlite3_threadsafe() function shows only the compile-time setting of
+** thread safety, not any run-time changes to that setting made by
+** sqlite3_config(). In other words, the return value from sqlite3_threadsafe()
+** is unchanged by calls to sqlite3_config().)^
+**
+** See the [threading mode] documentation for additional information.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_threadsafe(void);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Database Connection Handle
+** KEYWORDS: {database connection} {database connections}
+**
+** Each open SQLite database is represented by a pointer to an instance of
+** the opaque structure named "sqlite3".  It is useful to think of an sqlite3
+** pointer as an object.  The [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], and
+** [sqlite3_open_v2()] interfaces are its constructors, and [sqlite3_close()]
+** is its destructor.  There are many other interfaces (such as
+** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()], [sqlite3_create_function()], and
+** [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] to name but three) that are methods on an
+** sqlite3 object.
+*/
+typedef struct sqlite3 sqlite3;
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: 64-Bit Integer Types
+** KEYWORDS: sqlite_int64 sqlite_uint64
+**
+** Because there is no cross-platform way to specify 64-bit integer types
+** SQLite includes typedefs for 64-bit signed and unsigned integers.
+**
+** The sqlite3_int64 and sqlite3_uint64 are the preferred type definitions.
+** The sqlite_int64 and sqlite_uint64 types are supported for backwards
+** compatibility only.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_int64 and sqlite_int64 types can store integer values
+** between -9223372036854775808 and +9223372036854775807 inclusive.  ^The
+** sqlite3_uint64 and sqlite_uint64 types can store integer values 
+** between 0 and +18446744073709551615 inclusive.
+*/
+#ifdef SQLITE_INT64_TYPE
+  typedef SQLITE_INT64_TYPE sqlite_int64;
+  typedef unsigned SQLITE_INT64_TYPE sqlite_uint64;
+#elif defined(_MSC_VER) || defined(__BORLANDC__)
+  typedef __int64 sqlite_int64;
+  typedef unsigned __int64 sqlite_uint64;
+#else
+  typedef long long int sqlite_int64;
+  typedef unsigned long long int sqlite_uint64;
+#endif
+typedef sqlite_int64 sqlite3_int64;
+typedef sqlite_uint64 sqlite3_uint64;
+
+/*
+** If compiling for a processor that lacks floating point support,
+** substitute integer for floating-point.
+*/
+#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
+# define double sqlite3_int64
+#endif
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Closing A Database Connection
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_close() routine is the destructor for the [sqlite3] object.
+** ^Calls to sqlite3_close() return SQLITE_OK if the [sqlite3] object is
+** successfully destroyed and all associated resources are deallocated.
+**
+** Applications must [sqlite3_finalize | finalize] all [prepared statements]
+** and [sqlite3_blob_close | close] all [BLOB handles] associated with
+** the [sqlite3] object prior to attempting to close the object.  ^If
+** sqlite3_close() is called on a [database connection] that still has
+** outstanding [prepared statements] or [BLOB handles], then it returns
+** SQLITE_BUSY.
+**
+** ^If [sqlite3_close()] is invoked while a transaction is open,
+** the transaction is automatically rolled back.
+**
+** The C parameter to [sqlite3_close(C)] must be either a NULL
+** pointer or an [sqlite3] object pointer obtained
+** from [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], or
+** [sqlite3_open_v2()], and not previously closed.
+** ^Calling sqlite3_close() with a NULL pointer argument is a 
+** harmless no-op.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_close(sqlite3 *);
+
+/*
+** The type for a callback function.
+** This is legacy and deprecated.  It is included for historical
+** compatibility and is not documented.
+*/
+typedef int (*sqlite3_callback)(void*,int,char**, char**);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: One-Step Query Execution Interface
+**
+** The sqlite3_exec() interface is a convenience wrapper around
+** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()], [sqlite3_step()], and [sqlite3_finalize()],
+** that allows an application to run multiple statements of SQL
+** without having to use a lot of C code. 
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_exec() interface runs zero or more UTF-8 encoded,
+** semicolon-separate SQL statements passed into its 2nd argument,
+** in the context of the [database connection] passed in as its 1st
+** argument.  ^If the callback function of the 3rd argument to
+** sqlite3_exec() is not NULL, then it is invoked for each result row
+** coming out of the evaluated SQL statements.  ^The 4th argument to
+** sqlite3_exec() is relayed through to the 1st argument of each
+** callback invocation.  ^If the callback pointer to sqlite3_exec()
+** is NULL, then no callback is ever invoked and result rows are
+** ignored.
+**
+** ^If an error occurs while evaluating the SQL statements passed into
+** sqlite3_exec(), then execution of the current statement stops and
+** subsequent statements are skipped.  ^If the 5th parameter to sqlite3_exec()
+** is not NULL then any error message is written into memory obtained
+** from [sqlite3_malloc()] and passed back through the 5th parameter.
+** To avoid memory leaks, the application should invoke [sqlite3_free()]
+** on error message strings returned through the 5th parameter of
+** of sqlite3_exec() after the error message string is no longer needed.
+** ^If the 5th parameter to sqlite3_exec() is not NULL and no errors
+** occur, then sqlite3_exec() sets the pointer in its 5th parameter to
+** NULL before returning.
+**
+** ^If an sqlite3_exec() callback returns non-zero, the sqlite3_exec()
+** routine returns SQLITE_ABORT without invoking the callback again and
+** without running any subsequent SQL statements.
+**
+** ^The 2nd argument to the sqlite3_exec() callback function is the
+** number of columns in the result.  ^The 3rd argument to the sqlite3_exec()
+** callback is an array of pointers to strings obtained as if from
+** [sqlite3_column_text()], one for each column.  ^If an element of a
+** result row is NULL then the corresponding string pointer for the
+** sqlite3_exec() callback is a NULL pointer.  ^The 4th argument to the
+** sqlite3_exec() callback is an array of pointers to strings where each
+** entry represents the name of corresponding result column as obtained
+** from [sqlite3_column_name()].
+**
+** ^If the 2nd parameter to sqlite3_exec() is a NULL pointer, a pointer
+** to an empty string, or a pointer that contains only whitespace and/or 
+** SQL comments, then no SQL statements are evaluated and the database
+** is not changed.
+**
+** Restrictions:
+**
+** <ul>
+** <li> The application must insure that the 1st parameter to sqlite3_exec()
+**      is a valid and open [database connection].
+** <li> The application must not close [database connection] specified by
+**      the 1st parameter to sqlite3_exec() while sqlite3_exec() is running.
+** <li> The application must not modify the SQL statement text passed into
+**      the 2nd parameter of sqlite3_exec() while sqlite3_exec() is running.
+** </ul>
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_exec(
+  sqlite3*,                                  /* An open database */
+  const char *sql,                           /* SQL to be evaluated */
+  int (*callback)(void*,int,char**,char**),  /* Callback function */
+  void *,                                    /* 1st argument to callback */
+  char **errmsg                              /* Error msg written here */
+);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Result Codes
+** KEYWORDS: SQLITE_OK {error code} {error codes}
+** KEYWORDS: {result code} {result codes}
+**
+** Many SQLite functions return an integer result code from the set shown
+** here in order to indicates success or failure.
+**
+** New error codes may be added in future versions of SQLite.
+**
+** See also: [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result codes],
+** [sqlite3_vtab_on_conflict()] [SQLITE_ROLLBACK | result codes].
+*/
+#define SQLITE_OK           0   /* Successful result */
+/* beginning-of-error-codes */
+#define SQLITE_ERROR        1   /* SQL error or missing database */
+#define SQLITE_INTERNAL     2   /* Internal logic error in SQLite */
+#define SQLITE_PERM         3   /* Access permission denied */
+#define SQLITE_ABORT        4   /* Callback routine requested an abort */
+#define SQLITE_BUSY         5   /* The database file is locked */
+#define SQLITE_LOCKED       6   /* A table in the database is locked */
+#define SQLITE_NOMEM        7   /* A malloc() failed */
+#define SQLITE_READONLY     8   /* Attempt to write a readonly database */
+#define SQLITE_INTERRUPT    9   /* Operation terminated by sqlite3_interrupt()*/
+#define SQLITE_IOERR       10   /* Some kind of disk I/O error occurred */
+#define SQLITE_CORRUPT     11   /* The database disk image is malformed */
+#define SQLITE_NOTFOUND    12   /* Unknown opcode in sqlite3_file_control() */
+#define SQLITE_FULL        13   /* Insertion failed because database is full */
+#define SQLITE_CANTOPEN    14   /* Unable to open the database file */
+#define SQLITE_PROTOCOL    15   /* Database lock protocol error */
+#define SQLITE_EMPTY       16   /* Database is empty */
+#define SQLITE_SCHEMA      17   /* The database schema changed */
+#define SQLITE_TOOBIG      18   /* String or BLOB exceeds size limit */
+#define SQLITE_CONSTRAINT  19   /* Abort due to constraint violation */
+#define SQLITE_MISMATCH    20   /* Data type mismatch */
+#define SQLITE_MISUSE      21   /* Library used incorrectly */
+#define SQLITE_NOLFS       22   /* Uses OS features not supported on host */
+#define SQLITE_AUTH        23   /* Authorization denied */
+#define SQLITE_FORMAT      24   /* Auxiliary database format error */
+#define SQLITE_RANGE       25   /* 2nd parameter to sqlite3_bind out of range */
+#define SQLITE_NOTADB      26   /* File opened that is not a database file */
+#define SQLITE_ROW         100  /* sqlite3_step() has another row ready */
+#define SQLITE_DONE        101  /* sqlite3_step() has finished executing */
+/* end-of-error-codes */
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Extended Result Codes
+** KEYWORDS: {extended error code} {extended error codes}
+** KEYWORDS: {extended result code} {extended result codes}
+**
+** In its default configuration, SQLite API routines return one of 26 integer
+** [SQLITE_OK | result codes].  However, experience has shown that many of
+** these result codes are too coarse-grained.  They do not provide as
+** much information about problems as programmers might like.  In an effort to
+** address this, newer versions of SQLite (version 3.3.8 and later) include
+** support for additional result codes that provide more detailed information
+** about errors. The extended result codes are enabled or disabled
+** on a per database connection basis using the
+** [sqlite3_extended_result_codes()] API.
+**
+** Some of the available extended result codes are listed here.
+** One may expect the number of extended result codes will be expand
+** over time.  Software that uses extended result codes should expect
+** to see new result codes in future releases of SQLite.
+**
+** The SQLITE_OK result code will never be extended.  It will always
+** be exactly zero.
+*/
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_READ              (SQLITE_IOERR | (1<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_SHORT_READ        (SQLITE_IOERR | (2<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_WRITE             (SQLITE_IOERR | (3<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_FSYNC             (SQLITE_IOERR | (4<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_DIR_FSYNC         (SQLITE_IOERR | (5<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_TRUNCATE          (SQLITE_IOERR | (6<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_FSTAT             (SQLITE_IOERR | (7<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_UNLOCK            (SQLITE_IOERR | (8<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_RDLOCK            (SQLITE_IOERR | (9<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_DELETE            (SQLITE_IOERR | (10<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED           (SQLITE_IOERR | (11<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_NOMEM             (SQLITE_IOERR | (12<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_ACCESS            (SQLITE_IOERR | (13<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_CHECKRESERVEDLOCK (SQLITE_IOERR | (14<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_LOCK              (SQLITE_IOERR | (15<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_CLOSE             (SQLITE_IOERR | (16<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_DIR_CLOSE         (SQLITE_IOERR | (17<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_SHMOPEN           (SQLITE_IOERR | (18<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_SHMSIZE           (SQLITE_IOERR | (19<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_SHMLOCK           (SQLITE_IOERR | (20<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_SHMMAP            (SQLITE_IOERR | (21<<8))
+#define SQLITE_IOERR_SEEK              (SQLITE_IOERR | (22<<8))
+#define SQLITE_LOCKED_SHAREDCACHE      (SQLITE_LOCKED |  (1<<8))
+#define SQLITE_BUSY_RECOVERY           (SQLITE_BUSY   |  (1<<8))
+#define SQLITE_CANTOPEN_NOTEMPDIR      (SQLITE_CANTOPEN | (1<<8))
+#define SQLITE_CORRUPT_VTAB            (SQLITE_CORRUPT | (1<<8))
+#define SQLITE_READONLY_RECOVERY       (SQLITE_READONLY | (1<<8))
+#define SQLITE_READONLY_CANTLOCK       (SQLITE_READONLY | (2<<8))
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Flags For File Open Operations
+**
+** These bit values are intended for use in the
+** 3rd parameter to the [sqlite3_open_v2()] interface and
+** in the 4th parameter to the [sqlite3_vfs.xOpen] method.
+*/
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY         0x00000001  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE        0x00000002  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE           0x00000004  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE    0x00000008  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE        0x00000010  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_AUTOPROXY        0x00000020  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_URI              0x00000040  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB          0x00000100  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_DB          0x00000200  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_TRANSIENT_DB     0x00000400  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_JOURNAL     0x00000800  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_JOURNAL     0x00001000  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_SUBJOURNAL       0x00002000  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_MASTER_JOURNAL   0x00004000  /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX          0x00008000  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_FULLMUTEX        0x00010000  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE      0x00020000  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_PRIVATECACHE     0x00040000  /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_WAL              0x00080000  /* VFS only */
+
+/* Reserved:                         0x00F00000 */
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Device Characteristics
+**
+** The xDeviceCharacteristics method of the [sqlite3_io_methods]
+** object returns an integer which is a vector of the these
+** bit values expressing I/O characteristics of the mass storage
+** device that holds the file that the [sqlite3_io_methods]
+** refers to.
+**
+** The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC property means that all writes of
+** any size are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMICnnn values
+** mean that writes of blocks that are nnn bytes in size and
+** are aligned to an address which is an integer multiple of
+** nnn are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND value means
+** that when data is appended to a file, the data is appended
+** first then the size of the file is extended, never the other
+** way around.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL property means that
+** information is written to disk in the same order as calls
+** to xWrite().
+*/
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC                 0x00000001
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC512              0x00000002
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC1K               0x00000004
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC2K               0x00000008
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC4K               0x00000010
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC8K               0x00000020
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC16K              0x00000040
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC32K              0x00000080
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC64K              0x00000100
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND            0x00000200
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL             0x00000400
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_UNDELETABLE_WHEN_OPEN  0x00000800
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: File Locking Levels
+**
+** SQLite uses one of these integer values as the second
+** argument to calls it makes to the xLock() and xUnlock() methods
+** of an [sqlite3_io_methods] object.
+*/
+#define SQLITE_LOCK_NONE          0
+#define SQLITE_LOCK_SHARED        1
+#define SQLITE_LOCK_RESERVED      2
+#define SQLITE_LOCK_PENDING       3
+#define SQLITE_LOCK_EXCLUSIVE     4
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Synchronization Type Flags
+**
+** When SQLite invokes the xSync() method of an
+** [sqlite3_io_methods] object it uses a combination of
+** these integer values as the second argument.
+**
+** When the SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY flag is used, it means that the
+** sync operation only needs to flush data to mass storage.  Inode
+** information need not be flushed. If the lower four bits of the flag
+** equal SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL, that means to use normal fsync() semantics.
+** If the lower four bits equal SQLITE_SYNC_FULL, that means
+** to use Mac OS X style fullsync instead of fsync().
+**
+** Do not confuse the SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL and SQLITE_SYNC_FULL flags
+** with the [PRAGMA synchronous]=NORMAL and [PRAGMA synchronous]=FULL
+** settings.  The [synchronous pragma] determines when calls to the
+** xSync VFS method occur and applies uniformly across all platforms.
+** The SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL and SQLITE_SYNC_FULL flags determine how
+** energetic or rigorous or forceful the sync operations are and
+** only make a difference on Mac OSX for the default SQLite code.
+** (Third-party VFS implementations might also make the distinction
+** between SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL and SQLITE_SYNC_FULL, but among the
+** operating systems natively supported by SQLite, only Mac OSX
+** cares about the difference.)
+*/
+#define SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL        0x00002
+#define SQLITE_SYNC_FULL          0x00003
+#define SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY      0x00010
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: OS Interface Open File Handle
+**
+** An [sqlite3_file] object represents an open file in the 
+** [sqlite3_vfs | OS interface layer].  Individual OS interface
+** implementations will
+** want to subclass this object by appending additional fields
+** for their own use.  The pMethods entry is a pointer to an
+** [sqlite3_io_methods] object that defines methods for performing
+** I/O operations on the open file.
+*/
+typedef struct sqlite3_file sqlite3_file;
+struct sqlite3_file {
+  const struct sqlite3_io_methods *pMethods;  /* Methods for an open file */
+};
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: OS Interface File Virtual Methods Object
+**
+** Every file opened by the [sqlite3_vfs.xOpen] method populates an
+** [sqlite3_file] object (or, more commonly, a subclass of the
+** [sqlite3_file] object) with a pointer to an instance of this object.
+** This object defines the methods used to perform various operations
+** against the open file represented by the [sqlite3_file] object.
+**
+** If the [sqlite3_vfs.xOpen] method sets the sqlite3_file.pMethods element 
+** to a non-NULL pointer, then the sqlite3_io_methods.xClose method
+** may be invoked even if the [sqlite3_vfs.xOpen] reported that it failed.  The
+** only way to prevent a call to xClose following a failed [sqlite3_vfs.xOpen]
+** is for the [sqlite3_vfs.xOpen] to set the sqlite3_file.pMethods element
+** to NULL.
+**
+** The flags argument to xSync may be one of [SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL] or
+** [SQLITE_SYNC_FULL].  The first choice is the normal fsync().
+** The second choice is a Mac OS X style fullsync.  The [SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY]
+** flag may be ORed in to indicate that only the data of the file
+** and not its inode needs to be synced.
+**
+** The integer values to xLock() and xUnlock() are one of
+** <ul>
+** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_NONE],
+** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_SHARED],
+** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_RESERVED],
+** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_PENDING], or
+** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_EXCLUSIVE].
+** </ul>
+** xLock() increases the lock. xUnlock() decreases the lock.
+** The xCheckReservedLock() method checks whether any database connection,
+** either in this process or in some other process, is holding a RESERVED,
+** PENDING, or EXCLUSIVE lock on the file.  It returns true
+** if such a lock exists and false otherwise.
+**
+** The xFileControl() method is a generic interface that allows custom
+** VFS implementations to directly control an open file using the
+** [sqlite3_file_control()] interface.  The second "op" argument is an
+** integer opcode.  The third argument is a generic pointer intended to
+** point to a structure that may contain arguments or space in which to
+** write return values.  Potential uses for xFileControl() might be
+** functions to enable blocking locks with timeouts, to change the
+** locking strategy (for example to use dot-file locks), to inquire
+** about the status of a lock, or to break stale locks.  The SQLite
+** core reserves all opcodes less than 100 for its own use.
+** A [SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE | list of opcodes] less than 100 is available.
+** Applications that define a custom xFileControl method should use opcodes
+** greater than 100 to avoid conflicts.  VFS implementations should
+** return [SQLITE_NOTFOUND] for file control opcodes that they do not
+** recognize.
+**
+** The xSectorSize() method returns the sector size of the
+** device that underlies the file.  The sector size is the
+** minimum write that can be performed without disturbing
+** other bytes in the file.  The xDeviceCharacteristics()
+** method returns a bit vector describing behaviors of the
+** underlying device:
+**
+** <ul>
+** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC]
+** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC512]
+** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC1K]
+** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC2K]
+** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC4K]
+** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC8K]
+** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC16K]
+** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC32K]
+** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC64K]
+** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND]
+** <li> [SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL]
+** </ul>
+**
+** The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC property means that all writes of
+** any size are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMICnnn values
+** mean that writes of blocks that are nnn bytes in size and
+** are aligned to an address which is an integer multiple of
+** nnn are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND value means
+** that when data is appended to a file, the data is appended
+** first then the size of the file is extended, never the other
+** way around.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL property means that
+** information is written to disk in the same order as calls
+** to xWrite().
+**
+** If xRead() returns SQLITE_IOERR_SHORT_READ it must also fill
+** in the unread portions of the buffer with zeros.  A VFS that
+** fails to zero-fill short reads might seem to work.  However,
+** failure to zero-fill short reads will eventually lead to
+** database corruption.
+*/
+typedef struct sqlite3_io_methods sqlite3_io_methods;
+struct sqlite3_io_methods {
+  int iVersion;
+  int (*xClose)(sqlite3_file*);
+  int (*xRead)(sqlite3_file*, void*, int iAmt, sqlite3_int64 iOfst);
+  int (*xWrite)(sqlite3_file*, const void*, int iAmt, sqlite3_int64 iOfst);
+  int (*xTruncate)(sqlite3_file*, sqlite3_int64 size);
+  int (*xSync)(sqlite3_file*, int flags);
+  int (*xFileSize)(sqlite3_file*, sqlite3_int64 *pSize);
+  int (*xLock)(sqlite3_file*, int);
+  int (*xUnlock)(sqlite3_file*, int);
+  int (*xCheckReservedLock)(sqlite3_file*, int *pResOut);
+  int (*xFileControl)(sqlite3_file*, int op, void *pArg);
+  int (*xSectorSize)(sqlite3_file*);
+  int (*xDeviceCharacteristics)(sqlite3_file*);
+  /* Methods above are valid for version 1 */
+  int (*xShmMap)(sqlite3_file*, int iPg, int pgsz, int, void volatile**);
+  int (*xShmLock)(sqlite3_file*, int offset, int n, int flags);
+  void (*xShmBarrier)(sqlite3_file*);
+  int (*xShmUnmap)(sqlite3_file*, int deleteFlag);
+  /* Methods above are valid for version 2 */
+  /* Additional methods may be added in future releases */
+};
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Standard File Control Opcodes
+**
+** These integer constants are opcodes for the xFileControl method
+** of the [sqlite3_io_methods] object and for the [sqlite3_file_control()]
+** interface.
+**
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE] opcode is used for debugging.  This
+** opcode causes the xFileControl method to write the current state of
+** the lock (one of [SQLITE_LOCK_NONE], [SQLITE_LOCK_SHARED],
+** [SQLITE_LOCK_RESERVED], [SQLITE_LOCK_PENDING], or [SQLITE_LOCK_EXCLUSIVE])
+** into an integer that the pArg argument points to. This capability
+** is used during testing and only needs to be supported when SQLITE_TEST
+** is defined.
+**
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_SIZE_HINT] opcode is used by SQLite to give the VFS
+** layer a hint of how large the database file will grow to be during the
+** current transaction.  This hint is not guaranteed to be accurate but it
+** is often close.  The underlying VFS might choose to preallocate database
+** file space based on this hint in order to help writes to the database
+** file run faster.
+**
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_CHUNK_SIZE] opcode is used to request that the VFS
+** extends and truncates the database file in chunks of a size specified
+** by the user. The fourth argument to [sqlite3_file_control()] should 
+** point to an integer (type int) containing the new chunk-size to use
+** for the nominated database. Allocating database file space in large
+** chunks (say 1MB at a time), may reduce file-system fragmentation and
+** improve performance on some systems.
+**
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_FILE_POINTER] opcode is used to obtain a pointer
+** to the [sqlite3_file] object associated with a particular database
+** connection.  See the [sqlite3_file_control()] documentation for
+** additional information.
+**
+** ^(The [SQLITE_FCNTL_SYNC_OMITTED] opcode is generated internally by
+** SQLite and sent to all VFSes in place of a call to the xSync method
+** when the database connection has [PRAGMA synchronous] set to OFF.)^
+** Some specialized VFSes need this signal in order to operate correctly
+** when [PRAGMA synchronous | PRAGMA synchronous=OFF] is set, but most 
+** VFSes do not need this signal and should silently ignore this opcode.
+** Applications should not call [sqlite3_file_control()] with this
+** opcode as doing so may disrupt the operation of the specialized VFSes
+** that do require it.  
+**
+** ^The [SQLITE_FCNTL_WIN32_AV_RETRY] opcode is used to configure automatic
+** retry counts and intervals for certain disk I/O operations for the
+** windows [VFS] in order to work to provide robustness against
+** anti-virus programs.  By default, the windows VFS will retry file read,
+** file write, and file delete operations up to 10 times, with a delay
+** of 25 milliseconds before the first retry and with the delay increasing
+** by an additional 25 milliseconds with each subsequent retry.  This
+** opcode allows those to values (10 retries and 25 milliseconds of delay)
+** to be adjusted.  The values are changed for all database connections
+** within the same process.  The argument is a pointer to an array of two
+** integers where the first integer i the new retry count and the second
+** integer is the delay.  If either integer is negative, then the setting
+** is not changed but instead the prior value of that setting is written
+** into the array entry, allowing the current retry settings to be
+** interrogated.  The zDbName parameter is ignored.
+**
+** ^The [SQLITE_FCNTL_PERSIST_WAL] opcode is used to set or query the
+** persistent [WAL | Write AHead Log] setting.  By default, the auxiliary
+** write ahead log and shared memory files used for transaction control
+** are automatically deleted when the latest connection to the database
+** closes.  Setting persistent WAL mode causes those files to persist after
+** close.  Persisting the files is useful when other processes that do not
+** have write permission on the directory containing the database file want
+** to read the database file, as the WAL and shared memory files must exist
+** in order for the database to be readable.  The fourth parameter to
+** [sqlite3_file_control()] for this opcode should be a pointer to an integer.
+** That integer is 0 to disable persistent WAL mode or 1 to enable persistent
+** WAL mode.  If the integer is -1, then it is overwritten with the current
+** WAL persistence setting.
+**
+** ^The [SQLITE_FCNTL_OVERWRITE] opcode is invoked by SQLite after opening
+** a write transaction to indicate that, unless it is rolled back for some
+** reason, the entire database file will be overwritten by the current 
+** transaction. This is used by VACUUM operations.
+*/
+#define SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE        1
+#define SQLITE_GET_LOCKPROXYFILE      2
+#define SQLITE_SET_LOCKPROXYFILE      3
+#define SQLITE_LAST_ERRNO             4
+#define SQLITE_FCNTL_SIZE_HINT        5
+#define SQLITE_FCNTL_CHUNK_SIZE       6
+#define SQLITE_FCNTL_FILE_POINTER     7
+#define SQLITE_FCNTL_SYNC_OMITTED     8
+#define SQLITE_FCNTL_WIN32_AV_RETRY   9
+#define SQLITE_FCNTL_PERSIST_WAL     10
+#define SQLITE_FCNTL_OVERWRITE       11
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Mutex Handle
+**
+** The mutex module within SQLite defines [sqlite3_mutex] to be an
+** abstract type for a mutex object.  The SQLite core never looks
+** at the internal representation of an [sqlite3_mutex].  It only
+** deals with pointers to the [sqlite3_mutex] object.
+**
+** Mutexes are created using [sqlite3_mutex_alloc()].
+*/
+typedef struct sqlite3_mutex sqlite3_mutex;
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: OS Interface Object
+**
+** An instance of the sqlite3_vfs object defines the interface between
+** the SQLite core and the underlying operating system.  The "vfs"
+** in the name of the object stands for "virtual file system".  See
+** the [VFS | VFS documentation] for further information.
+**
+** The value of the iVersion field is initially 1 but may be larger in
+** future versions of SQLite.  Additional fields may be appended to this
+** object when the iVersion value is increased.  Note that the structure
+** of the sqlite3_vfs object changes in the transaction between
+** SQLite version 3.5.9 and 3.6.0 and yet the iVersion field was not
+** modified.
+**
+** The szOsFile field is the size of the subclassed [sqlite3_file]
+** structure used by this VFS.  mxPathname is the maximum length of
+** a pathname in this VFS.
+**
+** Registered sqlite3_vfs objects are kept on a linked list formed by
+** the pNext pointer.  The [sqlite3_vfs_register()]
+** and [sqlite3_vfs_unregister()] interfaces manage this list
+** in a thread-safe way.  The [sqlite3_vfs_find()] interface
+** searches the list.  Neither the application code nor the VFS
+** implementation should use the pNext pointer.
+**
+** The pNext field is the only field in the sqlite3_vfs
+** structure that SQLite will ever modify.  SQLite will only access
+** or modify this field while holding a particular static mutex.
+** The application should never modify anything within the sqlite3_vfs
+** object once the object has been registered.
+**
+** The zName field holds the name of the VFS module.  The name must
+** be unique across all VFS modules.
+**
+** [[sqlite3_vfs.xOpen]]
+** ^SQLite guarantees that the zFilename parameter to xOpen
+** is either a NULL pointer or string obtained
+** from xFullPathname() with an optional suffix added.
+** ^If a suffix is added to the zFilename parameter, it will
+** consist of a single "-" character followed by no more than
+** 10 alphanumeric and/or "-" characters.
+** ^SQLite further guarantees that
+** the string will be valid and unchanged until xClose() is
+** called. Because of the previous sentence,
+** the [sqlite3_file] can safely store a pointer to the
+** filename if it needs to remember the filename for some reason.
+** If the zFilename parameter to xOpen is a NULL pointer then xOpen
+** must invent its own temporary name for the file.  ^Whenever the 
+** xFilename parameter is NULL it will also be the case that the
+** flags parameter will include [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE].
+**
+** The flags argument to xOpen() includes all bits set in
+** the flags argument to [sqlite3_open_v2()].  Or if [sqlite3_open()]
+** or [sqlite3_open16()] is used, then flags includes at least
+** [SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE] | [SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE]. 
+** If xOpen() opens a file read-only then it sets *pOutFlags to
+** include [SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY].  Other bits in *pOutFlags may be set.
+**
+** ^(SQLite will also add one of the following flags to the xOpen()
+** call, depending on the object being opened:
+**
+** <ul>
+** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB]
+** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_JOURNAL]
+** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_DB]
+** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_JOURNAL]
+** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_TRANSIENT_DB]
+** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_SUBJOURNAL]
+** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_MASTER_JOURNAL]
+** <li>  [SQLITE_OPEN_WAL]
+** </ul>)^
+**
+** The file I/O implementation can use the object type flags to
+** change the way it deals with files.  For example, an application
+** that does not care about crash recovery or rollback might make
+** the open of a journal file a no-op.  Writes to this journal would
+** also be no-ops, and any attempt to read the journal would return
+** SQLITE_IOERR.  Or the implementation might recognize that a database
+** file will be doing page-aligned sector reads and writes in a random
+** order and set up its I/O subsystem accordingly.
+**
+** SQLite might also add one of the following flags to the xOpen method:
+**
+** <ul>
+** <li> [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE]
+** <li> [SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE]
+** </ul>
+**
+** The [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE] flag means the file should be
+** deleted when it is closed.  ^The [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE]
+** will be set for TEMP databases and their journals, transient
+** databases, and subjournals.
+**
+** ^The [SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE] flag is always used in conjunction
+** with the [SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE] flag, which are both directly
+** analogous to the O_EXCL and O_CREAT flags of the POSIX open()
+** API.  The SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE flag, when paired with the 
+** SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE, is used to indicate that file should always
+** be created, and that it is an error if it already exists.
+** It is <i>not</i> used to indicate the file should be opened 
+** for exclusive access.
+**
+** ^At least szOsFile bytes of memory are allocated by SQLite
+** to hold the  [sqlite3_file] structure passed as the third
+** argument to xOpen.  The xOpen method does not have to
+** allocate the structure; it should just fill it in.  Note that
+** the xOpen method must set the sqlite3_file.pMethods to either
+** a valid [sqlite3_io_methods] object or to NULL.  xOpen must do
+** this even if the open fails.  SQLite expects that the sqlite3_file.pMethods
+** element will be valid after xOpen returns regardless of the success
+** or failure of the xOpen call.
+**
+** [[sqlite3_vfs.xAccess]]
+** ^The flags argument to xAccess() may be [SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS]
+** to test for the existence of a file, or [SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE] to
+** test whether a file is readable and writable, or [SQLITE_ACCESS_READ]
+** to test whether a file is at least readable.   The file can be a
+** directory.
+**
+** ^SQLite will always allocate at least mxPathname+1 bytes for the
+** output buffer xFullPathname.  The exact size of the output buffer
+** is also passed as a parameter to both  methods. If the output buffer
+** is not large enough, [SQLITE_CANTOPEN] should be returned. Since this is
+** handled as a fatal error by SQLite, vfs implementations should endeavor
+** to prevent this by setting mxPathname to a sufficiently large value.
+**
+** The xRandomness(), xSleep(), xCurrentTime(), and xCurrentTimeInt64()
+** interfaces are not strictly a part of the filesystem, but they are
+** included in the VFS structure for completeness.
+** The xRandomness() function attempts to return nBytes bytes
+** of good-quality randomness into zOut.  The return value is
+** the actual number of bytes of randomness obtained.
+** The xSleep() method causes the calling thread to sleep for at
+** least the number of microseconds given.  ^The xCurrentTime()
+** method returns a Julian Day Number for the current date and time as
+** a floating point value.
+** ^The xCurrentTimeInt64() method returns, as an integer, the Julian
+** Day Number multiplied by 86400000 (the number of milliseconds in 
+** a 24-hour day).  
+** ^SQLite will use the xCurrentTimeInt64() method to get the current
+** date and time if that method is available (if iVersion is 2 or 
+** greater and the function pointer is not NULL) and will fall back
+** to xCurrentTime() if xCurrentTimeInt64() is unavailable.
+**
+** ^The xSetSystemCall(), xGetSystemCall(), and xNestSystemCall() interfaces
+** are not used by the SQLite core.  These optional interfaces are provided
+** by some VFSes to facilitate testing of the VFS code. By overriding 
+** system calls with functions under its control, a test program can
+** simulate faults and error conditions that would otherwise be difficult
+** or impossible to induce.  The set of system calls that can be overridden
+** varies from one VFS to another, and from one version of the same VFS to the
+** next.  Applications that use these interfaces must be prepared for any
+** or all of these interfaces to be NULL or for their behavior to change
+** from one release to the next.  Applications must not attempt to access
+** any of these methods if the iVersion of the VFS is less than 3.
+*/
+typedef struct sqlite3_vfs sqlite3_vfs;
+typedef void (*sqlite3_syscall_ptr)(void);
+struct sqlite3_vfs {
+  int iVersion;            /* Structure version number (currently 3) */
+  int szOsFile;            /* Size of subclassed sqlite3_file */
+  int mxPathname;          /* Maximum file pathname length */
+  sqlite3_vfs *pNext;      /* Next registered VFS */
+  const char *zName;       /* Name of this virtual file system */
+  void *pAppData;          /* Pointer to application-specific data */
+  int (*xOpen)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, sqlite3_file*,
+               int flags, int *pOutFlags);
+  int (*xDelete)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int syncDir);
+  int (*xAccess)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int flags, int *pResOut);
+  int (*xFullPathname)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int nOut, char *zOut);
+  void *(*xDlOpen)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zFilename);
+  void (*xDlError)(sqlite3_vfs*, int nByte, char *zErrMsg);
+  void (*(*xDlSym)(sqlite3_vfs*,void*, const char *zSymbol))(void);
+  void (*xDlClose)(sqlite3_vfs*, void*);
+  int (*xRandomness)(sqlite3_vfs*, int nByte, char *zOut);
+  int (*xSleep)(sqlite3_vfs*, int microseconds);
+  int (*xCurrentTime)(sqlite3_vfs*, double*);
+  int (*xGetLastError)(sqlite3_vfs*, int, char *);
+  /*
+  ** The methods above are in version 1 of the sqlite_vfs object
+  ** definition.  Those that follow are added in version 2 or later
+  */
+  int (*xCurrentTimeInt64)(sqlite3_vfs*, sqlite3_int64*);
+  /*
+  ** The methods above are in versions 1 and 2 of the sqlite_vfs object.
+  ** Those below are for version 3 and greater.
+  */
+  int (*xSetSystemCall)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, sqlite3_syscall_ptr);
+  sqlite3_syscall_ptr (*xGetSystemCall)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName);
+  const char *(*xNextSystemCall)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName);
+  /*
+  ** The methods above are in versions 1 through 3 of the sqlite_vfs object.
+  ** New fields may be appended in figure versions.  The iVersion
+  ** value will increment whenever this happens. 
+  */
+};
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Flags for the xAccess VFS method
+**
+** These integer constants can be used as the third parameter to
+** the xAccess method of an [sqlite3_vfs] object.  They determine
+** what kind of permissions the xAccess method is looking for.
+** With SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS, the xAccess method
+** simply checks whether the file exists.
+** With SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE, the xAccess method
+** checks whether the named directory is both readable and writable
+** (in other words, if files can be added, removed, and renamed within
+** the directory).
+** The SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE constant is currently used only by the
+** [temp_store_directory pragma], though this could change in a future
+** release of SQLite.
+** With SQLITE_ACCESS_READ, the xAccess method
+** checks whether the file is readable.  The SQLITE_ACCESS_READ constant is
+** currently unused, though it might be used in a future release of
+** SQLite.
+*/
+#define SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS    0
+#define SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE 1   /* Used by PRAGMA temp_store_directory */
+#define SQLITE_ACCESS_READ      2   /* Unused */
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Flags for the xShmLock VFS method
+**
+** These integer constants define the various locking operations
+** allowed by the xShmLock method of [sqlite3_io_methods].  The
+** following are the only legal combinations of flags to the
+** xShmLock method:
+**
+** <ul>
+** <li>  SQLITE_SHM_LOCK | SQLITE_SHM_SHARED
+** <li>  SQLITE_SHM_LOCK | SQLITE_SHM_EXCLUSIVE
+** <li>  SQLITE_SHM_UNLOCK | SQLITE_SHM_SHARED
+** <li>  SQLITE_SHM_UNLOCK | SQLITE_SHM_EXCLUSIVE
+** </ul>
+**
+** When unlocking, the same SHARED or EXCLUSIVE flag must be supplied as
+** was given no the corresponding lock.  
+**
+** The xShmLock method can transition between unlocked and SHARED or
+** between unlocked and EXCLUSIVE.  It cannot transition between SHARED
+** and EXCLUSIVE.
+*/
+#define SQLITE_SHM_UNLOCK       1
+#define SQLITE_SHM_LOCK         2
+#define SQLITE_SHM_SHARED       4
+#define SQLITE_SHM_EXCLUSIVE    8
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Maximum xShmLock index
+**
+** The xShmLock method on [sqlite3_io_methods] may use values
+** between 0 and this upper bound as its "offset" argument.
+** The SQLite core will never attempt to acquire or release a
+** lock outside of this range
+*/
+#define SQLITE_SHM_NLOCK        8
+
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Initialize The SQLite Library
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_initialize() routine initializes the
+** SQLite library.  ^The sqlite3_shutdown() routine
+** deallocates any resources that were allocated by sqlite3_initialize().
+** These routines are designed to aid in process initialization and
+** shutdown on embedded systems.  Workstation applications using
+** SQLite normally do not need to invoke either of these routines.
+**
+** A call to sqlite3_initialize() is an "effective" call if it is
+** the first time sqlite3_initialize() is invoked during the lifetime of
+** the process, or if it is the first time sqlite3_initialize() is invoked
+** following a call to sqlite3_shutdown().  ^(Only an effective call
+** of sqlite3_initialize() does any initialization.  All other calls
+** are harmless no-ops.)^
+**
+** A call to sqlite3_shutdown() is an "effective" call if it is the first
+** call to sqlite3_shutdown() since the last sqlite3_initialize().  ^(Only
+** an effective call to sqlite3_shutdown() does any deinitialization.
+** All other valid calls to sqlite3_shutdown() are harmless no-ops.)^
+**
+** The sqlite3_initialize() interface is threadsafe, but sqlite3_shutdown()
+** is not.  The sqlite3_shutdown() interface must only be called from a
+** single thread.  All open [database connections] must be closed and all
+** other SQLite resources must be deallocated prior to invoking
+** sqlite3_shutdown().
+**
+** Among other things, ^sqlite3_initialize() will invoke
+** sqlite3_os_init().  Similarly, ^sqlite3_shutdown()
+** will invoke sqlite3_os_end().
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_initialize() routine returns [SQLITE_OK] on success.
+** ^If for some reason, sqlite3_initialize() is unable to initialize
+** the library (perhaps it is unable to allocate a needed resource such
+** as a mutex) it returns an [error code] other than [SQLITE_OK].
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_initialize() routine is called internally by many other
+** SQLite interfaces so that an application usually does not need to
+** invoke sqlite3_initialize() directly.  For example, [sqlite3_open()]
+** calls sqlite3_initialize() so the SQLite library will be automatically
+** initialized when [sqlite3_open()] is called if it has not be initialized
+** already.  ^However, if SQLite is compiled with the [SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT]
+** compile-time option, then the automatic calls to sqlite3_initialize()
+** are omitted and the application must call sqlite3_initialize() directly
+** prior to using any other SQLite interface.  For maximum portability,
+** it is recommended that applications always invoke sqlite3_initialize()
+** directly prior to using any other SQLite interface.  Future releases
+** of SQLite may require this.  In other words, the behavior exhibited
+** when SQLite is compiled with [SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT] might become the
+** default behavior in some future release of SQLite.
+**
+** The sqlite3_os_init() routine does operating-system specific
+** initialization of the SQLite library.  The sqlite3_os_end()
+** routine undoes the effect of sqlite3_os_init().  Typical tasks
+** performed by these routines include allocation or deallocation
+** of static resources, initialization of global variables,
+** setting up a default [sqlite3_vfs] module, or setting up
+** a default configuration using [sqlite3_config()].
+**
+** The application should never invoke either sqlite3_os_init()
+** or sqlite3_os_end() directly.  The application should only invoke
+** sqlite3_initialize() and sqlite3_shutdown().  The sqlite3_os_init()
+** interface is called automatically by sqlite3_initialize() and
+** sqlite3_os_end() is called by sqlite3_shutdown().  Appropriate
+** implementations for sqlite3_os_init() and sqlite3_os_end()
+** are built into SQLite when it is compiled for Unix, Windows, or OS/2.
+** When [custom builds | built for other platforms]
+** (using the [SQLITE_OS_OTHER=1] compile-time
+** option) the application must supply a suitable implementation for
+** sqlite3_os_init() and sqlite3_os_end().  An application-supplied
+** implementation of sqlite3_os_init() or sqlite3_os_end()
+** must return [SQLITE_OK] on success and some other [error code] upon
+** failure.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_initialize(void);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_shutdown(void);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_os_init(void);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_os_end(void);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Configuring The SQLite Library
+**
+** The sqlite3_config() interface is used to make global configuration
+** changes to SQLite in order to tune SQLite to the specific needs of
+** the application.  The default configuration is recommended for most
+** applications and so this routine is usually not necessary.  It is
+** provided to support rare applications with unusual needs.
+**
+** The sqlite3_config() interface is not threadsafe.  The application
+** must insure that no other SQLite interfaces are invoked by other
+** threads while sqlite3_config() is running.  Furthermore, sqlite3_config()
+** may only be invoked prior to library initialization using
+** [sqlite3_initialize()] or after shutdown by [sqlite3_shutdown()].
+** ^If sqlite3_config() is called after [sqlite3_initialize()] and before
+** [sqlite3_shutdown()] then it will return SQLITE_MISUSE.
+** Note, however, that ^sqlite3_config() can be called as part of the
+** implementation of an application-defined [sqlite3_os_init()].
+**
+** The first argument to sqlite3_config() is an integer
+** [configuration option] that determines
+** what property of SQLite is to be configured.  Subsequent arguments
+** vary depending on the [configuration option]
+** in the first argument.
+**
+** ^When a configuration option is set, sqlite3_config() returns [SQLITE_OK].
+** ^If the option is unknown or SQLite is unable to set the option
+** then this routine returns a non-zero [error code].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_config(int, ...);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Configure database connections
+**
+** The sqlite3_db_config() interface is used to make configuration
+** changes to a [database connection].  The interface is similar to
+** [sqlite3_config()] except that the changes apply to a single
+** [database connection] (specified in the first argument).
+**
+** The second argument to sqlite3_db_config(D,V,...)  is the
+** [SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE | configuration verb] - an integer code 
+** that indicates what aspect of the [database connection] is being configured.
+** Subsequent arguments vary depending on the configuration verb.
+**
+** ^Calls to sqlite3_db_config() return SQLITE_OK if and only if
+** the call is considered successful.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_db_config(sqlite3*, int op, ...);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocation Routines
+**
+** An instance of this object defines the interface between SQLite
+** and low-level memory allocation routines.
+**
+** This object is used in only one place in the SQLite interface.
+** A pointer to an instance of this object is the argument to
+** [sqlite3_config()] when the configuration option is
+** [SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC] or [SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMALLOC].  
+** By creating an instance of this object
+** and passing it to [sqlite3_config]([SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC])
+** during configuration, an application can specify an alternative
+** memory allocation subsystem for SQLite to use for all of its
+** dynamic memory needs.
+**
+** Note that SQLite comes with several [built-in memory allocators]
+** that are perfectly adequate for the overwhelming majority of applications
+** and that this object is only useful to a tiny minority of applications
+** with specialized memory allocation requirements.  This object is
+** also used during testing of SQLite in order to specify an alternative
+** memory allocator that simulates memory out-of-memory conditions in
+** order to verify that SQLite recovers gracefully from such
+** conditions.
+**
+** The xMalloc, xRealloc, and xFree methods must work like the
+** malloc(), realloc() and free() functions from the standard C library.
+** ^SQLite guarantees that the second argument to
+** xRealloc is always a value returned by a prior call to xRoundup.
+**
+** xSize should return the allocated size of a memory allocation
+** previously obtained from xMalloc or xRealloc.  The allocated size
+** is always at least as big as the requested size but may be larger.
+**
+** The xRoundup method returns what would be the allocated size of
+** a memory allocation given a particular requested size.  Most memory
+** allocators round up memory allocations at least to the next multiple
+** of 8.  Some allocators round up to a larger multiple or to a power of 2.
+** Every memory allocation request coming in through [sqlite3_malloc()]
+** or [sqlite3_realloc()] first calls xRoundup.  If xRoundup returns 0, 
+** that causes the corresponding memory allocation to fail.
+**
+** The xInit method initializes the memory allocator.  (For example,
+** it might allocate any require mutexes or initialize internal data
+** structures.  The xShutdown method is invoked (indirectly) by
+** [sqlite3_shutdown()] and should deallocate any resources acquired
+** by xInit.  The pAppData pointer is used as the only parameter to
+** xInit and xShutdown.
+**
+** SQLite holds the [SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER] mutex when it invokes
+** the xInit method, so the xInit method need not be threadsafe.  The
+** xShutdown method is only called from [sqlite3_shutdown()] so it does
+** not need to be threadsafe either.  For all other methods, SQLite
+** holds the [SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM] mutex as long as the
+** [SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS] configuration option is turned on (which
+** it is by default) and so the methods are automatically serialized.
+** However, if [SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS] is disabled, then the other
+** methods must be threadsafe or else make their own arrangements for
+** serialization.
+**
+** SQLite will never invoke xInit() more than once without an intervening
+** call to xShutdown().
+*/
+typedef struct sqlite3_mem_methods sqlite3_mem_methods;
+struct sqlite3_mem_methods {
+  void *(*xMalloc)(int);         /* Memory allocation function */
+  void (*xFree)(void*);          /* Free a prior allocation */
+  void *(*xRealloc)(void*,int);  /* Resize an allocation */
+  int (*xSize)(void*);           /* Return the size of an allocation */
+  int (*xRoundup)(int);          /* Round up request size to allocation size */
+  int (*xInit)(void*);           /* Initialize the memory allocator */
+  void (*xShutdown)(void*);      /* Deinitialize the memory allocator */
+  void *pAppData;                /* Argument to xInit() and xShutdown() */
+};
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Configuration Options
+** KEYWORDS: {configuration option}
+**
+** These constants are the available integer configuration options that
+** can be passed as the first argument to the [sqlite3_config()] interface.
+**
+** New configuration options may be added in future releases of SQLite.
+** Existing configuration options might be discontinued.  Applications
+** should check the return code from [sqlite3_config()] to make sure that
+** the call worked.  The [sqlite3_config()] interface will return a
+** non-zero [error code] if a discontinued or unsupported configuration option
+** is invoked.
+**
+** <dl>
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD</dt>
+** <dd>There are no arguments to this option.  ^This option sets the
+** [threading mode] to Single-thread.  In other words, it disables
+** all mutexing and puts SQLite into a mode where it can only be used
+** by a single thread.   ^If SQLite is compiled with
+** the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE | SQLITE_THREADSAFE=0] compile-time option then
+** it is not possible to change the [threading mode] from its default
+** value of Single-thread and so [sqlite3_config()] will return 
+** [SQLITE_ERROR] if called with the SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD
+** configuration option.</dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD</dt>
+** <dd>There are no arguments to this option.  ^This option sets the
+** [threading mode] to Multi-thread.  In other words, it disables
+** mutexing on [database connection] and [prepared statement] objects.
+** The application is responsible for serializing access to
+** [database connections] and [prepared statements].  But other mutexes
+** are enabled so that SQLite will be safe to use in a multi-threaded
+** environment as long as no two threads attempt to use the same
+** [database connection] at the same time.  ^If SQLite is compiled with
+** the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE | SQLITE_THREADSAFE=0] compile-time option then
+** it is not possible to set the Multi-thread [threading mode] and
+** [sqlite3_config()] will return [SQLITE_ERROR] if called with the
+** SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD configuration option.</dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_SERIALIZED]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_SERIALIZED</dt>
+** <dd>There are no arguments to this option.  ^This option sets the
+** [threading mode] to Serialized. In other words, this option enables
+** all mutexes including the recursive
+** mutexes on [database connection] and [prepared statement] objects.
+** In this mode (which is the default when SQLite is compiled with
+** [SQLITE_THREADSAFE=1]) the SQLite library will itself serialize access
+** to [database connections] and [prepared statements] so that the
+** application is free to use the same [database connection] or the
+** same [prepared statement] in different threads at the same time.
+** ^If SQLite is compiled with
+** the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE | SQLITE_THREADSAFE=0] compile-time option then
+** it is not possible to set the Serialized [threading mode] and
+** [sqlite3_config()] will return [SQLITE_ERROR] if called with the
+** SQLITE_CONFIG_SERIALIZED configuration option.</dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC</dt>
+** <dd> ^(This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to an
+** instance of the [sqlite3_mem_methods] structure.  The argument specifies
+** alternative low-level memory allocation routines to be used in place of
+** the memory allocation routines built into SQLite.)^ ^SQLite makes
+** its own private copy of the content of the [sqlite3_mem_methods] structure
+** before the [sqlite3_config()] call returns.</dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMALLOC]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMALLOC</dt>
+** <dd> ^(This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to an
+** instance of the [sqlite3_mem_methods] structure.  The [sqlite3_mem_methods]
+** structure is filled with the currently defined memory allocation routines.)^
+** This option can be used to overload the default memory allocation
+** routines with a wrapper that simulations memory allocation failure or
+** tracks memory usage, for example. </dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS</dt>
+** <dd> ^This option takes single argument of type int, interpreted as a 
+** boolean, which enables or disables the collection of memory allocation 
+** statistics. ^(When memory allocation statistics are disabled, the 
+** following SQLite interfaces become non-operational:
+**   <ul>
+**   <li> [sqlite3_memory_used()]
+**   <li> [sqlite3_memory_highwater()]
+**   <li> [sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64()]
+**   <li> [sqlite3_status()]
+**   </ul>)^
+** ^Memory allocation statistics are enabled by default unless SQLite is
+** compiled with [SQLITE_DEFAULT_MEMSTATUS]=0 in which case memory
+** allocation statistics are disabled by default.
+** </dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH</dt>
+** <dd> ^This option specifies a static memory buffer that SQLite can use for
+** scratch memory.  There are three arguments:  A pointer an 8-byte
+** aligned memory buffer from which the scratch allocations will be
+** drawn, the size of each scratch allocation (sz),
+** and the maximum number of scratch allocations (N).  The sz
+** argument must be a multiple of 16.
+** The first argument must be a pointer to an 8-byte aligned buffer
+** of at least sz*N bytes of memory.
+** ^SQLite will use no more than two scratch buffers per thread.  So
+** N should be set to twice the expected maximum number of threads.
+** ^SQLite will never require a scratch buffer that is more than 6
+** times the database page size. ^If SQLite needs needs additional
+** scratch memory beyond what is provided by this configuration option, then 
+** [sqlite3_malloc()] will be used to obtain the memory needed.</dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE</dt>
+** <dd> ^This option specifies a static memory buffer that SQLite can use for
+** the database page cache with the default page cache implementation.  
+** This configuration should not be used if an application-define page
+** cache implementation is loaded using the SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE option.
+** There are three arguments to this option: A pointer to 8-byte aligned
+** memory, the size of each page buffer (sz), and the number of pages (N).
+** The sz argument should be the size of the largest database page
+** (a power of two between 512 and 32768) plus a little extra for each
+** page header.  ^The page header size is 20 to 40 bytes depending on
+** the host architecture.  ^It is harmless, apart from the wasted memory,
+** to make sz a little too large.  The first
+** argument should point to an allocation of at least sz*N bytes of memory.
+** ^SQLite will use the memory provided by the first argument to satisfy its
+** memory needs for the first N pages that it adds to cache.  ^If additional
+** page cache memory is needed beyond what is provided by this option, then
+** SQLite goes to [sqlite3_malloc()] for the additional storage space.
+** The pointer in the first argument must
+** be aligned to an 8-byte boundary or subsequent behavior of SQLite
+** will be undefined.</dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_HEAP]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_HEAP</dt>
+** <dd> ^This option specifies a static memory buffer that SQLite will use
+** for all of its dynamic memory allocation needs beyond those provided
+** for by [SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH] and [SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE].
+** There are three arguments: An 8-byte aligned pointer to the memory,
+** the number of bytes in the memory buffer, and the minimum allocation size.
+** ^If the first pointer (the memory pointer) is NULL, then SQLite reverts
+** to using its default memory allocator (the system malloc() implementation),
+** undoing any prior invocation of [SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC].  ^If the
+** memory pointer is not NULL and either [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3] or
+** [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS5] are defined, then the alternative memory
+** allocator is engaged to handle all of SQLites memory allocation needs.
+** The first pointer (the memory pointer) must be aligned to an 8-byte
+** boundary or subsequent behavior of SQLite will be undefined.
+** The minimum allocation size is capped at 2**12. Reasonable values
+** for the minimum allocation size are 2**5 through 2**8.</dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX</dt>
+** <dd> ^(This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to an
+** instance of the [sqlite3_mutex_methods] structure.  The argument specifies
+** alternative low-level mutex routines to be used in place
+** the mutex routines built into SQLite.)^  ^SQLite makes a copy of the
+** content of the [sqlite3_mutex_methods] structure before the call to
+** [sqlite3_config()] returns. ^If SQLite is compiled with
+** the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE | SQLITE_THREADSAFE=0] compile-time option then
+** the entire mutexing subsystem is omitted from the build and hence calls to
+** [sqlite3_config()] with the SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX configuration option will
+** return [SQLITE_ERROR].</dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMUTEX]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMUTEX</dt>
+** <dd> ^(This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to an
+** instance of the [sqlite3_mutex_methods] structure.  The
+** [sqlite3_mutex_methods]
+** structure is filled with the currently defined mutex routines.)^
+** This option can be used to overload the default mutex allocation
+** routines with a wrapper used to track mutex usage for performance
+** profiling or testing, for example.   ^If SQLite is compiled with
+** the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE | SQLITE_THREADSAFE=0] compile-time option then
+** the entire mutexing subsystem is omitted from the build and hence calls to
+** [sqlite3_config()] with the SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMUTEX configuration option will
+** return [SQLITE_ERROR].</dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_LOOKASIDE]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_LOOKASIDE</dt>
+** <dd> ^(This option takes two arguments that determine the default
+** memory allocation for the lookaside memory allocator on each
+** [database connection].  The first argument is the
+** size of each lookaside buffer slot and the second is the number of
+** slots allocated to each database connection.)^  ^(This option sets the
+** <i>default</i> lookaside size. The [SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE]
+** verb to [sqlite3_db_config()] can be used to change the lookaside
+** configuration on individual connections.)^ </dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE</dt>
+** <dd> ^(This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to
+** an [sqlite3_pcache_methods] object.  This object specifies the interface
+** to a custom page cache implementation.)^  ^SQLite makes a copy of the
+** object and uses it for page cache memory allocations.</dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_GETPCACHE]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_GETPCACHE</dt>
+** <dd> ^(This option takes a single argument which is a pointer to an
+** [sqlite3_pcache_methods] object.  SQLite copies of the current
+** page cache implementation into that object.)^ </dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_LOG]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_LOG</dt>
+** <dd> ^The SQLITE_CONFIG_LOG option takes two arguments: a pointer to a
+** function with a call signature of void(*)(void*,int,const char*), 
+** and a pointer to void. ^If the function pointer is not NULL, it is
+** invoked by [sqlite3_log()] to process each logging event.  ^If the
+** function pointer is NULL, the [sqlite3_log()] interface becomes a no-op.
+** ^The void pointer that is the second argument to SQLITE_CONFIG_LOG is
+** passed through as the first parameter to the application-defined logger
+** function whenever that function is invoked.  ^The second parameter to
+** the logger function is a copy of the first parameter to the corresponding
+** [sqlite3_log()] call and is intended to be a [result code] or an
+** [extended result code].  ^The third parameter passed to the logger is
+** log message after formatting via [sqlite3_snprintf()].
+** The SQLite logging interface is not reentrant; the logger function
+** supplied by the application must not invoke any SQLite interface.
+** In a multi-threaded application, the application-defined logger
+** function must be threadsafe. </dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_URI]] <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_URI
+** <dd> This option takes a single argument of type int. If non-zero, then
+** URI handling is globally enabled. If the parameter is zero, then URI handling
+** is globally disabled. If URI handling is globally enabled, all filenames
+** passed to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open_v2()], [sqlite3_open16()] or
+** specified as part of [ATTACH] commands are interpreted as URIs, regardless
+** of whether or not the [SQLITE_OPEN_URI] flag is set when the database
+** connection is opened. If it is globally disabled, filenames are
+** only interpreted as URIs if the SQLITE_OPEN_URI flag is set when the
+** database connection is opened. By default, URI handling is globally
+** disabled. The default value may be changed by compiling with the
+** [SQLITE_USE_URI] symbol defined.
+** </dl>
+*/
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD  1  /* nil */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD   2  /* nil */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_SERIALIZED    3  /* nil */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC        4  /* sqlite3_mem_methods* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMALLOC     5  /* sqlite3_mem_methods* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH       6  /* void*, int sz, int N */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE     7  /* void*, int sz, int N */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_HEAP          8  /* void*, int nByte, int min */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS     9  /* boolean */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX        10  /* sqlite3_mutex_methods* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMUTEX     11  /* sqlite3_mutex_methods* */
+/* previously SQLITE_CONFIG_CHUNKALLOC 12 which is now unused. */ 
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_LOOKASIDE    13  /* int int */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE       14  /* sqlite3_pcache_methods* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_GETPCACHE    15  /* sqlite3_pcache_methods* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_LOG          16  /* xFunc, void* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_URI          17  /* int */
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Database Connection Configuration Options
+**
+** These constants are the available integer configuration options that
+** can be passed as the second argument to the [sqlite3_db_config()] interface.
+**
+** New configuration options may be added in future releases of SQLite.
+** Existing configuration options might be discontinued.  Applications
+** should check the return code from [sqlite3_db_config()] to make sure that
+** the call worked.  ^The [sqlite3_db_config()] interface will return a
+** non-zero [error code] if a discontinued or unsupported configuration option
+** is invoked.
+**
+** <dl>
+** <dt>SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE</dt>
+** <dd> ^This option takes three additional arguments that determine the 
+** [lookaside memory allocator] configuration for the [database connection].
+** ^The first argument (the third parameter to [sqlite3_db_config()] is a
+** pointer to a memory buffer to use for lookaside memory.
+** ^The first argument after the SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE verb
+** may be NULL in which case SQLite will allocate the
+** lookaside buffer itself using [sqlite3_malloc()]. ^The second argument is the
+** size of each lookaside buffer slot.  ^The third argument is the number of
+** slots.  The size of the buffer in the first argument must be greater than
+** or equal to the product of the second and third arguments.  The buffer
+** must be aligned to an 8-byte boundary.  ^If the second argument to
+** SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE is not a multiple of 8, it is internally
+** rounded down to the next smaller multiple of 8.  ^(The lookaside memory
+** configuration for a database connection can only be changed when that
+** connection is not currently using lookaside memory, or in other words
+** when the "current value" returned by
+** [sqlite3_db_status](D,[SQLITE_CONFIG_LOOKASIDE],...) is zero.
+** Any attempt to change the lookaside memory configuration when lookaside
+** memory is in use leaves the configuration unchanged and returns 
+** [SQLITE_BUSY].)^</dd>
+**
+** <dt>SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_FKEY</dt>
+** <dd> ^This option is used to enable or disable the enforcement of
+** [foreign key constraints].  There should be two additional arguments.
+** The first argument is an integer which is 0 to disable FK enforcement,
+** positive to enable FK enforcement or negative to leave FK enforcement
+** unchanged.  The second parameter is a pointer to an integer into which
+** is written 0 or 1 to indicate whether FK enforcement is off or on
+** following this call.  The second parameter may be a NULL pointer, in
+** which case the FK enforcement setting is not reported back. </dd>
+**
+** <dt>SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_TRIGGER</dt>
+** <dd> ^This option is used to enable or disable [CREATE TRIGGER | triggers].
+** There should be two additional arguments.
+** The first argument is an integer which is 0 to disable triggers,
+** positive to enable triggers or negative to leave the setting unchanged.
+** The second parameter is a pointer to an integer into which
+** is written 0 or 1 to indicate whether triggers are disabled or enabled
+** following this call.  The second parameter may be a NULL pointer, in
+** which case the trigger setting is not reported back. </dd>
+**
+** </dl>
+*/
+#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE       1001  /* void* int int */
+#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_FKEY     1002  /* int int* */
+#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_TRIGGER  1003  /* int int* */
+
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Extended Result Codes
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_extended_result_codes() routine enables or disables the
+** [extended result codes] feature of SQLite. ^The extended result
+** codes are disabled by default for historical compatibility.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_extended_result_codes(sqlite3*, int onoff);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Last Insert Rowid
+**
+** ^Each entry in an SQLite table has a unique 64-bit signed
+** integer key called the [ROWID | "rowid"]. ^The rowid is always available
+** as an undeclared column named ROWID, OID, or _ROWID_ as long as those
+** names are not also used by explicitly declared columns. ^If
+** the table has a column of type [INTEGER PRIMARY KEY] then that column
+** is another alias for the rowid.
+**
+** ^This routine returns the [rowid] of the most recent
+** successful [INSERT] into the database from the [database connection]
+** in the first argument.  ^As of SQLite version 3.7.7, this routines
+** records the last insert rowid of both ordinary tables and [virtual tables].
+** ^If no successful [INSERT]s
+** have ever occurred on that database connection, zero is returned.
+**
+** ^(If an [INSERT] occurs within a trigger or within a [virtual table]
+** method, then this routine will return the [rowid] of the inserted
+** row as long as the trigger or virtual table method is running.
+** But once the trigger or virtual table method ends, the value returned 
+** by this routine reverts to what it was before the trigger or virtual
+** table method began.)^
+**
+** ^An [INSERT] that fails due to a constraint violation is not a
+** successful [INSERT] and does not change the value returned by this
+** routine.  ^Thus INSERT OR FAIL, INSERT OR IGNORE, INSERT OR ROLLBACK,
+** and INSERT OR ABORT make no changes to the return value of this
+** routine when their insertion fails.  ^(When INSERT OR REPLACE
+** encounters a constraint violation, it does not fail.  The
+** INSERT continues to completion after deleting rows that caused
+** the constraint problem so INSERT OR REPLACE will always change
+** the return value of this interface.)^
+**
+** ^For the purposes of this routine, an [INSERT] is considered to
+** be successful even if it is subsequently rolled back.
+**
+** This function is accessible to SQL statements via the
+** [last_insert_rowid() SQL function].
+**
+** If a separate thread performs a new [INSERT] on the same
+** database connection while the [sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()]
+** function is running and thus changes the last insert [rowid],
+** then the value returned by [sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()] is
+** unpredictable and might not equal either the old or the new
+** last insert [rowid].
+*/
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_last_insert_rowid(sqlite3*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Count The Number Of Rows Modified
+**
+** ^This function returns the number of database rows that were changed
+** or inserted or deleted by the most recently completed SQL statement
+** on the [database connection] specified by the first parameter.
+** ^(Only changes that are directly specified by the [INSERT], [UPDATE],
+** or [DELETE] statement are counted.  Auxiliary changes caused by
+** triggers or [foreign key actions] are not counted.)^ Use the
+** [sqlite3_total_changes()] function to find the total number of changes
+** including changes caused by triggers and foreign key actions.
+**
+** ^Changes to a view that are simulated by an [INSTEAD OF trigger]
+** are not counted.  Only real table changes are counted.
+**
+** ^(A "row change" is a change to a single row of a single table
+** caused by an INSERT, DELETE, or UPDATE statement.  Rows that
+** are changed as side effects of [REPLACE] constraint resolution,
+** rollback, ABORT processing, [DROP TABLE], or by any other
+** mechanisms do not count as direct row changes.)^
+**
+** A "trigger context" is a scope of execution that begins and
+** ends with the script of a [CREATE TRIGGER | trigger]. 
+** Most SQL statements are
+** evaluated outside of any trigger.  This is the "top level"
+** trigger context.  If a trigger fires from the top level, a
+** new trigger context is entered for the duration of that one
+** trigger.  Subtriggers create subcontexts for their duration.
+**
+** ^Calling [sqlite3_exec()] or [sqlite3_step()] recursively does
+** not create a new trigger context.
+**
+** ^This function returns the number of direct row changes in the
+** most recent INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement within the same
+** trigger context.
+**
+** ^Thus, when called from the top level, this function returns the
+** number of changes in the most recent INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE
+** that also occurred at the top level.  ^(Within the body of a trigger,
+** the sqlite3_changes() interface can be called to find the number of
+** changes in the most recently completed INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE
+** statement within the body of the same trigger.
+** However, the number returned does not include changes
+** caused by subtriggers since those have their own context.)^
+**
+** See also the [sqlite3_total_changes()] interface, the
+** [count_changes pragma], and the [changes() SQL function].
+**
+** If a separate thread makes changes on the same database connection
+** while [sqlite3_changes()] is running then the value returned
+** is unpredictable and not meaningful.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_changes(sqlite3*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Total Number Of Rows Modified
+**
+** ^This function returns the number of row changes caused by [INSERT],
+** [UPDATE] or [DELETE] statements since the [database connection] was opened.
+** ^(The count returned by sqlite3_total_changes() includes all changes
+** from all [CREATE TRIGGER | trigger] contexts and changes made by
+** [foreign key actions]. However,
+** the count does not include changes used to implement [REPLACE] constraints,
+** do rollbacks or ABORT processing, or [DROP TABLE] processing.  The
+** count does not include rows of views that fire an [INSTEAD OF trigger],
+** though if the INSTEAD OF trigger makes changes of its own, those changes 
+** are counted.)^
+** ^The sqlite3_total_changes() function counts the changes as soon as
+** the statement that makes them is completed (when the statement handle
+** is passed to [sqlite3_reset()] or [sqlite3_finalize()]).
+**
+** See also the [sqlite3_changes()] interface, the
+** [count_changes pragma], and the [total_changes() SQL function].
+**
+** If a separate thread makes changes on the same database connection
+** while [sqlite3_total_changes()] is running then the value
+** returned is unpredictable and not meaningful.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_total_changes(sqlite3*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Interrupt A Long-Running Query
+**
+** ^This function causes any pending database operation to abort and
+** return at its earliest opportunity. This routine is typically
+** called in response to a user action such as pressing "Cancel"
+** or Ctrl-C where the user wants a long query operation to halt
+** immediately.
+**
+** ^It is safe to call this routine from a thread different from the
+** thread that is currently running the database operation.  But it
+** is not safe to call this routine with a [database connection] that
+** is closed or might close before sqlite3_interrupt() returns.
+**
+** ^If an SQL operation is very nearly finished at the time when
+** sqlite3_interrupt() is called, then it might not have an opportunity
+** to be interrupted and might continue to completion.
+**
+** ^An SQL operation that is interrupted will return [SQLITE_INTERRUPT].
+** ^If the interrupted SQL operation is an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE
+** that is inside an explicit transaction, then the entire transaction
+** will be rolled back automatically.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_interrupt(D) call is in effect until all currently running
+** SQL statements on [database connection] D complete.  ^Any new SQL statements
+** that are started after the sqlite3_interrupt() call and before the 
+** running statements reaches zero are interrupted as if they had been
+** running prior to the sqlite3_interrupt() call.  ^New SQL statements
+** that are started after the running statement count reaches zero are
+** not effected by the sqlite3_interrupt().
+** ^A call to sqlite3_interrupt(D) that occurs when there are no running
+** SQL statements is a no-op and has no effect on SQL statements
+** that are started after the sqlite3_interrupt() call returns.
+**
+** If the database connection closes while [sqlite3_interrupt()]
+** is running then bad things will likely happen.
+*/
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_interrupt(sqlite3*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Determine If An SQL Statement Is Complete
+**
+** These routines are useful during command-line input to determine if the
+** currently entered text seems to form a complete SQL statement or
+** if additional input is needed before sending the text into
+** SQLite for parsing.  ^These routines return 1 if the input string
+** appears to be a complete SQL statement.  ^A statement is judged to be
+** complete if it ends with a semicolon token and is not a prefix of a
+** well-formed CREATE TRIGGER statement.  ^Semicolons that are embedded within
+** string literals or quoted identifier names or comments are not
+** independent tokens (they are part of the token in which they are
+** embedded) and thus do not count as a statement terminator.  ^Whitespace
+** and comments that follow the final semicolon are ignored.
+**
+** ^These routines return 0 if the statement is incomplete.  ^If a
+** memory allocation fails, then SQLITE_NOMEM is returned.
+**
+** ^These routines do not parse the SQL statements thus
+** will not detect syntactically incorrect SQL.
+**
+** ^(If SQLite has not been initialized using [sqlite3_initialize()] prior 
+** to invoking sqlite3_complete16() then sqlite3_initialize() is invoked
+** automatically by sqlite3_complete16().  If that initialization fails,
+** then the return value from sqlite3_complete16() will be non-zero
+** regardless of whether or not the input SQL is complete.)^
+**
+** The input to [sqlite3_complete()] must be a zero-terminated
+** UTF-8 string.
+**
+** The input to [sqlite3_complete16()] must be a zero-terminated
+** UTF-16 string in native byte order.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_complete(const char *sql);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_complete16(const void *sql);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Register A Callback To Handle SQLITE_BUSY Errors
+**
+** ^This routine sets a callback function that might be invoked whenever
+** an attempt is made to open a database table that another thread
+** or process has locked.
+**
+** ^If the busy callback is NULL, then [SQLITE_BUSY] or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED]
+** is returned immediately upon encountering the lock.  ^If the busy callback
+** is not NULL, then the callback might be invoked with two arguments.
+**
+** ^The first argument to the busy handler is a copy of the void* pointer which
+** is the third argument to sqlite3_busy_handler().  ^The second argument to
+** the busy handler callback is the number of times that the busy handler has
+** been invoked for this locking event.  ^If the
+** busy callback returns 0, then no additional attempts are made to
+** access the database and [SQLITE_BUSY] or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED] is returned.
+** ^If the callback returns non-zero, then another attempt
+** is made to open the database for reading and the cycle repeats.
+**
+** The presence of a busy handler does not guarantee that it will be invoked
+** when there is lock contention. ^If SQLite determines that invoking the busy
+** handler could result in a deadlock, it will go ahead and return [SQLITE_BUSY]
+** or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED] instead of invoking the busy handler.
+** Consider a scenario where one process is holding a read lock that
+** it is trying to promote to a reserved lock and
+** a second process is holding a reserved lock that it is trying
+** to promote to an exclusive lock.  The first process cannot proceed
+** because it is blocked by the second and the second process cannot
+** proceed because it is blocked by the first.  If both processes
+** invoke the busy handlers, neither will make any progress.  Therefore,
+** SQLite returns [SQLITE_BUSY] for the first process, hoping that this
+** will induce the first process to release its read lock and allow
+** the second process to proceed.
+**
+** ^The default busy callback is NULL.
+**
+** ^The [SQLITE_BUSY] error is converted to [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED]
+** when SQLite is in the middle of a large transaction where all the
+** changes will not fit into the in-memory cache.  SQLite will
+** already hold a RESERVED lock on the database file, but it needs
+** to promote this lock to EXCLUSIVE so that it can spill cache
+** pages into the database file without harm to concurrent
+** readers.  ^If it is unable to promote the lock, then the in-memory
+** cache will be left in an inconsistent state and so the error
+** code is promoted from the relatively benign [SQLITE_BUSY] to
+** the more severe [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED].  ^This error code promotion
+** forces an automatic rollback of the changes.  See the
+** <a href="/cvstrac/wiki?p=CorruptionFollowingBusyError">
+** CorruptionFollowingBusyError</a> wiki page for a discussion of why
+** this is important.
+**
+** ^(There can only be a single busy handler defined for each
+** [database connection].  Setting a new busy handler clears any
+** previously set handler.)^  ^Note that calling [sqlite3_busy_timeout()]
+** will also set or clear the busy handler.
+**
+** The busy callback should not take any actions which modify the
+** database connection that invoked the busy handler.  Any such actions
+** result in undefined behavior.
+** 
+** A busy handler must not close the database connection
+** or [prepared statement] that invoked the busy handler.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_busy_handler(sqlite3*, int(*)(void*,int), void*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Set A Busy Timeout
+**
+** ^This routine sets a [sqlite3_busy_handler | busy handler] that sleeps
+** for a specified amount of time when a table is locked.  ^The handler
+** will sleep multiple times until at least "ms" milliseconds of sleeping
+** have accumulated.  ^After at least "ms" milliseconds of sleeping,
+** the handler returns 0 which causes [sqlite3_step()] to return
+** [SQLITE_BUSY] or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED].
+**
+** ^Calling this routine with an argument less than or equal to zero
+** turns off all busy handlers.
+**
+** ^(There can only be a single busy handler for a particular
+** [database connection] any any given moment.  If another busy handler
+** was defined  (using [sqlite3_busy_handler()]) prior to calling
+** this routine, that other busy handler is cleared.)^
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_busy_timeout(sqlite3*, int ms);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Convenience Routines For Running Queries
+**
+** This is a legacy interface that is preserved for backwards compatibility.
+** Use of this interface is not recommended.
+**
+** Definition: A <b>result table</b> is memory data structure created by the
+** [sqlite3_get_table()] interface.  A result table records the
+** complete query results from one or more queries.
+**
+** The table conceptually has a number of rows and columns.  But
+** these numbers are not part of the result table itself.  These
+** numbers are obtained separately.  Let N be the number of rows
+** and M be the number of columns.
+**
+** A result table is an array of pointers to zero-terminated UTF-8 strings.
+** There are (N+1)*M elements in the array.  The first M pointers point
+** to zero-terminated strings that  contain the names of the columns.
+** The remaining entries all point to query results.  NULL values result
+** in NULL pointers.  All other values are in their UTF-8 zero-terminated
+** string representation as returned by [sqlite3_column_text()].
+**
+** A result table might consist of one or more memory allocations.
+** It is not safe to pass a result table directly to [sqlite3_free()].
+** A result table should be deallocated using [sqlite3_free_table()].
+**
+** ^(As an example of the result table format, suppose a query result
+** is as follows:
+**
+** <blockquote><pre>
+**        Name        | Age
+**        -----------------------
+**        Alice       | 43
+**        Bob         | 28
+**        Cindy       | 21
+** </pre></blockquote>
+**
+** There are two column (M==2) and three rows (N==3).  Thus the
+** result table has 8 entries.  Suppose the result table is stored
+** in an array names azResult.  Then azResult holds this content:
+**
+** <blockquote><pre>
+**        azResult&#91;0] = "Name";
+**        azResult&#91;1] = "Age";
+**        azResult&#91;2] = "Alice";
+**        azResult&#91;3] = "43";
+**        azResult&#91;4] = "Bob";
+**        azResult&#91;5] = "28";
+**        azResult&#91;6] = "Cindy";
+**        azResult&#91;7] = "21";
+** </pre></blockquote>)^
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_get_table() function evaluates one or more
+** semicolon-separated SQL statements in the zero-terminated UTF-8
+** string of its 2nd parameter and returns a result table to the
+** pointer given in its 3rd parameter.
+**
+** After the application has finished with the result from sqlite3_get_table(),
+** it must pass the result table pointer to sqlite3_free_table() in order to
+** release the memory that was malloced.  Because of the way the
+** [sqlite3_malloc()] happens within sqlite3_get_table(), the calling
+** function must not try to call [sqlite3_free()] directly.  Only
+** [sqlite3_free_table()] is able to release the memory properly and safely.
+**
+** The sqlite3_get_table() interface is implemented as a wrapper around
+** [sqlite3_exec()].  The sqlite3_get_table() routine does not have access
+** to any internal data structures of SQLite.  It uses only the public
+** interface defined here.  As a consequence, errors that occur in the
+** wrapper layer outside of the internal [sqlite3_exec()] call are not
+** reflected in subsequent calls to [sqlite3_errcode()] or
+** [sqlite3_errmsg()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_get_table(
+  sqlite3 *db,          /* An open database */
+  const char *zSql,     /* SQL to be evaluated */
+  char ***pazResult,    /* Results of the query */
+  int *pnRow,           /* Number of result rows written here */
+  int *pnColumn,        /* Number of result columns written here */
+  char **pzErrmsg       /* Error msg written here */
+);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_free_table(char **result);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Formatted String Printing Functions
+**
+** These routines are work-alikes of the "printf()" family of functions
+** from the standard C library.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_mprintf() and sqlite3_vmprintf() routines write their
+** results into memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()].
+** The strings returned by these two routines should be
+** released by [sqlite3_free()].  ^Both routines return a
+** NULL pointer if [sqlite3_malloc()] is unable to allocate enough
+** memory to hold the resulting string.
+**
+** ^(The sqlite3_snprintf() routine is similar to "snprintf()" from
+** the standard C library.  The result is written into the
+** buffer supplied as the second parameter whose size is given by
+** the first parameter. Note that the order of the
+** first two parameters is reversed from snprintf().)^  This is an
+** historical accident that cannot be fixed without breaking
+** backwards compatibility.  ^(Note also that sqlite3_snprintf()
+** returns a pointer to its buffer instead of the number of
+** characters actually written into the buffer.)^  We admit that
+** the number of characters written would be a more useful return
+** value but we cannot change the implementation of sqlite3_snprintf()
+** now without breaking compatibility.
+**
+** ^As long as the buffer size is greater than zero, sqlite3_snprintf()
+** guarantees that the buffer is always zero-terminated.  ^The first
+** parameter "n" is the total size of the buffer, including space for
+** the zero terminator.  So the longest string that can be completely
+** written will be n-1 characters.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_vsnprintf() routine is a varargs version of sqlite3_snprintf().
+**
+** These routines all implement some additional formatting
+** options that are useful for constructing SQL statements.
+** All of the usual printf() formatting options apply.  In addition, there
+** is are "%q", "%Q", and "%z" options.
+**
+** ^(The %q option works like %s in that it substitutes a null-terminated
+** string from the argument list.  But %q also doubles every '\'' character.
+** %q is designed for use inside a string literal.)^  By doubling each '\''
+** character it escapes that character and allows it to be inserted into
+** the string.
+**
+** For example, assume the string variable zText contains text as follows:
+**
+** <blockquote><pre>
+**  char *zText = "It's a happy day!";
+** </pre></blockquote>
+**
+** One can use this text in an SQL statement as follows:
+**
+** <blockquote><pre>
+**  char *zSQL = sqlite3_mprintf("INSERT INTO table VALUES('%q')", zText);
+**  sqlite3_exec(db, zSQL, 0, 0, 0);
+**  sqlite3_free(zSQL);
+** </pre></blockquote>
+**
+** Because the %q format string is used, the '\'' character in zText
+** is escaped and the SQL generated is as follows:
+**
+** <blockquote><pre>
+**  INSERT INTO table1 VALUES('It''s a happy day!')
+** </pre></blockquote>
+**
+** This is correct.  Had we used %s instead of %q, the generated SQL
+** would have looked like this:
+**
+** <blockquote><pre>
+**  INSERT INTO table1 VALUES('It's a happy day!');
+** </pre></blockquote>
+**
+** This second example is an SQL syntax error.  As a general rule you should
+** always use %q instead of %s when inserting text into a string literal.
+**
+** ^(The %Q option works like %q except it also adds single quotes around
+** the outside of the total string.  Additionally, if the parameter in the
+** argument list is a NULL pointer, %Q substitutes the text "NULL" (without
+** single quotes).)^  So, for example, one could say:
+**
+** <blockquote><pre>
+**  char *zSQL = sqlite3_mprintf("INSERT INTO table VALUES(%Q)", zText);
+**  sqlite3_exec(db, zSQL, 0, 0, 0);
+**  sqlite3_free(zSQL);
+** </pre></blockquote>
+**
+** The code above will render a correct SQL statement in the zSQL
+** variable even if the zText variable is a NULL pointer.
+**
+** ^(The "%z" formatting option works like "%s" but with the
+** addition that after the string has been read and copied into
+** the result, [sqlite3_free()] is called on the input string.)^
+*/
+SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_mprintf(const char*,...);
+SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_vmprintf(const char*, va_list);
+SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_snprintf(int,char*,const char*, ...);
+SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_vsnprintf(int,char*,const char*, va_list);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocation Subsystem
+**
+** The SQLite core uses these three routines for all of its own
+** internal memory allocation needs. "Core" in the previous sentence
+** does not include operating-system specific VFS implementation.  The
+** Windows VFS uses native malloc() and free() for some operations.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_malloc() routine returns a pointer to a block
+** of memory at least N bytes in length, where N is the parameter.
+** ^If sqlite3_malloc() is unable to obtain sufficient free
+** memory, it returns a NULL pointer.  ^If the parameter N to
+** sqlite3_malloc() is zero or negative then sqlite3_malloc() returns
+** a NULL pointer.
+**
+** ^Calling sqlite3_free() with a pointer previously returned
+** by sqlite3_malloc() or sqlite3_realloc() releases that memory so
+** that it might be reused.  ^The sqlite3_free() routine is
+** a no-op if is called with a NULL pointer.  Passing a NULL pointer
+** to sqlite3_free() is harmless.  After being freed, memory
+** should neither be read nor written.  Even reading previously freed
+** memory might result in a segmentation fault or other severe error.
+** Memory corruption, a segmentation fault, or other severe error
+** might result if sqlite3_free() is called with a non-NULL pointer that
+** was not obtained from sqlite3_malloc() or sqlite3_realloc().
+**
+** ^(The sqlite3_realloc() interface attempts to resize a
+** prior memory allocation to be at least N bytes, where N is the
+** second parameter.  The memory allocation to be resized is the first
+** parameter.)^ ^ If the first parameter to sqlite3_realloc()
+** is a NULL pointer then its behavior is identical to calling
+** sqlite3_malloc(N) where N is the second parameter to sqlite3_realloc().
+** ^If the second parameter to sqlite3_realloc() is zero or
+** negative then the behavior is exactly the same as calling
+** sqlite3_free(P) where P is the first parameter to sqlite3_realloc().
+** ^sqlite3_realloc() returns a pointer to a memory allocation
+** of at least N bytes in size or NULL if sufficient memory is unavailable.
+** ^If M is the size of the prior allocation, then min(N,M) bytes
+** of the prior allocation are copied into the beginning of buffer returned
+** by sqlite3_realloc() and the prior allocation is freed.
+** ^If sqlite3_realloc() returns NULL, then the prior allocation
+** is not freed.
+**
+** ^The memory returned by sqlite3_malloc() and sqlite3_realloc()
+** is always aligned to at least an 8 byte boundary, or to a
+** 4 byte boundary if the [SQLITE_4_BYTE_ALIGNED_MALLOC] compile-time
+** option is used.
+**
+** In SQLite version 3.5.0 and 3.5.1, it was possible to define
+** the SQLITE_OMIT_MEMORY_ALLOCATION which would cause the built-in
+** implementation of these routines to be omitted.  That capability
+** is no longer provided.  Only built-in memory allocators can be used.
+**
+** The Windows OS interface layer calls
+** the system malloc() and free() directly when converting
+** filenames between the UTF-8 encoding used by SQLite
+** and whatever filename encoding is used by the particular Windows
+** installation.  Memory allocation errors are detected, but
+** they are reported back as [SQLITE_CANTOPEN] or
+** [SQLITE_IOERR] rather than [SQLITE_NOMEM].
+**
+** The pointer arguments to [sqlite3_free()] and [sqlite3_realloc()]
+** must be either NULL or else pointers obtained from a prior
+** invocation of [sqlite3_malloc()] or [sqlite3_realloc()] that have
+** not yet been released.
+**
+** The application must not read or write any part of
+** a block of memory after it has been released using
+** [sqlite3_free()] or [sqlite3_realloc()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_malloc(int);
+SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_realloc(void*, int);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_free(void*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocator Statistics
+**
+** SQLite provides these two interfaces for reporting on the status
+** of the [sqlite3_malloc()], [sqlite3_free()], and [sqlite3_realloc()]
+** routines, which form the built-in memory allocation subsystem.
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_memory_used()] routine returns the number of bytes
+** of memory currently outstanding (malloced but not freed).
+** ^The [sqlite3_memory_highwater()] routine returns the maximum
+** value of [sqlite3_memory_used()] since the high-water mark
+** was last reset.  ^The values returned by [sqlite3_memory_used()] and
+** [sqlite3_memory_highwater()] include any overhead
+** added by SQLite in its implementation of [sqlite3_malloc()],
+** but not overhead added by the any underlying system library
+** routines that [sqlite3_malloc()] may call.
+**
+** ^The memory high-water mark is reset to the current value of
+** [sqlite3_memory_used()] if and only if the parameter to
+** [sqlite3_memory_highwater()] is true.  ^The value returned
+** by [sqlite3_memory_highwater(1)] is the high-water mark
+** prior to the reset.
+*/
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_used(void);
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_highwater(int resetFlag);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Pseudo-Random Number Generator
+**
+** SQLite contains a high-quality pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) used to
+** select random [ROWID | ROWIDs] when inserting new records into a table that
+** already uses the largest possible [ROWID].  The PRNG is also used for
+** the build-in random() and randomblob() SQL functions.  This interface allows
+** applications to access the same PRNG for other purposes.
+**
+** ^A call to this routine stores N bytes of randomness into buffer P.
+**
+** ^The first time this routine is invoked (either internally or by
+** the application) the PRNG is seeded using randomness obtained
+** from the xRandomness method of the default [sqlite3_vfs] object.
+** ^On all subsequent invocations, the pseudo-randomness is generated
+** internally and without recourse to the [sqlite3_vfs] xRandomness
+** method.
+*/
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_randomness(int N, void *P);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Compile-Time Authorization Callbacks
+**
+** ^This routine registers an authorizer callback with a particular
+** [database connection], supplied in the first argument.
+** ^The authorizer callback is invoked as SQL statements are being compiled
+** by [sqlite3_prepare()] or its variants [sqlite3_prepare_v2()],
+** [sqlite3_prepare16()] and [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].  ^At various
+** points during the compilation process, as logic is being created
+** to perform various actions, the authorizer callback is invoked to
+** see if those actions are allowed.  ^The authorizer callback should
+** return [SQLITE_OK] to allow the action, [SQLITE_IGNORE] to disallow the
+** specific action but allow the SQL statement to continue to be
+** compiled, or [SQLITE_DENY] to cause the entire SQL statement to be
+** rejected with an error.  ^If the authorizer callback returns
+** any value other than [SQLITE_IGNORE], [SQLITE_OK], or [SQLITE_DENY]
+** then the [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or equivalent call that triggered
+** the authorizer will fail with an error message.
+**
+** When the callback returns [SQLITE_OK], that means the operation
+** requested is ok.  ^When the callback returns [SQLITE_DENY], the
+** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or equivalent call that triggered the
+** authorizer will fail with an error message explaining that
+** access is denied. 
+**
+** ^The first parameter to the authorizer callback is a copy of the third
+** parameter to the sqlite3_set_authorizer() interface. ^The second parameter
+** to the callback is an integer [SQLITE_COPY | action code] that specifies
+** the particular action to be authorized. ^The third through sixth parameters
+** to the callback are zero-terminated strings that contain additional
+** details about the action to be authorized.
+**
+** ^If the action code is [SQLITE_READ]
+** and the callback returns [SQLITE_IGNORE] then the
+** [prepared statement] statement is constructed to substitute
+** a NULL value in place of the table column that would have
+** been read if [SQLITE_OK] had been returned.  The [SQLITE_IGNORE]
+** return can be used to deny an untrusted user access to individual
+** columns of a table.
+** ^If the action code is [SQLITE_DELETE] and the callback returns
+** [SQLITE_IGNORE] then the [DELETE] operation proceeds but the
+** [truncate optimization] is disabled and all rows are deleted individually.
+**
+** An authorizer is used when [sqlite3_prepare | preparing]
+** SQL statements from an untrusted source, to ensure that the SQL statements
+** do not try to access data they are not allowed to see, or that they do not
+** try to execute malicious statements that damage the database.  For
+** example, an application may allow a user to enter arbitrary
+** SQL queries for evaluation by a database.  But the application does
+** not want the user to be able to make arbitrary changes to the
+** database.  An authorizer could then be put in place while the
+** user-entered SQL is being [sqlite3_prepare | prepared] that
+** disallows everything except [SELECT] statements.
+**
+** Applications that need to process SQL from untrusted sources
+** might also consider lowering resource limits using [sqlite3_limit()]
+** and limiting database size using the [max_page_count] [PRAGMA]
+** in addition to using an authorizer.
+**
+** ^(Only a single authorizer can be in place on a database connection
+** at a time.  Each call to sqlite3_set_authorizer overrides the
+** previous call.)^  ^Disable the authorizer by installing a NULL callback.
+** The authorizer is disabled by default.
+**
+** The authorizer callback must not do anything that will modify
+** the database connection that invoked the authorizer callback.
+** Note that [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and [sqlite3_step()] both modify their
+** database connections for the meaning of "modify" in this paragraph.
+**
+** ^When [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] is used to prepare a statement, the
+** statement might be re-prepared during [sqlite3_step()] due to a 
+** schema change.  Hence, the application should ensure that the
+** correct authorizer callback remains in place during the [sqlite3_step()].
+**
+** ^Note that the authorizer callback is invoked only during
+** [sqlite3_prepare()] or its variants.  Authorization is not
+** performed during statement evaluation in [sqlite3_step()], unless
+** as stated in the previous paragraph, sqlite3_step() invokes
+** sqlite3_prepare_v2() to reprepare a statement after a schema change.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_set_authorizer(
+  sqlite3*,
+  int (*xAuth)(void*,int,const char*,const char*,const char*,const char*),
+  void *pUserData
+);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Authorizer Return Codes
+**
+** The [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer callback function] must
+** return either [SQLITE_OK] or one of these two constants in order
+** to signal SQLite whether or not the action is permitted.  See the
+** [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer documentation] for additional
+** information.
+**
+** Note that SQLITE_IGNORE is also used as a [SQLITE_ROLLBACK | return code]
+** from the [sqlite3_vtab_on_conflict()] interface.
+*/
+#define SQLITE_DENY   1   /* Abort the SQL statement with an error */
+#define SQLITE_IGNORE 2   /* Don't allow access, but don't generate an error */
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Authorizer Action Codes
+**
+** The [sqlite3_set_authorizer()] interface registers a callback function
+** that is invoked to authorize certain SQL statement actions.  The
+** second parameter to the callback is an integer code that specifies
+** what action is being authorized.  These are the integer action codes that
+** the authorizer callback may be passed.
+**
+** These action code values signify what kind of operation is to be
+** authorized.  The 3rd and 4th parameters to the authorization
+** callback function will be parameters or NULL depending on which of these
+** codes is used as the second parameter.  ^(The 5th parameter to the
+** authorizer callback is the name of the database ("main", "temp",
+** etc.) if applicable.)^  ^The 6th parameter to the authorizer callback
+** is the name of the inner-most trigger or view that is responsible for
+** the access attempt or NULL if this access attempt is directly from
+** top-level SQL code.
+*/
+/******************************************* 3rd ************ 4th ***********/
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_INDEX          1   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_TABLE          2   /* Table Name      NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_INDEX     3   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_TABLE     4   /* Table Name      NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_TRIGGER   5   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_VIEW      6   /* View Name       NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_TRIGGER        7   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_VIEW           8   /* View Name       NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_DELETE                9   /* Table Name      NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_INDEX           10   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_TABLE           11   /* Table Name      NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_INDEX      12   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_TABLE      13   /* Table Name      NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_TRIGGER    14   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_VIEW       15   /* View Name       NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_TRIGGER         16   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_VIEW            17   /* View Name       NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_INSERT               18   /* Table Name      NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_PRAGMA               19   /* Pragma Name     1st arg or NULL */
+#define SQLITE_READ                 20   /* Table Name      Column Name     */
+#define SQLITE_SELECT               21   /* NULL            NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_TRANSACTION          22   /* Operation       NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_UPDATE               23   /* Table Name      Column Name     */
+#define SQLITE_ATTACH               24   /* Filename        NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_DETACH               25   /* Database Name   NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_ALTER_TABLE          26   /* Database Name   Table Name      */
+#define SQLITE_REINDEX              27   /* Index Name      NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_ANALYZE              28   /* Table Name      NULL            */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_VTABLE        29   /* Table Name      Module Name     */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_VTABLE          30   /* Table Name      Module Name     */
+#define SQLITE_FUNCTION             31   /* NULL            Function Name   */
+#define SQLITE_SAVEPOINT            32   /* Operation       Savepoint Name  */
+#define SQLITE_COPY                  0   /* No longer used */
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Tracing And Profiling Functions
+**
+** These routines register callback functions that can be used for
+** tracing and profiling the execution of SQL statements.
+**
+** ^The callback function registered by sqlite3_trace() is invoked at
+** various times when an SQL statement is being run by [sqlite3_step()].
+** ^The sqlite3_trace() callback is invoked with a UTF-8 rendering of the
+** SQL statement text as the statement first begins executing.
+** ^(Additional sqlite3_trace() callbacks might occur
+** as each triggered subprogram is entered.  The callbacks for triggers
+** contain a UTF-8 SQL comment that identifies the trigger.)^
+**
+** ^The callback function registered by sqlite3_profile() is invoked
+** as each SQL statement finishes.  ^The profile callback contains
+** the original statement text and an estimate of wall-clock time
+** of how long that statement took to run.  ^The profile callback
+** time is in units of nanoseconds, however the current implementation
+** is only capable of millisecond resolution so the six least significant
+** digits in the time are meaningless.  Future versions of SQLite
+** might provide greater resolution on the profiler callback.  The
+** sqlite3_profile() function is considered experimental and is
+** subject to change in future versions of SQLite.
+*/
+SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_trace(sqlite3*, void(*xTrace)(void*,const char*), void*);
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL void *sqlite3_profile(sqlite3*,
+   void(*xProfile)(void*,const char*,sqlite3_uint64), void*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Query Progress Callbacks
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_progress_handler(D,N,X,P) interface causes the callback
+** function X to be invoked periodically during long running calls to
+** [sqlite3_exec()], [sqlite3_step()] and [sqlite3_get_table()] for
+** database connection D.  An example use for this
+** interface is to keep a GUI updated during a large query.
+**
+** ^The parameter P is passed through as the only parameter to the 
+** callback function X.  ^The parameter N is the number of 
+** [virtual machine instructions] that are evaluated between successive
+** invocations of the callback X.
+**
+** ^Only a single progress handler may be defined at one time per
+** [database connection]; setting a new progress handler cancels the
+** old one.  ^Setting parameter X to NULL disables the progress handler.
+** ^The progress handler is also disabled by setting N to a value less
+** than 1.
+**
+** ^If the progress callback returns non-zero, the operation is
+** interrupted.  This feature can be used to implement a
+** "Cancel" button on a GUI progress dialog box.
+**
+** The progress handler callback must not do anything that will modify
+** the database connection that invoked the progress handler.
+** Note that [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and [sqlite3_step()] both modify their
+** database connections for the meaning of "modify" in this paragraph.
+**
+*/
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_progress_handler(sqlite3*, int, int(*)(void*), void*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Opening A New Database Connection
+**
+** ^These routines open an SQLite database file as specified by the 
+** filename argument. ^The filename argument is interpreted as UTF-8 for
+** sqlite3_open() and sqlite3_open_v2() and as UTF-16 in the native byte
+** order for sqlite3_open16(). ^(A [database connection] handle is usually
+** returned in *ppDb, even if an error occurs.  The only exception is that
+** if SQLite is unable to allocate memory to hold the [sqlite3] object,
+** a NULL will be written into *ppDb instead of a pointer to the [sqlite3]
+** object.)^ ^(If the database is opened (and/or created) successfully, then
+** [SQLITE_OK] is returned.  Otherwise an [error code] is returned.)^ ^The
+** [sqlite3_errmsg()] or [sqlite3_errmsg16()] routines can be used to obtain
+** an English language description of the error following a failure of any
+** of the sqlite3_open() routines.
+**
+** ^The default encoding for the database will be UTF-8 if
+** sqlite3_open() or sqlite3_open_v2() is called and
+** UTF-16 in the native byte order if sqlite3_open16() is used.
+**
+** Whether or not an error occurs when it is opened, resources
+** associated with the [database connection] handle should be released by
+** passing it to [sqlite3_close()] when it is no longer required.
+**
+** The sqlite3_open_v2() interface works like sqlite3_open()
+** except that it accepts two additional parameters for additional control
+** over the new database connection.  ^(The flags parameter to
+** sqlite3_open_v2() can take one of
+** the following three values, optionally combined with the 
+** [SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX], [SQLITE_OPEN_FULLMUTEX], [SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE],
+** [SQLITE_OPEN_PRIVATECACHE], and/or [SQLITE_OPEN_URI] flags:)^
+**
+** <dl>
+** ^(<dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY]</dt>
+** <dd>The database is opened in read-only mode.  If the database does not
+** already exist, an error is returned.</dd>)^
+**
+** ^(<dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE]</dt>
+** <dd>The database is opened for reading and writing if possible, or reading
+** only if the file is write protected by the operating system.  In either
+** case the database must already exist, otherwise an error is returned.</dd>)^
+**
+** ^(<dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE] | [SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE]</dt>
+** <dd>The database is opened for reading and writing, and is created if
+** it does not already exist. This is the behavior that is always used for
+** sqlite3_open() and sqlite3_open16().</dd>)^
+** </dl>
+**
+** If the 3rd parameter to sqlite3_open_v2() is not one of the
+** combinations shown above optionally combined with other
+** [SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY | SQLITE_OPEN_* bits]
+** then the behavior is undefined.
+**
+** ^If the [SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX] flag is set, then the database connection
+** opens in the multi-thread [threading mode] as long as the single-thread
+** mode has not been set at compile-time or start-time.  ^If the
+** [SQLITE_OPEN_FULLMUTEX] flag is set then the database connection opens
+** in the serialized [threading mode] unless single-thread was
+** previously selected at compile-time or start-time.
+** ^The [SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE] flag causes the database connection to be
+** eligible to use [shared cache mode], regardless of whether or not shared
+** cache is enabled using [sqlite3_enable_shared_cache()].  ^The
+** [SQLITE_OPEN_PRIVATECACHE] flag causes the database connection to not
+** participate in [shared cache mode] even if it is enabled.
+**
+** ^The fourth parameter to sqlite3_open_v2() is the name of the
+** [sqlite3_vfs] object that defines the operating system interface that
+** the new database connection should use.  ^If the fourth parameter is
+** a NULL pointer then the default [sqlite3_vfs] object is used.
+**
+** ^If the filename is ":memory:", then a private, temporary in-memory database
+** is created for the connection.  ^This in-memory database will vanish when
+** the database connection is closed.  Future versions of SQLite might
+** make use of additional special filenames that begin with the ":" character.
+** It is recommended that when a database filename actually does begin with
+** a ":" character you should prefix the filename with a pathname such as
+** "./" to avoid ambiguity.
+**
+** ^If the filename is an empty string, then a private, temporary
+** on-disk database will be created.  ^This private database will be
+** automatically deleted as soon as the database connection is closed.
+**
+** [[URI filenames in sqlite3_open()]] <h3>URI Filenames</h3>
+**
+** ^If [URI filename] interpretation is enabled, and the filename argument
+** begins with "file:", then the filename is interpreted as a URI. ^URI
+** filename interpretation is enabled if the [SQLITE_OPEN_URI] flag is
+** set in the fourth argument to sqlite3_open_v2(), or if it has
+** been enabled globally using the [SQLITE_CONFIG_URI] option with the
+** [sqlite3_config()] method or by the [SQLITE_USE_URI] compile-time option.
+** As of SQLite version 3.7.7, URI filename interpretation is turned off
+** by default, but future releases of SQLite might enable URI filename
+** interpretation by default.  See "[URI filenames]" for additional
+** information.
+**
+** URI filenames are parsed according to RFC 3986. ^If the URI contains an
+** authority, then it must be either an empty string or the string 
+** "localhost". ^If the authority is not an empty string or "localhost", an 
+** error is returned to the caller. ^The fragment component of a URI, if 
+** present, is ignored.
+**
+** ^SQLite uses the path component of the URI as the name of the disk file
+** which contains the database. ^If the path begins with a '/' character, 
+** then it is interpreted as an absolute path. ^If the path does not begin 
+** with a '/' (meaning that the authority section is omitted from the URI)
+** then the path is interpreted as a relative path. 
+** ^On windows, the first component of an absolute path 
+** is a drive specification (e.g. "C:").
+**
+** [[core URI query parameters]]
+** The query component of a URI may contain parameters that are interpreted
+** either by SQLite itself, or by a [VFS | custom VFS implementation].
+** SQLite interprets the following three query parameters:
+**
+** <ul>
+**   <li> <b>vfs</b>: ^The "vfs" parameter may be used to specify the name of
+**     a VFS object that provides the operating system interface that should
+**     be used to access the database file on disk. ^If this option is set to
+**     an empty string the default VFS object is used. ^Specifying an unknown
+**     VFS is an error. ^If sqlite3_open_v2() is used and the vfs option is
+**     present, then the VFS specified by the option takes precedence over
+**     the value passed as the fourth parameter to sqlite3_open_v2().
+**
+**   <li> <b>mode</b>: ^(The mode parameter may be set to either "ro", "rw" or
+**     "rwc". Attempting to set it to any other value is an error)^. 
+**     ^If "ro" is specified, then the database is opened for read-only 
+**     access, just as if the [SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY] flag had been set in the 
+**     third argument to sqlite3_prepare_v2(). ^If the mode option is set to 
+**     "rw", then the database is opened for read-write (but not create) 
+**     access, as if SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE (but not SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE) had 
+**     been set. ^Value "rwc" is equivalent to setting both 
+**     SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE and SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE. ^If sqlite3_open_v2() is 
+**     used, it is an error to specify a value for the mode parameter that is 
+**     less restrictive than that specified by the flags passed as the third 
+**     parameter.
+**
+**   <li> <b>cache</b>: ^The cache parameter may be set to either "shared" or
+**     "private". ^Setting it to "shared" is equivalent to setting the
+**     SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE bit in the flags argument passed to
+**     sqlite3_open_v2(). ^Setting the cache parameter to "private" is 
+**     equivalent to setting the SQLITE_OPEN_PRIVATECACHE bit.
+**     ^If sqlite3_open_v2() is used and the "cache" parameter is present in
+**     a URI filename, its value overrides any behaviour requested by setting
+**     SQLITE_OPEN_PRIVATECACHE or SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE flag.
+** </ul>
+**
+** ^Specifying an unknown parameter in the query component of a URI is not an
+** error.  Future versions of SQLite might understand additional query
+** parameters.  See "[query parameters with special meaning to SQLite]" for
+** additional information.
+**
+** [[URI filename examples]] <h3>URI filename examples</h3>
+**
+** <table border="1" align=center cellpadding=5>
+** <tr><th> URI filenames <th> Results
+** <tr><td> file:data.db <td> 
+**          Open the file "data.db" in the current directory.
+** <tr><td> file:/home/fred/data.db<br>
+**          file:///home/fred/data.db <br> 
+**          file://localhost/home/fred/data.db <br> <td> 
+**          Open the database file "/home/fred/data.db".
+** <tr><td> file://darkstar/home/fred/data.db <td> 
+**          An error. "darkstar" is not a recognized authority.
+** <tr><td style="white-space:nowrap"> 
+**          file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/fred/Desktop/data.db
+**     <td> Windows only: Open the file "data.db" on fred's desktop on drive
+**          C:. Note that the %20 escaping in this example is not strictly 
+**          necessary - space characters can be used literally
+**          in URI filenames.
+** <tr><td> file:data.db?mode=ro&cache=private <td> 
+**          Open file "data.db" in the current directory for read-only access.
+**          Regardless of whether or not shared-cache mode is enabled by
+**          default, use a private cache.
+** <tr><td> file:/home/fred/data.db?vfs=unix-nolock <td>
+**          Open file "/home/fred/data.db". Use the special VFS "unix-nolock".
+** <tr><td> file:data.db?mode=readonly <td> 
+**          An error. "readonly" is not a valid option for the "mode" parameter.
+** </table>
+**
+** ^URI hexadecimal escape sequences (%HH) are supported within the path and
+** query components of a URI. A hexadecimal escape sequence consists of a
+** percent sign - "%" - followed by exactly two hexadecimal digits 
+** specifying an octet value. ^Before the path or query components of a
+** URI filename are interpreted, they are encoded using UTF-8 and all 
+** hexadecimal escape sequences replaced by a single byte containing the
+** corresponding octet. If this process generates an invalid UTF-8 encoding,
+** the results are undefined.
+**
+** <b>Note to Windows users:</b>  The encoding used for the filename argument
+** of sqlite3_open() and sqlite3_open_v2() must be UTF-8, not whatever
+** codepage is currently defined.  Filenames containing international
+** characters must be converted to UTF-8 prior to passing them into
+** sqlite3_open() or sqlite3_open_v2().
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_open(
+  const char *filename,   /* Database filename (UTF-8) */
+  sqlite3 **ppDb          /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
+);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_open16(
+  const void *filename,   /* Database filename (UTF-16) */
+  sqlite3 **ppDb          /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
+);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_open_v2(
+  const char *filename,   /* Database filename (UTF-8) */
+  sqlite3 **ppDb,         /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
+  int flags,              /* Flags */
+  const char *zVfs        /* Name of VFS module to use */
+);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Obtain Values For URI Parameters
+**
+** This is a utility routine, useful to VFS implementations, that checks
+** to see if a database file was a URI that contained a specific query 
+** parameter, and if so obtains the value of the query parameter.
+**
+** The zFilename argument is the filename pointer passed into the xOpen()
+** method of a VFS implementation.  The zParam argument is the name of the
+** query parameter we seek.  This routine returns the value of the zParam
+** parameter if it exists.  If the parameter does not exist, this routine
+** returns a NULL pointer.
+**
+** If the zFilename argument to this function is not a pointer that SQLite
+** passed into the xOpen VFS method, then the behavior of this routine
+** is undefined and probably undesirable.
+*/
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_uri_parameter(const char *zFilename, const char *zParam);
+
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Error Codes And Messages
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_errcode() interface returns the numeric [result code] or
+** [extended result code] for the most recent failed sqlite3_* API call
+** associated with a [database connection]. If a prior API call failed
+** but the most recent API call succeeded, the return value from
+** sqlite3_errcode() is undefined.  ^The sqlite3_extended_errcode()
+** interface is the same except that it always returns the 
+** [extended result code] even when extended result codes are
+** disabled.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_errmsg() and sqlite3_errmsg16() return English-language
+** text that describes the error, as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 respectively.
+** ^(Memory to hold the error message string is managed internally.
+** The application does not need to worry about freeing the result.
+** However, the error string might be overwritten or deallocated by
+** subsequent calls to other SQLite interface functions.)^
+**
+** When the serialized [threading mode] is in use, it might be the
+** case that a second error occurs on a separate thread in between
+** the time of the first error and the call to these interfaces.
+** When that happens, the second error will be reported since these
+** interfaces always report the most recent result.  To avoid
+** this, each thread can obtain exclusive use of the [database connection] D
+** by invoking [sqlite3_mutex_enter]([sqlite3_db_mutex](D)) before beginning
+** to use D and invoking [sqlite3_mutex_leave]([sqlite3_db_mutex](D)) after
+** all calls to the interfaces listed here are completed.
+**
+** If an interface fails with SQLITE_MISUSE, that means the interface
+** was invoked incorrectly by the application.  In that case, the
+** error code and message may or may not be set.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_errcode(sqlite3 *db);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_extended_errcode(sqlite3 *db);
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_errmsg(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_errmsg16(sqlite3*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: SQL Statement Object
+** KEYWORDS: {prepared statement} {prepared statements}
+**
+** An instance of this object represents a single SQL statement.
+** This object is variously known as a "prepared statement" or a
+** "compiled SQL statement" or simply as a "statement".
+**
+** The life of a statement object goes something like this:
+**
+** <ol>
+** <li> Create the object using [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or a related
+**      function.
+** <li> Bind values to [host parameters] using the sqlite3_bind_*()
+**      interfaces.
+** <li> Run the SQL by calling [sqlite3_step()] one or more times.
+** <li> Reset the statement using [sqlite3_reset()] then go back
+**      to step 2.  Do this zero or more times.
+** <li> Destroy the object using [sqlite3_finalize()].
+** </ol>
+**
+** Refer to documentation on individual methods above for additional
+** information.
+*/
+typedef struct sqlite3_stmt sqlite3_stmt;
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Run-time Limits
+**
+** ^(This interface allows the size of various constructs to be limited
+** on a connection by connection basis.  The first parameter is the
+** [database connection] whose limit is to be set or queried.  The
+** second parameter is one of the [limit categories] that define a
+** class of constructs to be size limited.  The third parameter is the
+** new limit for that construct.)^
+**
+** ^If the new limit is a negative number, the limit is unchanged.
+** ^(For each limit category SQLITE_LIMIT_<i>NAME</i> there is a 
+** [limits | hard upper bound]
+** set at compile-time by a C preprocessor macro called
+** [limits | SQLITE_MAX_<i>NAME</i>].
+** (The "_LIMIT_" in the name is changed to "_MAX_".))^
+** ^Attempts to increase a limit above its hard upper bound are
+** silently truncated to the hard upper bound.
+**
+** ^Regardless of whether or not the limit was changed, the 
+** [sqlite3_limit()] interface returns the prior value of the limit.
+** ^Hence, to find the current value of a limit without changing it,
+** simply invoke this interface with the third parameter set to -1.
+**
+** Run-time limits are intended for use in applications that manage
+** both their own internal database and also databases that are controlled
+** by untrusted external sources.  An example application might be a
+** web browser that has its own databases for storing history and
+** separate databases controlled by JavaScript applications downloaded
+** off the Internet.  The internal databases can be given the
+** large, default limits.  Databases managed by external sources can
+** be given much smaller limits designed to prevent a denial of service
+** attack.  Developers might also want to use the [sqlite3_set_authorizer()]
+** interface to further control untrusted SQL.  The size of the database
+** created by an untrusted script can be contained using the
+** [max_page_count] [PRAGMA].
+**
+** New run-time limit categories may be added in future releases.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_limit(sqlite3*, int id, int newVal);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Limit Categories
+** KEYWORDS: {limit category} {*limit categories}
+**
+** These constants define various performance limits
+** that can be lowered at run-time using [sqlite3_limit()].
+** The synopsis of the meanings of the various limits is shown below.
+** Additional information is available at [limits | Limits in SQLite].
+**
+** <dl>
+** [[SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH</dt>
+** <dd>The maximum size of any string or BLOB or table row, in bytes.<dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_LIMIT_SQL_LENGTH]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_SQL_LENGTH</dt>
+** <dd>The maximum length of an SQL statement, in bytes.</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_LIMIT_COLUMN]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_COLUMN</dt>
+** <dd>The maximum number of columns in a table definition or in the
+** result set of a [SELECT] or the maximum number of columns in an index
+** or in an ORDER BY or GROUP BY clause.</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_LIMIT_EXPR_DEPTH]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_EXPR_DEPTH</dt>
+** <dd>The maximum depth of the parse tree on any expression.</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_LIMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT</dt>
+** <dd>The maximum number of terms in a compound SELECT statement.</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_LIMIT_VDBE_OP]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_VDBE_OP</dt>
+** <dd>The maximum number of instructions in a virtual machine program
+** used to implement an SQL statement.  This limit is not currently
+** enforced, though that might be added in some future release of
+** SQLite.</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG</dt>
+** <dd>The maximum number of arguments on a function.</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_LIMIT_ATTACHED]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_ATTACHED</dt>
+** <dd>The maximum number of [ATTACH | attached databases].)^</dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_LIMIT_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH]]
+** ^(<dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH</dt>
+** <dd>The maximum length of the pattern argument to the [LIKE] or
+** [GLOB] operators.</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_LIMIT_VARIABLE_NUMBER]]
+** ^(<dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_VARIABLE_NUMBER</dt>
+** <dd>The maximum index number of any [parameter] in an SQL statement.)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_LIMIT_TRIGGER_DEPTH]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_TRIGGER_DEPTH</dt>
+** <dd>The maximum depth of recursion for triggers.</dd>)^
+** </dl>
+*/
+#define SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH                    0
+#define SQLITE_LIMIT_SQL_LENGTH                1
+#define SQLITE_LIMIT_COLUMN                    2
+#define SQLITE_LIMIT_EXPR_DEPTH                3
+#define SQLITE_LIMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT           4
+#define SQLITE_LIMIT_VDBE_OP                   5
+#define SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG              6
+#define SQLITE_LIMIT_ATTACHED                  7
+#define SQLITE_LIMIT_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH       8
+#define SQLITE_LIMIT_VARIABLE_NUMBER           9
+#define SQLITE_LIMIT_TRIGGER_DEPTH            10
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Compiling An SQL Statement
+** KEYWORDS: {SQL statement compiler}
+**
+** To execute an SQL query, it must first be compiled into a byte-code
+** program using one of these routines.
+**
+** The first argument, "db", is a [database connection] obtained from a
+** prior successful call to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open_v2()] or
+** [sqlite3_open16()].  The database connection must not have been closed.
+**
+** The second argument, "zSql", is the statement to be compiled, encoded
+** as either UTF-8 or UTF-16.  The sqlite3_prepare() and sqlite3_prepare_v2()
+** interfaces use UTF-8, and sqlite3_prepare16() and sqlite3_prepare16_v2()
+** use UTF-16.
+**
+** ^If the nByte argument is less than zero, then zSql is read up to the
+** first zero terminator. ^If nByte is non-negative, then it is the maximum
+** number of  bytes read from zSql.  ^When nByte is non-negative, the
+** zSql string ends at either the first '\000' or '\u0000' character or
+** the nByte-th byte, whichever comes first. If the caller knows
+** that the supplied string is nul-terminated, then there is a small
+** performance advantage to be gained by passing an nByte parameter that
+** is equal to the number of bytes in the input string <i>including</i>
+** the nul-terminator bytes as this saves SQLite from having to
+** make a copy of the input string.
+**
+** ^If pzTail is not NULL then *pzTail is made to point to the first byte
+** past the end of the first SQL statement in zSql.  These routines only
+** compile the first statement in zSql, so *pzTail is left pointing to
+** what remains uncompiled.
+**
+** ^*ppStmt is left pointing to a compiled [prepared statement] that can be
+** executed using [sqlite3_step()].  ^If there is an error, *ppStmt is set
+** to NULL.  ^If the input text contains no SQL (if the input is an empty
+** string or a comment) then *ppStmt is set to NULL.
+** The calling procedure is responsible for deleting the compiled
+** SQL statement using [sqlite3_finalize()] after it has finished with it.
+** ppStmt may not be NULL.
+**
+** ^On success, the sqlite3_prepare() family of routines return [SQLITE_OK];
+** otherwise an [error code] is returned.
+**
+** The sqlite3_prepare_v2() and sqlite3_prepare16_v2() interfaces are
+** recommended for all new programs. The two older interfaces are retained
+** for backwards compatibility, but their use is discouraged.
+** ^In the "v2" interfaces, the prepared statement
+** that is returned (the [sqlite3_stmt] object) contains a copy of the
+** original SQL text. This causes the [sqlite3_step()] interface to
+** behave differently in three ways:
+**
+** <ol>
+** <li>
+** ^If the database schema changes, instead of returning [SQLITE_SCHEMA] as it
+** always used to do, [sqlite3_step()] will automatically recompile the SQL
+** statement and try to run it again.
+** </li>
+**
+** <li>
+** ^When an error occurs, [sqlite3_step()] will return one of the detailed
+** [error codes] or [extended error codes].  ^The legacy behavior was that
+** [sqlite3_step()] would only return a generic [SQLITE_ERROR] result code
+** and the application would have to make a second call to [sqlite3_reset()]
+** in order to find the underlying cause of the problem. With the "v2" prepare
+** interfaces, the underlying reason for the error is returned immediately.
+** </li>
+**
+** <li>
+** ^If the specific value bound to [parameter | host parameter] in the 
+** WHERE clause might influence the choice of query plan for a statement,
+** then the statement will be automatically recompiled, as if there had been 
+** a schema change, on the first  [sqlite3_step()] call following any change
+** to the [sqlite3_bind_text | bindings] of that [parameter]. 
+** ^The specific value of WHERE-clause [parameter] might influence the 
+** choice of query plan if the parameter is the left-hand side of a [LIKE]
+** or [GLOB] operator or if the parameter is compared to an indexed column
+** and the [SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3] compile-time option is enabled.
+** the 
+** </li>
+** </ol>
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare(
+  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
+  const char *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-8 encoded */
+  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
+  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
+  const char **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
+);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare_v2(
+  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
+  const char *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-8 encoded */
+  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
+  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
+  const char **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
+);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare16(
+  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
+  const void *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-16 encoded */
+  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
+  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
+  const void **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
+);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare16_v2(
+  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
+  const void *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-16 encoded */
+  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
+  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
+  const void **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
+);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Retrieving Statement SQL
+**
+** ^This interface can be used to retrieve a saved copy of the original
+** SQL text used to create a [prepared statement] if that statement was
+** compiled using either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_sql(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Determine If An SQL Statement Writes The Database
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_stmt_readonly(X) interface returns true (non-zero) if
+** and only if the [prepared statement] X makes no direct changes to
+** the content of the database file.
+**
+** Note that [application-defined SQL functions] or
+** [virtual tables] might change the database indirectly as a side effect.  
+** ^(For example, if an application defines a function "eval()" that 
+** calls [sqlite3_exec()], then the following SQL statement would
+** change the database file through side-effects:
+**
+** <blockquote><pre>
+**    SELECT eval('DELETE FROM t1') FROM t2;
+** </pre></blockquote>
+**
+** But because the [SELECT] statement does not change the database file
+** directly, sqlite3_stmt_readonly() would still return true.)^
+**
+** ^Transaction control statements such as [BEGIN], [COMMIT], [ROLLBACK],
+** [SAVEPOINT], and [RELEASE] cause sqlite3_stmt_readonly() to return true,
+** since the statements themselves do not actually modify the database but
+** rather they control the timing of when other statements modify the 
+** database.  ^The [ATTACH] and [DETACH] statements also cause
+** sqlite3_stmt_readonly() to return true since, while those statements
+** change the configuration of a database connection, they do not make 
+** changes to the content of the database files on disk.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_stmt_readonly(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Dynamically Typed Value Object
+** KEYWORDS: {protected sqlite3_value} {unprotected sqlite3_value}
+**
+** SQLite uses the sqlite3_value object to represent all values
+** that can be stored in a database table. SQLite uses dynamic typing
+** for the values it stores.  ^Values stored in sqlite3_value objects
+** can be integers, floating point values, strings, BLOBs, or NULL.
+**
+** An sqlite3_value object may be either "protected" or "unprotected".
+** Some interfaces require a protected sqlite3_value.  Other interfaces
+** will accept either a protected or an unprotected sqlite3_value.
+** Every interface that accepts sqlite3_value arguments specifies
+** whether or not it requires a protected sqlite3_value.
+**
+** The terms "protected" and "unprotected" refer to whether or not
+** a mutex is held.  An internal mutex is held for a protected
+** sqlite3_value object but no mutex is held for an unprotected
+** sqlite3_value object.  If SQLite is compiled to be single-threaded
+** (with [SQLITE_THREADSAFE=0] and with [sqlite3_threadsafe()] returning 0)
+** or if SQLite is run in one of reduced mutex modes 
+** [SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD] or [SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD]
+** then there is no distinction between protected and unprotected
+** sqlite3_value objects and they can be used interchangeably.  However,
+** for maximum code portability it is recommended that applications
+** still make the distinction between protected and unprotected
+** sqlite3_value objects even when not strictly required.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_value objects that are passed as parameters into the
+** implementation of [application-defined SQL functions] are protected.
+** ^The sqlite3_value object returned by
+** [sqlite3_column_value()] is unprotected.
+** Unprotected sqlite3_value objects may only be used with
+** [sqlite3_result_value()] and [sqlite3_bind_value()].
+** The [sqlite3_value_blob | sqlite3_value_type()] family of
+** interfaces require protected sqlite3_value objects.
+*/
+typedef struct Mem sqlite3_value;
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: SQL Function Context Object
+**
+** The context in which an SQL function executes is stored in an
+** sqlite3_context object.  ^A pointer to an sqlite3_context object
+** is always first parameter to [application-defined SQL functions].
+** The application-defined SQL function implementation will pass this
+** pointer through into calls to [sqlite3_result_int | sqlite3_result()],
+** [sqlite3_aggregate_context()], [sqlite3_user_data()],
+** [sqlite3_context_db_handle()], [sqlite3_get_auxdata()],
+** and/or [sqlite3_set_auxdata()].
+*/
+typedef struct sqlite3_context sqlite3_context;
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Binding Values To Prepared Statements
+** KEYWORDS: {host parameter} {host parameters} {host parameter name}
+** KEYWORDS: {SQL parameter} {SQL parameters} {parameter binding}
+**
+** ^(In the SQL statement text input to [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and its variants,
+** literals may be replaced by a [parameter] that matches one of following
+** templates:
+**
+** <ul>
+** <li>  ?
+** <li>  ?NNN
+** <li>  :VVV
+** <li>  @VVV
+** <li>  $VVV
+** </ul>
+**
+** In the templates above, NNN represents an integer literal,
+** and VVV represents an alphanumeric identifier.)^  ^The values of these
+** parameters (also called "host parameter names" or "SQL parameters")
+** can be set using the sqlite3_bind_*() routines defined here.
+**
+** ^The first argument to the sqlite3_bind_*() routines is always
+** a pointer to the [sqlite3_stmt] object returned from
+** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or its variants.
+**
+** ^The second argument is the index of the SQL parameter to be set.
+** ^The leftmost SQL parameter has an index of 1.  ^When the same named
+** SQL parameter is used more than once, second and subsequent
+** occurrences have the same index as the first occurrence.
+** ^The index for named parameters can be looked up using the
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()] API if desired.  ^The index
+** for "?NNN" parameters is the value of NNN.
+** ^The NNN value must be between 1 and the [sqlite3_limit()]
+** parameter [SQLITE_LIMIT_VARIABLE_NUMBER] (default value: 999).
+**
+** ^The third argument is the value to bind to the parameter.
+**
+** ^(In those routines that have a fourth argument, its value is the
+** number of bytes in the parameter.  To be clear: the value is the
+** number of <u>bytes</u> in the value, not the number of characters.)^
+** ^If the fourth parameter is negative, the length of the string is
+** the number of bytes up to the first zero terminator.
+** If a non-negative fourth parameter is provided to sqlite3_bind_text()
+** or sqlite3_bind_text16() then that parameter must be the byte offset
+** where the NUL terminator would occur assuming the string were NUL
+** terminated.  If any NUL characters occur at byte offsets less than 
+** the value of the fourth parameter then the resulting string value will
+** contain embedded NULs.  The result of expressions involving strings
+** with embedded NULs is undefined.
+**
+** ^The fifth argument to sqlite3_bind_blob(), sqlite3_bind_text(), and
+** sqlite3_bind_text16() is a destructor used to dispose of the BLOB or
+** string after SQLite has finished with it.  ^The destructor is called
+** to dispose of the BLOB or string even if the call to sqlite3_bind_blob(),
+** sqlite3_bind_text(), or sqlite3_bind_text16() fails.  
+** ^If the fifth argument is
+** the special value [SQLITE_STATIC], then SQLite assumes that the
+** information is in static, unmanaged space and does not need to be freed.
+** ^If the fifth argument has the value [SQLITE_TRANSIENT], then
+** SQLite makes its own private copy of the data immediately, before
+** the sqlite3_bind_*() routine returns.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_bind_zeroblob() routine binds a BLOB of length N that
+** is filled with zeroes.  ^A zeroblob uses a fixed amount of memory
+** (just an integer to hold its size) while it is being processed.
+** Zeroblobs are intended to serve as placeholders for BLOBs whose
+** content is later written using
+** [sqlite3_blob_open | incremental BLOB I/O] routines.
+** ^A negative value for the zeroblob results in a zero-length BLOB.
+**
+** ^If any of the sqlite3_bind_*() routines are called with a NULL pointer
+** for the [prepared statement] or with a prepared statement for which
+** [sqlite3_step()] has been called more recently than [sqlite3_reset()],
+** then the call will return [SQLITE_MISUSE].  If any sqlite3_bind_()
+** routine is passed a [prepared statement] that has been finalized, the
+** result is undefined and probably harmful.
+**
+** ^Bindings are not cleared by the [sqlite3_reset()] routine.
+** ^Unbound parameters are interpreted as NULL.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_bind_* routines return [SQLITE_OK] on success or an
+** [error code] if anything goes wrong.
+** ^[SQLITE_RANGE] is returned if the parameter
+** index is out of range.  ^[SQLITE_NOMEM] is returned if malloc() fails.
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()],
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()], and [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_blob(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const void*, int n, void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_double(sqlite3_stmt*, int, double);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_int(sqlite3_stmt*, int, int);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_int64(sqlite3_stmt*, int, sqlite3_int64);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_null(sqlite3_stmt*, int);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_text(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const char*, int n, void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_text16(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_value(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_zeroblob(sqlite3_stmt*, int, int n);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Number Of SQL Parameters
+**
+** ^This routine can be used to find the number of [SQL parameters]
+** in a [prepared statement].  SQL parameters are tokens of the
+** form "?", "?NNN", ":AAA", "$AAA", or "@AAA" that serve as
+** placeholders for values that are [sqlite3_bind_blob | bound]
+** to the parameters at a later time.
+**
+** ^(This routine actually returns the index of the largest (rightmost)
+** parameter. For all forms except ?NNN, this will correspond to the
+** number of unique parameters.  If parameters of the ?NNN form are used,
+** there may be gaps in the list.)^
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()], and
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_parameter_count(sqlite3_stmt*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Name Of A Host Parameter
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_bind_parameter_name(P,N) interface returns
+** the name of the N-th [SQL parameter] in the [prepared statement] P.
+** ^(SQL parameters of the form "?NNN" or ":AAA" or "@AAA" or "$AAA"
+** have a name which is the string "?NNN" or ":AAA" or "@AAA" or "$AAA"
+** respectively.
+** In other words, the initial ":" or "$" or "@" or "?"
+** is included as part of the name.)^
+** ^Parameters of the form "?" without a following integer have no name
+** and are referred to as "nameless" or "anonymous parameters".
+**
+** ^The first host parameter has an index of 1, not 0.
+**
+** ^If the value N is out of range or if the N-th parameter is
+** nameless, then NULL is returned.  ^The returned string is
+** always in UTF-8 encoding even if the named parameter was
+** originally specified as UTF-16 in [sqlite3_prepare16()] or
+** [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()], and
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_bind_parameter_name(sqlite3_stmt*, int);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Index Of A Parameter With A Given Name
+**
+** ^Return the index of an SQL parameter given its name.  ^The
+** index value returned is suitable for use as the second
+** parameter to [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()].  ^A zero
+** is returned if no matching parameter is found.  ^The parameter
+** name must be given in UTF-8 even if the original statement
+** was prepared from UTF-16 text using [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()], and
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_parameter_index(sqlite3_stmt*, const char *zName);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Reset All Bindings On A Prepared Statement
+**
+** ^Contrary to the intuition of many, [sqlite3_reset()] does not reset
+** the [sqlite3_bind_blob | bindings] on a [prepared statement].
+** ^Use this routine to reset all host parameters to NULL.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_clear_bindings(sqlite3_stmt*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Number Of Columns In A Result Set
+**
+** ^Return the number of columns in the result set returned by the
+** [prepared statement]. ^This routine returns 0 if pStmt is an SQL
+** statement that does not return data (for example an [UPDATE]).
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_data_count()]
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_count(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Column Names In A Result Set
+**
+** ^These routines return the name assigned to a particular column
+** in the result set of a [SELECT] statement.  ^The sqlite3_column_name()
+** interface returns a pointer to a zero-terminated UTF-8 string
+** and sqlite3_column_name16() returns a pointer to a zero-terminated
+** UTF-16 string.  ^The first parameter is the [prepared statement]
+** that implements the [SELECT] statement. ^The second parameter is the
+** column number.  ^The leftmost column is number 0.
+**
+** ^The returned string pointer is valid until either the [prepared statement]
+** is destroyed by [sqlite3_finalize()] or until the statement is automatically
+** reprepared by the first call to [sqlite3_step()] for a particular run
+** or until the next call to
+** sqlite3_column_name() or sqlite3_column_name16() on the same column.
+**
+** ^If sqlite3_malloc() fails during the processing of either routine
+** (for example during a conversion from UTF-8 to UTF-16) then a
+** NULL pointer is returned.
+**
+** ^The name of a result column is the value of the "AS" clause for
+** that column, if there is an AS clause.  If there is no AS clause
+** then the name of the column is unspecified and may change from
+** one release of SQLite to the next.
+*/
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_name(sqlite3_stmt*, int N);
+SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_name16(sqlite3_stmt*, int N);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Source Of Data In A Query Result
+**
+** ^These routines provide a means to determine the database, table, and
+** table column that is the origin of a particular result column in
+** [SELECT] statement.
+** ^The name of the database or table or column can be returned as
+** either a UTF-8 or UTF-16 string.  ^The _database_ routines return
+** the database name, the _table_ routines return the table name, and
+** the origin_ routines return the column name.
+** ^The returned string is valid until the [prepared statement] is destroyed
+** using [sqlite3_finalize()] or until the statement is automatically
+** reprepared by the first call to [sqlite3_step()] for a particular run
+** or until the same information is requested
+** again in a different encoding.
+**
+** ^The names returned are the original un-aliased names of the
+** database, table, and column.
+**
+** ^The first argument to these interfaces is a [prepared statement].
+** ^These functions return information about the Nth result column returned by
+** the statement, where N is the second function argument.
+** ^The left-most column is column 0 for these routines.
+**
+** ^If the Nth column returned by the statement is an expression or
+** subquery and is not a column value, then all of these functions return
+** NULL.  ^These routine might also return NULL if a memory allocation error
+** occurs.  ^Otherwise, they return the name of the attached database, table,
+** or column that query result column was extracted from.
+**
+** ^As with all other SQLite APIs, those whose names end with "16" return
+** UTF-16 encoded strings and the other functions return UTF-8.
+**
+** ^These APIs are only available if the library was compiled with the
+** [SQLITE_ENABLE_COLUMN_METADATA] C-preprocessor symbol.
+**
+** If two or more threads call one or more of these routines against the same
+** prepared statement and column at the same time then the results are
+** undefined.
+**
+** If two or more threads call one or more
+** [sqlite3_column_database_name | column metadata interfaces]
+** for the same [prepared statement] and result column
+** at the same time then the results are undefined.
+*/
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_database_name(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_database_name16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_table_name(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_table_name16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_origin_name(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_origin_name16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Declared Datatype Of A Query Result
+**
+** ^(The first parameter is a [prepared statement].
+** If this statement is a [SELECT] statement and the Nth column of the
+** returned result set of that [SELECT] is a table column (not an
+** expression or subquery) then the declared type of the table
+** column is returned.)^  ^If the Nth column of the result set is an
+** expression or subquery, then a NULL pointer is returned.
+** ^The returned string is always UTF-8 encoded.
+**
+** ^(For example, given the database schema:
+**
+** CREATE TABLE t1(c1 VARIANT);
+**
+** and the following statement to be compiled:
+**
+** SELECT c1 + 1, c1 FROM t1;
+**
+** this routine would return the string "VARIANT" for the second result
+** column (i==1), and a NULL pointer for the first result column (i==0).)^
+**
+** ^SQLite uses dynamic run-time typing.  ^So just because a column
+** is declared to contain a particular type does not mean that the
+** data stored in that column is of the declared type.  SQLite is
+** strongly typed, but the typing is dynamic not static.  ^Type
+** is associated with individual values, not with the containers
+** used to hold those values.
+*/
+SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_decltype(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_decltype16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Evaluate An SQL Statement
+**
+** After a [prepared statement] has been prepared using either
+** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()] or one of the legacy
+** interfaces [sqlite3_prepare()] or [sqlite3_prepare16()], this function
+** must be called one or more times to evaluate the statement.
+**
+** The details of the behavior of the sqlite3_step() interface depend
+** on whether the statement was prepared using the newer "v2" interface
+** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()] or the older legacy
+** interface [sqlite3_prepare()] and [sqlite3_prepare16()].  The use of the
+** new "v2" interface is recommended for new applications but the legacy
+** interface will continue to be supported.
+**
+** ^In the legacy interface, the return value will be either [SQLITE_BUSY],
+** [SQLITE_DONE], [SQLITE_ROW], [SQLITE_ERROR], or [SQLITE_MISUSE].
+** ^With the "v2" interface, any of the other [result codes] or
+** [extended result codes] might be returned as well.
+**
+** ^[SQLITE_BUSY] means that the database engine was unable to acquire the
+** database locks it needs to do its job.  ^If the statement is a [COMMIT]
+** or occurs outside of an explicit transaction, then you can retry the
+** statement.  If the statement is not a [COMMIT] and occurs within an
+** explicit transaction then you should rollback the transaction before
+** continuing.
+**
+** ^[SQLITE_DONE] means that the statement has finished executing
+** successfully.  sqlite3_step() should not be called again on this virtual
+** machine without first calling [sqlite3_reset()] to reset the virtual
+** machine back to its initial state.
+**
+** ^If the SQL statement being executed returns any data, then [SQLITE_ROW]
+** is returned each time a new row of data is ready for processing by the
+** caller. The values may be accessed using the [column access functions].
+** sqlite3_step() is called again to retrieve the next row of data.
+**
+** ^[SQLITE_ERROR] means that a run-time error (such as a constraint
+** violation) has occurred.  sqlite3_step() should not be called again on
+** the VM. More information may be found by calling [sqlite3_errmsg()].
+** ^With the legacy interface, a more specific error code (for example,
+** [SQLITE_INTERRUPT], [SQLITE_SCHEMA], [SQLITE_CORRUPT], and so forth)
+** can be obtained by calling [sqlite3_reset()] on the
+** [prepared statement].  ^In the "v2" interface,
+** the more specific error code is returned directly by sqlite3_step().
+**
+** [SQLITE_MISUSE] means that the this routine was called inappropriately.
+** Perhaps it was called on a [prepared statement] that has
+** already been [sqlite3_finalize | finalized] or on one that had
+** previously returned [SQLITE_ERROR] or [SQLITE_DONE].  Or it could
+** be the case that the same database connection is being used by two or
+** more threads at the same moment in time.
+**
+** For all versions of SQLite up to and including 3.6.23.1, a call to
+** [sqlite3_reset()] was required after sqlite3_step() returned anything
+** other than [SQLITE_ROW] before any subsequent invocation of
+** sqlite3_step().  Failure to reset the prepared statement using 
+** [sqlite3_reset()] would result in an [SQLITE_MISUSE] return from
+** sqlite3_step().  But after version 3.6.23.1, sqlite3_step() began
+** calling [sqlite3_reset()] automatically in this circumstance rather
+** than returning [SQLITE_MISUSE].  This is not considered a compatibility
+** break because any application that ever receives an SQLITE_MISUSE error
+** is broken by definition.  The [SQLITE_OMIT_AUTORESET] compile-time option
+** can be used to restore the legacy behavior.
+**
+** <b>Goofy Interface Alert:</b> In the legacy interface, the sqlite3_step()
+** API always returns a generic error code, [SQLITE_ERROR], following any
+** error other than [SQLITE_BUSY] and [SQLITE_MISUSE].  You must call
+** [sqlite3_reset()] or [sqlite3_finalize()] in order to find one of the
+** specific [error codes] that better describes the error.
+** We admit that this is a goofy design.  The problem has been fixed
+** with the "v2" interface.  If you prepare all of your SQL statements
+** using either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()] instead
+** of the legacy [sqlite3_prepare()] and [sqlite3_prepare16()] interfaces,
+** then the more specific [error codes] are returned directly
+** by sqlite3_step().  The use of the "v2" interface is recommended.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_step(sqlite3_stmt*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Number of columns in a result set
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_data_count(P) interface returns the number of columns in the
+** current row of the result set of [prepared statement] P.
+** ^If prepared statement P does not have results ready to return
+** (via calls to the [sqlite3_column_int | sqlite3_column_*()] of
+** interfaces) then sqlite3_data_count(P) returns 0.
+** ^The sqlite3_data_count(P) routine also returns 0 if P is a NULL pointer.
+** ^The sqlite3_data_count(P) routine returns 0 if the previous call to
+** [sqlite3_step](P) returned [SQLITE_DONE].  ^The sqlite3_data_count(P)
+** will return non-zero if previous call to [sqlite3_step](P) returned
+** [SQLITE_ROW], except in the case of the [PRAGMA incremental_vacuum]
+** where it always returns zero since each step of that multi-step
+** pragma returns 0 columns of data.
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_column_count()]
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_data_count(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Fundamental Datatypes
+** KEYWORDS: SQLITE_TEXT
+**
+** ^(Every value in SQLite has one of five fundamental datatypes:
+**
+** <ul>
+** <li> 64-bit signed integer
+** <li> 64-bit IEEE floating point number
+** <li> string
+** <li> BLOB
+** <li> NULL
+** </ul>)^
+**
+** These constants are codes for each of those types.
+**
+** Note that the SQLITE_TEXT constant was also used in SQLite version 2
+** for a completely different meaning.  Software that links against both
+** SQLite version 2 and SQLite version 3 should use SQLITE3_TEXT, not
+** SQLITE_TEXT.
+*/
+#define SQLITE_INTEGER  1
+#define SQLITE_FLOAT    2
+#define SQLITE_BLOB     4
+#define SQLITE_NULL     5
+#ifdef SQLITE_TEXT
+# undef SQLITE_TEXT
+#else
+# define SQLITE_TEXT     3
+#endif
+#define SQLITE3_TEXT     3
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Result Values From A Query
+** KEYWORDS: {column access functions}
+**
+** These routines form the "result set" interface.
+**
+** ^These routines return information about a single column of the current
+** result row of a query.  ^In every case the first argument is a pointer
+** to the [prepared statement] that is being evaluated (the [sqlite3_stmt*]
+** that was returned from [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or one of its variants)
+** and the second argument is the index of the column for which information
+** should be returned. ^The leftmost column of the result set has the index 0.
+** ^The number of columns in the result can be determined using
+** [sqlite3_column_count()].
+**
+** If the SQL statement does not currently point to a valid row, or if the
+** column index is out of range, the result is undefined.
+** These routines may only be called when the most recent call to
+** [sqlite3_step()] has returned [SQLITE_ROW] and neither
+** [sqlite3_reset()] nor [sqlite3_finalize()] have been called subsequently.
+** If any of these routines are called after [sqlite3_reset()] or
+** [sqlite3_finalize()] or after [sqlite3_step()] has returned
+** something other than [SQLITE_ROW], the results are undefined.
+** If [sqlite3_step()] or [sqlite3_reset()] or [sqlite3_finalize()]
+** are called from a different thread while any of these routines
+** are pending, then the results are undefined.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_column_type() routine returns the
+** [SQLITE_INTEGER | datatype code] for the initial data type
+** of the result column.  ^The returned value is one of [SQLITE_INTEGER],
+** [SQLITE_FLOAT], [SQLITE_TEXT], [SQLITE_BLOB], or [SQLITE_NULL].  The value
+** returned by sqlite3_column_type() is only meaningful if no type
+** conversions have occurred as described below.  After a type conversion,
+** the value returned by sqlite3_column_type() is undefined.  Future
+** versions of SQLite may change the behavior of sqlite3_column_type()
+** following a type conversion.
+**
+** ^If the result is a BLOB or UTF-8 string then the sqlite3_column_bytes()
+** routine returns the number of bytes in that BLOB or string.
+** ^If the result is a UTF-16 string, then sqlite3_column_bytes() converts
+** the string to UTF-8 and then returns the number of bytes.
+** ^If the result is a numeric value then sqlite3_column_bytes() uses
+** [sqlite3_snprintf()] to convert that value to a UTF-8 string and returns
+** the number of bytes in that string.
+** ^If the result is NULL, then sqlite3_column_bytes() returns zero.
+**
+** ^If the result is a BLOB or UTF-16 string then the sqlite3_column_bytes16()
+** routine returns the number of bytes in that BLOB or string.
+** ^If the result is a UTF-8 string, then sqlite3_column_bytes16() converts
+** the string to UTF-16 and then returns the number of bytes.
+** ^If the result is a numeric value then sqlite3_column_bytes16() uses
+** [sqlite3_snprintf()] to convert that value to a UTF-16 string and returns
+** the number of bytes in that string.
+** ^If the result is NULL, then sqlite3_column_bytes16() returns zero.
+**
+** ^The values returned by [sqlite3_column_bytes()] and 
+** [sqlite3_column_bytes16()] do not include the zero terminators at the end
+** of the string.  ^For clarity: the values returned by
+** [sqlite3_column_bytes()] and [sqlite3_column_bytes16()] are the number of
+** bytes in the string, not the number of characters.
+**
+** ^Strings returned by sqlite3_column_text() and sqlite3_column_text16(),
+** even empty strings, are always zero terminated.  ^The return
+** value from sqlite3_column_blob() for a zero-length BLOB is a NULL pointer.
+**
+** ^The object returned by [sqlite3_column_value()] is an
+** [unprotected sqlite3_value] object.  An unprotected sqlite3_value object
+** may only be used with [sqlite3_bind_value()] and [sqlite3_result_value()].
+** If the [unprotected sqlite3_value] object returned by
+** [sqlite3_column_value()] is used in any other way, including calls
+** to routines like [sqlite3_value_int()], [sqlite3_value_text()],
+** or [sqlite3_value_bytes()], then the behavior is undefined.
+**
+** These routines attempt to convert the value where appropriate.  ^For
+** example, if the internal representation is FLOAT and a text result
+** is requested, [sqlite3_snprintf()] is used internally to perform the
+** conversion automatically.  ^(The following table details the conversions
+** that are applied:
+**
+** <blockquote>
+** <table border="1">
+** <tr><th> Internal<br>Type <th> Requested<br>Type <th>  Conversion
+**
+** <tr><td>  NULL    <td> INTEGER   <td> Result is 0
+** <tr><td>  NULL    <td>  FLOAT    <td> Result is 0.0
+** <tr><td>  NULL    <td>   TEXT    <td> Result is NULL pointer
+** <tr><td>  NULL    <td>   BLOB    <td> Result is NULL pointer
+** <tr><td> INTEGER  <td>  FLOAT    <td> Convert from integer to float
+** <tr><td> INTEGER  <td>   TEXT    <td> ASCII rendering of the integer
+** <tr><td> INTEGER  <td>   BLOB    <td> Same as INTEGER->TEXT
+** <tr><td>  FLOAT   <td> INTEGER   <td> Convert from float to integer
+** <tr><td>  FLOAT   <td>   TEXT    <td> ASCII rendering of the float
+** <tr><td>  FLOAT   <td>   BLOB    <td> Same as FLOAT->TEXT
+** <tr><td>  TEXT    <td> INTEGER   <td> Use atoi()
+** <tr><td>  TEXT    <td>  FLOAT    <td> Use atof()
+** <tr><td>  TEXT    <td>   BLOB    <td> No change
+** <tr><td>  BLOB    <td> INTEGER   <td> Convert to TEXT then use atoi()
+** <tr><td>  BLOB    <td>  FLOAT    <td> Convert to TEXT then use atof()
+** <tr><td>  BLOB    <td>   TEXT    <td> Add a zero terminator if needed
+** </table>
+** </blockquote>)^
+**
+** The table above makes reference to standard C library functions atoi()
+** and atof().  SQLite does not really use these functions.  It has its
+** own equivalent internal routines.  The atoi() and atof() names are
+** used in the table for brevity and because they are familiar to most
+** C programmers.
+**
+** Note that when type conversions occur, pointers returned by prior
+** calls to sqlite3_column_blob(), sqlite3_column_text(), and/or
+** sqlite3_column_text16() may be invalidated.
+** Type conversions and pointer invalidations might occur
+** in the following cases:
+**
+** <ul>
+** <li> The initial content is a BLOB and sqlite3_column_text() or
+**      sqlite3_column_text16() is called.  A zero-terminator might
+**      need to be added to the string.</li>
+** <li> The initial content is UTF-8 text and sqlite3_column_bytes16() or
+**      sqlite3_column_text16() is called.  The content must be converted
+**      to UTF-16.</li>
+** <li> The initial content is UTF-16 text and sqlite3_column_bytes() or
+**      sqlite3_column_text() is called.  The content must be converted
+**      to UTF-8.</li>
+** </ul>
+**
+** ^Conversions between UTF-16be and UTF-16le are always done in place and do
+** not invalidate a prior pointer, though of course the content of the buffer
+** that the prior pointer references will have been modified.  Other kinds
+** of conversion are done in place when it is possible, but sometimes they
+** are not possible and in those cases prior pointers are invalidated.
+**
+** The safest and easiest to remember policy is to invoke these routines
+** in one of the following ways:
+**
+** <ul>
+**  <li>sqlite3_column_text() followed by sqlite3_column_bytes()</li>
+**  <li>sqlite3_column_blob() followed by sqlite3_column_bytes()</li>
+**  <li>sqlite3_column_text16() followed by sqlite3_column_bytes16()</li>
+** </ul>
+**
+** In other words, you should call sqlite3_column_text(),
+** sqlite3_column_blob(), or sqlite3_column_text16() first to force the result
+** into the desired format, then invoke sqlite3_column_bytes() or
+** sqlite3_column_bytes16() to find the size of the result.  Do not mix calls
+** to sqlite3_column_text() or sqlite3_column_blob() with calls to
+** sqlite3_column_bytes16(), and do not mix calls to sqlite3_column_text16()
+** with calls to sqlite3_column_bytes().
+**
+** ^The pointers returned are valid until a type conversion occurs as
+** described above, or until [sqlite3_step()] or [sqlite3_reset()] or
+** [sqlite3_finalize()] is called.  ^The memory space used to hold strings
+** and BLOBs is freed automatically.  Do <b>not</b> pass the pointers returned
+** [sqlite3_column_blob()], [sqlite3_column_text()], etc. into
+** [sqlite3_free()].
+**
+** ^(If a memory allocation error occurs during the evaluation of any
+** of these routines, a default value is returned.  The default value
+** is either the integer 0, the floating point number 0.0, or a NULL
+** pointer.  Subsequent calls to [sqlite3_errcode()] will return
+** [SQLITE_NOMEM].)^
+*/
+SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_blob(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_bytes(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_bytes16(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API double sqlite3_column_double(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_int(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_column_int64(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API const unsigned char *sqlite3_column_text(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_text16(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_type(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_value *sqlite3_column_value(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Destroy A Prepared Statement Object
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_finalize() function is called to delete a [prepared statement].
+** ^If the most recent evaluation of the statement encountered no errors
+** or if the statement is never been evaluated, then sqlite3_finalize() returns
+** SQLITE_OK.  ^If the most recent evaluation of statement S failed, then
+** sqlite3_finalize(S) returns the appropriate [error code] or
+** [extended error code].
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_finalize(S) routine can be called at any point during
+** the life cycle of [prepared statement] S:
+** before statement S is ever evaluated, after
+** one or more calls to [sqlite3_reset()], or after any call
+** to [sqlite3_step()] regardless of whether or not the statement has
+** completed execution.
+**
+** ^Invoking sqlite3_finalize() on a NULL pointer is a harmless no-op.
+**
+** The application must finalize every [prepared statement] in order to avoid
+** resource leaks.  It is a grievous error for the application to try to use
+** a prepared statement after it has been finalized.  Any use of a prepared
+** statement after it has been finalized can result in undefined and
+** undesirable behavior such as segfaults and heap corruption.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_finalize(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Reset A Prepared Statement Object
+**
+** The sqlite3_reset() function is called to reset a [prepared statement]
+** object back to its initial state, ready to be re-executed.
+** ^Any SQL statement variables that had values bound to them using
+** the [sqlite3_bind_blob | sqlite3_bind_*() API] retain their values.
+** Use [sqlite3_clear_bindings()] to reset the bindings.
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_reset(S)] interface resets the [prepared statement] S
+** back to the beginning of its program.
+**
+** ^If the most recent call to [sqlite3_step(S)] for the
+** [prepared statement] S returned [SQLITE_ROW] or [SQLITE_DONE],
+** or if [sqlite3_step(S)] has never before been called on S,
+** then [sqlite3_reset(S)] returns [SQLITE_OK].
+**
+** ^If the most recent call to [sqlite3_step(S)] for the
+** [prepared statement] S indicated an error, then
+** [sqlite3_reset(S)] returns an appropriate [error code].
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_reset(S)] interface does not change the values
+** of any [sqlite3_bind_blob|bindings] on the [prepared statement] S.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_reset(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Create Or Redefine SQL Functions
+** KEYWORDS: {function creation routines}
+** KEYWORDS: {application-defined SQL function}
+** KEYWORDS: {application-defined SQL functions}
+**
+** ^These functions (collectively known as "function creation routines")
+** are used to add SQL functions or aggregates or to redefine the behavior
+** of existing SQL functions or aggregates.  The only differences between
+** these routines are the text encoding expected for
+** the second parameter (the name of the function being created)
+** and the presence or absence of a destructor callback for
+** the application data pointer.
+**
+** ^The first parameter is the [database connection] to which the SQL
+** function is to be added.  ^If an application uses more than one database
+** connection then application-defined SQL functions must be added
+** to each database connection separately.
+**
+** ^The second parameter is the name of the SQL function to be created or
+** redefined.  ^The length of the name is limited to 255 bytes in a UTF-8
+** representation, exclusive of the zero-terminator.  ^Note that the name
+** length limit is in UTF-8 bytes, not characters nor UTF-16 bytes.  
+** ^Any attempt to create a function with a longer name
+** will result in [SQLITE_MISUSE] being returned.
+**
+** ^The third parameter (nArg)
+** is the number of arguments that the SQL function or
+** aggregate takes. ^If this parameter is -1, then the SQL function or
+** aggregate may take any number of arguments between 0 and the limit
+** set by [sqlite3_limit]([SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG]).  If the third
+** parameter is less than -1 or greater than 127 then the behavior is
+** undefined.
+**
+** ^The fourth parameter, eTextRep, specifies what
+** [SQLITE_UTF8 | text encoding] this SQL function prefers for
+** its parameters.  Every SQL function implementation must be able to work
+** with UTF-8, UTF-16le, or UTF-16be.  But some implementations may be
+** more efficient with one encoding than another.  ^An application may
+** invoke sqlite3_create_function() or sqlite3_create_function16() multiple
+** times with the same function but with different values of eTextRep.
+** ^When multiple implementations of the same function are available, SQLite
+** will pick the one that involves the least amount of data conversion.
+** If there is only a single implementation which does not care what text
+** encoding is used, then the fourth argument should be [SQLITE_ANY].
+**
+** ^(The fifth parameter is an arbitrary pointer.  The implementation of the
+** function can gain access to this pointer using [sqlite3_user_data()].)^
+**
+** ^The sixth, seventh and eighth parameters, xFunc, xStep and xFinal, are
+** pointers to C-language functions that implement the SQL function or
+** aggregate. ^A scalar SQL function requires an implementation of the xFunc
+** callback only; NULL pointers must be passed as the xStep and xFinal
+** parameters. ^An aggregate SQL function requires an implementation of xStep
+** and xFinal and NULL pointer must be passed for xFunc. ^To delete an existing
+** SQL function or aggregate, pass NULL pointers for all three function
+** callbacks.
+**
+** ^(If the ninth parameter to sqlite3_create_function_v2() is not NULL,
+** then it is destructor for the application data pointer. 
+** The destructor is invoked when the function is deleted, either by being
+** overloaded or when the database connection closes.)^
+** ^The destructor is also invoked if the call to
+** sqlite3_create_function_v2() fails.
+** ^When the destructor callback of the tenth parameter is invoked, it
+** is passed a single argument which is a copy of the application data 
+** pointer which was the fifth parameter to sqlite3_create_function_v2().
+**
+** ^It is permitted to register multiple implementations of the same
+** functions with the same name but with either differing numbers of
+** arguments or differing preferred text encodings.  ^SQLite will use
+** the implementation that most closely matches the way in which the
+** SQL function is used.  ^A function implementation with a non-negative
+** nArg parameter is a better match than a function implementation with
+** a negative nArg.  ^A function where the preferred text encoding
+** matches the database encoding is a better
+** match than a function where the encoding is different.  
+** ^A function where the encoding difference is between UTF16le and UTF16be
+** is a closer match than a function where the encoding difference is
+** between UTF8 and UTF16.
+**
+** ^Built-in functions may be overloaded by new application-defined functions.
+**
+** ^An application-defined function is permitted to call other
+** SQLite interfaces.  However, such calls must not
+** close the database connection nor finalize or reset the prepared
+** statement in which the function is running.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_function(
+  sqlite3 *db,
+  const char *zFunctionName,
+  int nArg,
+  int eTextRep,
+  void *pApp,
+  void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
+  void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
+  void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*)
+);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_function16(
+  sqlite3 *db,
+  const void *zFunctionName,
+  int nArg,
+  int eTextRep,
+  void *pApp,
+  void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
+  void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
+  void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*)
+);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_function_v2(
+  sqlite3 *db,
+  const char *zFunctionName,
+  int nArg,
+  int eTextRep,
+  void *pApp,
+  void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
+  void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
+  void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*),
+  void(*xDestroy)(void*)
+);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Text Encodings
+**
+** These constant define integer codes that represent the various
+** text encodings supported by SQLite.
+*/
+#define SQLITE_UTF8           1
+#define SQLITE_UTF16LE        2
+#define SQLITE_UTF16BE        3
+#define SQLITE_UTF16          4    /* Use native byte order */
+#define SQLITE_ANY            5    /* sqlite3_create_function only */
+#define SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED  8    /* sqlite3_create_collation only */
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Deprecated Functions
+** DEPRECATED
+**
+** These functions are [deprecated].  In order to maintain
+** backwards compatibility with older code, these functions continue 
+** to be supported.  However, new applications should avoid
+** the use of these functions.  To help encourage people to avoid
+** using these functions, we are not going to tell you what they do.
+*/
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_DEPRECATED
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED int sqlite3_aggregate_count(sqlite3_context*);
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED int sqlite3_expired(sqlite3_stmt*);
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED int sqlite3_transfer_bindings(sqlite3_stmt*, sqlite3_stmt*);
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED int sqlite3_global_recover(void);
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED void sqlite3_thread_cleanup(void);
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED int sqlite3_memory_alarm(void(*)(void*,sqlite3_int64,int),void*,sqlite3_int64);
+#endif
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Obtaining SQL Function Parameter Values
+**
+** The C-language implementation of SQL functions and aggregates uses
+** this set of interface routines to access the parameter values on
+** the function or aggregate.
+**
+** The xFunc (for scalar functions) or xStep (for aggregates) parameters
+** to [sqlite3_create_function()] and [sqlite3_create_function16()]
+** define callbacks that implement the SQL functions and aggregates.
+** The 3rd parameter to these callbacks is an array of pointers to
+** [protected sqlite3_value] objects.  There is one [sqlite3_value] object for
+** each parameter to the SQL function.  These routines are used to
+** extract values from the [sqlite3_value] objects.
+**
+** These routines work only with [protected sqlite3_value] objects.
+** Any attempt to use these routines on an [unprotected sqlite3_value]
+** object results in undefined behavior.
+**
+** ^These routines work just like the corresponding [column access functions]
+** except that  these routines take a single [protected sqlite3_value] object
+** pointer instead of a [sqlite3_stmt*] pointer and an integer column number.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_value_text16() interface extracts a UTF-16 string
+** in the native byte-order of the host machine.  ^The
+** sqlite3_value_text16be() and sqlite3_value_text16le() interfaces
+** extract UTF-16 strings as big-endian and little-endian respectively.
+**
+** ^(The sqlite3_value_numeric_type() interface attempts to apply
+** numeric affinity to the value.  This means that an attempt is
+** made to convert the value to an integer or floating point.  If
+** such a conversion is possible without loss of information (in other
+** words, if the value is a string that looks like a number)
+** then the conversion is performed.  Otherwise no conversion occurs.
+** The [SQLITE_INTEGER | datatype] after conversion is returned.)^
+**
+** Please pay particular attention to the fact that the pointer returned
+** from [sqlite3_value_blob()], [sqlite3_value_text()], or
+** [sqlite3_value_text16()] can be invalidated by a subsequent call to
+** [sqlite3_value_bytes()], [sqlite3_value_bytes16()], [sqlite3_value_text()],
+** or [sqlite3_value_text16()].
+**
+** These routines must be called from the same thread as
+** the SQL function that supplied the [sqlite3_value*] parameters.
+*/
+SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_blob(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_bytes(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_bytes16(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API double sqlite3_value_double(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_int(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_value_int64(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API const unsigned char *sqlite3_value_text(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_text16(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_text16le(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_text16be(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_type(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_numeric_type(sqlite3_value*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Obtain Aggregate Function Context
+**
+** Implementations of aggregate SQL functions use this
+** routine to allocate memory for storing their state.
+**
+** ^The first time the sqlite3_aggregate_context(C,N) routine is called 
+** for a particular aggregate function, SQLite
+** allocates N of memory, zeroes out that memory, and returns a pointer
+** to the new memory. ^On second and subsequent calls to
+** sqlite3_aggregate_context() for the same aggregate function instance,
+** the same buffer is returned.  Sqlite3_aggregate_context() is normally
+** called once for each invocation of the xStep callback and then one
+** last time when the xFinal callback is invoked.  ^(When no rows match
+** an aggregate query, the xStep() callback of the aggregate function
+** implementation is never called and xFinal() is called exactly once.
+** In those cases, sqlite3_aggregate_context() might be called for the
+** first time from within xFinal().)^
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_aggregate_context(C,N) routine returns a NULL pointer if N is
+** less than or equal to zero or if a memory allocate error occurs.
+**
+** ^(The amount of space allocated by sqlite3_aggregate_context(C,N) is
+** determined by the N parameter on first successful call.  Changing the
+** value of N in subsequent call to sqlite3_aggregate_context() within
+** the same aggregate function instance will not resize the memory
+** allocation.)^
+**
+** ^SQLite automatically frees the memory allocated by 
+** sqlite3_aggregate_context() when the aggregate query concludes.
+**
+** The first parameter must be a copy of the
+** [sqlite3_context | SQL function context] that is the first parameter
+** to the xStep or xFinal callback routine that implements the aggregate
+** function.
+**
+** This routine must be called from the same thread in which
+** the aggregate SQL function is running.
+*/
+SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_aggregate_context(sqlite3_context*, int nBytes);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: User Data For Functions
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_user_data() interface returns a copy of
+** the pointer that was the pUserData parameter (the 5th parameter)
+** of the [sqlite3_create_function()]
+** and [sqlite3_create_function16()] routines that originally
+** registered the application defined function.
+**
+** This routine must be called from the same thread in which
+** the application-defined function is running.
+*/
+SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_user_data(sqlite3_context*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Database Connection For Functions
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_context_db_handle() interface returns a copy of
+** the pointer to the [database connection] (the 1st parameter)
+** of the [sqlite3_create_function()]
+** and [sqlite3_create_function16()] routines that originally
+** registered the application defined function.
+*/
+SQLITE_API sqlite3 *sqlite3_context_db_handle(sqlite3_context*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Function Auxiliary Data
+**
+** The following two functions may be used by scalar SQL functions to
+** associate metadata with argument values. If the same value is passed to
+** multiple invocations of the same SQL function during query execution, under
+** some circumstances the associated metadata may be preserved. This may
+** be used, for example, to add a regular-expression matching scalar
+** function. The compiled version of the regular expression is stored as
+** metadata associated with the SQL value passed as the regular expression
+** pattern.  The compiled regular expression can be reused on multiple
+** invocations of the same function so that the original pattern string
+** does not need to be recompiled on each invocation.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_get_auxdata() interface returns a pointer to the metadata
+** associated by the sqlite3_set_auxdata() function with the Nth argument
+** value to the application-defined function. ^If no metadata has been ever
+** been set for the Nth argument of the function, or if the corresponding
+** function parameter has changed since the meta-data was set,
+** then sqlite3_get_auxdata() returns a NULL pointer.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_set_auxdata() interface saves the metadata
+** pointed to by its 3rd parameter as the metadata for the N-th
+** argument of the application-defined function.  Subsequent
+** calls to sqlite3_get_auxdata() might return this data, if it has
+** not been destroyed.
+** ^If it is not NULL, SQLite will invoke the destructor
+** function given by the 4th parameter to sqlite3_set_auxdata() on
+** the metadata when the corresponding function parameter changes
+** or when the SQL statement completes, whichever comes first.
+**
+** SQLite is free to call the destructor and drop metadata on any
+** parameter of any function at any time.  ^The only guarantee is that
+** the destructor will be called before the metadata is dropped.
+**
+** ^(In practice, metadata is preserved between function calls for
+** expressions that are constant at compile time. This includes literal
+** values and [parameters].)^
+**
+** These routines must be called from the same thread in which
+** the SQL function is running.
+*/
+SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_get_auxdata(sqlite3_context*, int N);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_set_auxdata(sqlite3_context*, int N, void*, void (*)(void*));
+
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Constants Defining Special Destructor Behavior
+**
+** These are special values for the destructor that is passed in as the
+** final argument to routines like [sqlite3_result_blob()].  ^If the destructor
+** argument is SQLITE_STATIC, it means that the content pointer is constant
+** and will never change.  It does not need to be destroyed.  ^The
+** SQLITE_TRANSIENT value means that the content will likely change in
+** the near future and that SQLite should make its own private copy of
+** the content before returning.
+**
+** The typedef is necessary to work around problems in certain
+** C++ compilers.  See ticket #2191.
+*/
+typedef void (*sqlite3_destructor_type)(void*);
+#define SQLITE_STATIC      ((sqlite3_destructor_type)0)
+#define SQLITE_TRANSIENT   ((sqlite3_destructor_type)-1)
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Setting The Result Of An SQL Function
+**
+** These routines are used by the xFunc or xFinal callbacks that
+** implement SQL functions and aggregates.  See
+** [sqlite3_create_function()] and [sqlite3_create_function16()]
+** for additional information.
+**
+** These functions work very much like the [parameter binding] family of
+** functions used to bind values to host parameters in prepared statements.
+** Refer to the [SQL parameter] documentation for additional information.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_result_blob() interface sets the result from
+** an application-defined function to be the BLOB whose content is pointed
+** to by the second parameter and which is N bytes long where N is the
+** third parameter.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_result_zeroblob() interfaces set the result of
+** the application-defined function to be a BLOB containing all zero
+** bytes and N bytes in size, where N is the value of the 2nd parameter.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_result_double() interface sets the result from
+** an application-defined function to be a floating point value specified
+** by its 2nd argument.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_result_error() and sqlite3_result_error16() functions
+** cause the implemented SQL function to throw an exception.
+** ^SQLite uses the string pointed to by the
+** 2nd parameter of sqlite3_result_error() or sqlite3_result_error16()
+** as the text of an error message.  ^SQLite interprets the error
+** message string from sqlite3_result_error() as UTF-8. ^SQLite
+** interprets the string from sqlite3_result_error16() as UTF-16 in native
+** byte order.  ^If the third parameter to sqlite3_result_error()
+** or sqlite3_result_error16() is negative then SQLite takes as the error
+** message all text up through the first zero character.
+** ^If the third parameter to sqlite3_result_error() or
+** sqlite3_result_error16() is non-negative then SQLite takes that many
+** bytes (not characters) from the 2nd parameter as the error message.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_error() and sqlite3_result_error16()
+** routines make a private copy of the error message text before
+** they return.  Hence, the calling function can deallocate or
+** modify the text after they return without harm.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_error_code() function changes the error code
+** returned by SQLite as a result of an error in a function.  ^By default,
+** the error code is SQLITE_ERROR.  ^A subsequent call to sqlite3_result_error()
+** or sqlite3_result_error16() resets the error code to SQLITE_ERROR.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_result_toobig() interface causes SQLite to throw an error
+** indicating that a string or BLOB is too long to represent.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_result_nomem() interface causes SQLite to throw an error
+** indicating that a memory allocation failed.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_result_int() interface sets the return value
+** of the application-defined function to be the 32-bit signed integer
+** value given in the 2nd argument.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_int64() interface sets the return value
+** of the application-defined function to be the 64-bit signed integer
+** value given in the 2nd argument.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_result_null() interface sets the return value
+** of the application-defined function to be NULL.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_result_text(), sqlite3_result_text16(),
+** sqlite3_result_text16le(), and sqlite3_result_text16be() interfaces
+** set the return value of the application-defined function to be
+** a text string which is represented as UTF-8, UTF-16 native byte order,
+** UTF-16 little endian, or UTF-16 big endian, respectively.
+** ^SQLite takes the text result from the application from
+** the 2nd parameter of the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces.
+** ^If the 3rd parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
+** is negative, then SQLite takes result text from the 2nd parameter
+** through the first zero character.
+** ^If the 3rd parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
+** is non-negative, then as many bytes (not characters) of the text
+** pointed to by the 2nd parameter are taken as the application-defined
+** function result.  If the 3rd parameter is non-negative, then it
+** must be the byte offset into the string where the NUL terminator would
+** appear if the string where NUL terminated.  If any NUL characters occur
+** in the string at a byte offset that is less than the value of the 3rd
+** parameter, then the resulting string will contain embedded NULs and the
+** result of expressions operating on strings with embedded NULs is undefined.
+** ^If the 4th parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
+** or sqlite3_result_blob is a non-NULL pointer, then SQLite calls that
+** function as the destructor on the text or BLOB result when it has
+** finished using that result.
+** ^If the 4th parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces or to
+** sqlite3_result_blob is the special constant SQLITE_STATIC, then SQLite
+** assumes that the text or BLOB result is in constant space and does not
+** copy the content of the parameter nor call a destructor on the content
+** when it has finished using that result.
+** ^If the 4th parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
+** or sqlite3_result_blob is the special constant SQLITE_TRANSIENT
+** then SQLite makes a copy of the result into space obtained from
+** from [sqlite3_malloc()] before it returns.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_result_value() interface sets the result of
+** the application-defined function to be a copy the
+** [unprotected sqlite3_value] object specified by the 2nd parameter.  ^The
+** sqlite3_result_value() interface makes a copy of the [sqlite3_value]
+** so that the [sqlite3_value] specified in the parameter may change or
+** be deallocated after sqlite3_result_value() returns without harm.
+** ^A [protected sqlite3_value] object may always be used where an
+** [unprotected sqlite3_value] object is required, so either
+** kind of [sqlite3_value] object can be used with this interface.
+**
+** If these routines are called from within the different thread
+** than the one containing the application-defined function that received
+** the [sqlite3_context] pointer, the results are undefined.
+*/
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_blob(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_double(sqlite3_context*, double);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error(sqlite3_context*, const char*, int);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error16(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error_toobig(sqlite3_context*);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error_nomem(sqlite3_context*);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error_code(sqlite3_context*, int);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_int(sqlite3_context*, int);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_int64(sqlite3_context*, sqlite3_int64);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_null(sqlite3_context*);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text(sqlite3_context*, const char*, int, void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text16(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text16le(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int,void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text16be(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int,void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_value(sqlite3_context*, sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_zeroblob(sqlite3_context*, int n);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Define New Collating Sequences
+**
+** ^These functions add, remove, or modify a [collation] associated
+** with the [database connection] specified as the first argument.
+**
+** ^The name of the collation is a UTF-8 string
+** for sqlite3_create_collation() and sqlite3_create_collation_v2()
+** and a UTF-16 string in native byte order for sqlite3_create_collation16().
+** ^Collation names that compare equal according to [sqlite3_strnicmp()] are
+** considered to be the same name.
+**
+** ^(The third argument (eTextRep) must be one of the constants:
+** <ul>
+** <li> [SQLITE_UTF8],
+** <li> [SQLITE_UTF16LE],
+** <li> [SQLITE_UTF16BE],
+** <li> [SQLITE_UTF16], or
+** <li> [SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED].
+** </ul>)^
+** ^The eTextRep argument determines the encoding of strings passed
+** to the collating function callback, xCallback.
+** ^The [SQLITE_UTF16] and [SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED] values for eTextRep
+** force strings to be UTF16 with native byte order.
+** ^The [SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED] value for eTextRep forces strings to begin
+** on an even byte address.
+**
+** ^The fourth argument, pArg, is an application data pointer that is passed
+** through as the first argument to the collating function callback.
+**
+** ^The fifth argument, xCallback, is a pointer to the collating function.
+** ^Multiple collating functions can be registered using the same name but
+** with different eTextRep parameters and SQLite will use whichever
+** function requires the least amount of data transformation.
+** ^If the xCallback argument is NULL then the collating function is
+** deleted.  ^When all collating functions having the same name are deleted,
+** that collation is no longer usable.
+**
+** ^The collating function callback is invoked with a copy of the pArg 
+** application data pointer and with two strings in the encoding specified
+** by the eTextRep argument.  The collating function must return an
+** integer that is negative, zero, or positive
+** if the first string is less than, equal to, or greater than the second,
+** respectively.  A collating function must always return the same answer
+** given the same inputs.  If two or more collating functions are registered
+** to the same collation name (using different eTextRep values) then all
+** must give an equivalent answer when invoked with equivalent strings.
+** The collating function must obey the following properties for all
+** strings A, B, and C:
+**
+** <ol>
+** <li> If A==B then B==A.
+** <li> If A==B and B==C then A==C.
+** <li> If A&lt;B THEN B&gt;A.
+** <li> If A&lt;B and B&lt;C then A&lt;C.
+** </ol>
+**
+** If a collating function fails any of the above constraints and that
+** collating function is  registered and used, then the behavior of SQLite
+** is undefined.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_create_collation_v2() works like sqlite3_create_collation()
+** with the addition that the xDestroy callback is invoked on pArg when
+** the collating function is deleted.
+** ^Collating functions are deleted when they are overridden by later
+** calls to the collation creation functions or when the
+** [database connection] is closed using [sqlite3_close()].
+**
+** ^The xDestroy callback is <u>not</u> called if the 
+** sqlite3_create_collation_v2() function fails.  Applications that invoke
+** sqlite3_create_collation_v2() with a non-NULL xDestroy argument should 
+** check the return code and dispose of the application data pointer
+** themselves rather than expecting SQLite to deal with it for them.
+** This is different from every other SQLite interface.  The inconsistency 
+** is unfortunate but cannot be changed without breaking backwards 
+** compatibility.
+**
+** See also:  [sqlite3_collation_needed()] and [sqlite3_collation_needed16()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_collation(
+  sqlite3*, 
+  const char *zName, 
+  int eTextRep, 
+  void *pArg,
+  int(*xCompare)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*)
+);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_collation_v2(
+  sqlite3*, 
+  const char *zName, 
+  int eTextRep, 
+  void *pArg,
+  int(*xCompare)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*),
+  void(*xDestroy)(void*)
+);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_collation16(
+  sqlite3*, 
+  const void *zName,
+  int eTextRep, 
+  void *pArg,
+  int(*xCompare)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*)
+);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Collation Needed Callbacks
+**
+** ^To avoid having to register all collation sequences before a database
+** can be used, a single callback function may be registered with the
+** [database connection] to be invoked whenever an undefined collation
+** sequence is required.
+**
+** ^If the function is registered using the sqlite3_collation_needed() API,
+** then it is passed the names of undefined collation sequences as strings
+** encoded in UTF-8. ^If sqlite3_collation_needed16() is used,
+** the names are passed as UTF-16 in machine native byte order.
+** ^A call to either function replaces the existing collation-needed callback.
+**
+** ^(When the callback is invoked, the first argument passed is a copy
+** of the second argument to sqlite3_collation_needed() or
+** sqlite3_collation_needed16().  The second argument is the database
+** connection.  The third argument is one of [SQLITE_UTF8], [SQLITE_UTF16BE],
+** or [SQLITE_UTF16LE], indicating the most desirable form of the collation
+** sequence function required.  The fourth parameter is the name of the
+** required collation sequence.)^
+**
+** The callback function should register the desired collation using
+** [sqlite3_create_collation()], [sqlite3_create_collation16()], or
+** [sqlite3_create_collation_v2()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_collation_needed(
+  sqlite3*, 
+  void*, 
+  void(*)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const char*)
+);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_collation_needed16(
+  sqlite3*, 
+  void*,
+  void(*)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const void*)
+);
+
+#ifdef SQLITE_HAS_CODEC
+/*
+** Specify the key for an encrypted database.  This routine should be
+** called right after sqlite3_open().
+**
+** The code to implement this API is not available in the public release
+** of SQLite.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_key(
+  sqlite3 *db,                   /* Database to be rekeyed */
+  const void *pKey, int nKey     /* The key */
+);
+
+/*
+** Change the key on an open database.  If the current database is not
+** encrypted, this routine will encrypt it.  If pNew==0 or nNew==0, the
+** database is decrypted.
+**
+** The code to implement this API is not available in the public release
+** of SQLite.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_rekey(
+  sqlite3 *db,                   /* Database to be rekeyed */
+  const void *pKey, int nKey     /* The new key */
+);
+
+/*
+** Specify the activation key for a SEE database.  Unless 
+** activated, none of the SEE routines will work.
+*/
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_activate_see(
+  const char *zPassPhrase        /* Activation phrase */
+);
+#endif
+
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_CEROD
+/*
+** Specify the activation key for a CEROD database.  Unless 
+** activated, none of the CEROD routines will work.
+*/
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_activate_cerod(
+  const char *zPassPhrase        /* Activation phrase */
+);
+#endif
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Suspend Execution For A Short Time
+**
+** The sqlite3_sleep() function causes the current thread to suspend execution
+** for at least a number of milliseconds specified in its parameter.
+**
+** If the operating system does not support sleep requests with
+** millisecond time resolution, then the time will be rounded up to
+** the nearest second. The number of milliseconds of sleep actually
+** requested from the operating system is returned.
+**
+** ^SQLite implements this interface by calling the xSleep()
+** method of the default [sqlite3_vfs] object.  If the xSleep() method
+** of the default VFS is not implemented correctly, or not implemented at
+** all, then the behavior of sqlite3_sleep() may deviate from the description
+** in the previous paragraphs.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_sleep(int);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Name Of The Folder Holding Temporary Files
+**
+** ^(If this global variable is made to point to a string which is
+** the name of a folder (a.k.a. directory), then all temporary files
+** created by SQLite when using a built-in [sqlite3_vfs | VFS]
+** will be placed in that directory.)^  ^If this variable
+** is a NULL pointer, then SQLite performs a search for an appropriate
+** temporary file directory.
+**
+** It is not safe to read or modify this variable in more than one
+** thread at a time.  It is not safe to read or modify this variable
+** if a [database connection] is being used at the same time in a separate
+** thread.
+** It is intended that this variable be set once
+** as part of process initialization and before any SQLite interface
+** routines have been called and that this variable remain unchanged
+** thereafter.
+**
+** ^The [temp_store_directory pragma] may modify this variable and cause
+** it to point to memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc].  ^Furthermore,
+** the [temp_store_directory pragma] always assumes that any string
+** that this variable points to is held in memory obtained from 
+** [sqlite3_malloc] and the pragma may attempt to free that memory
+** using [sqlite3_free].
+** Hence, if this variable is modified directly, either it should be
+** made NULL or made to point to memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc]
+** or else the use of the [temp_store_directory pragma] should be avoided.
+*/
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXTERN char *sqlite3_temp_directory;
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Test For Auto-Commit Mode
+** KEYWORDS: {autocommit mode}
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_get_autocommit() interface returns non-zero or
+** zero if the given database connection is or is not in autocommit mode,
+** respectively.  ^Autocommit mode is on by default.
+** ^Autocommit mode is disabled by a [BEGIN] statement.
+** ^Autocommit mode is re-enabled by a [COMMIT] or [ROLLBACK].
+**
+** If certain kinds of errors occur on a statement within a multi-statement
+** transaction (errors including [SQLITE_FULL], [SQLITE_IOERR],
+** [SQLITE_NOMEM], [SQLITE_BUSY], and [SQLITE_INTERRUPT]) then the
+** transaction might be rolled back automatically.  The only way to
+** find out whether SQLite automatically rolled back the transaction after
+** an error is to use this function.
+**
+** If another thread changes the autocommit status of the database
+** connection while this routine is running, then the return value
+** is undefined.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_get_autocommit(sqlite3*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Find The Database Handle Of A Prepared Statement
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_db_handle interface returns the [database connection] handle
+** to which a [prepared statement] belongs.  ^The [database connection]
+** returned by sqlite3_db_handle is the same [database connection]
+** that was the first argument
+** to the [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] call (or its variants) that was used to
+** create the statement in the first place.
+*/
+SQLITE_API sqlite3 *sqlite3_db_handle(sqlite3_stmt*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Find the next prepared statement
+**
+** ^This interface returns a pointer to the next [prepared statement] after
+** pStmt associated with the [database connection] pDb.  ^If pStmt is NULL
+** then this interface returns a pointer to the first prepared statement
+** associated with the database connection pDb.  ^If no prepared statement
+** satisfies the conditions of this routine, it returns NULL.
+**
+** The [database connection] pointer D in a call to
+** [sqlite3_next_stmt(D,S)] must refer to an open database
+** connection and in particular must not be a NULL pointer.
+*/
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_stmt *sqlite3_next_stmt(sqlite3 *pDb, sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Commit And Rollback Notification Callbacks
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_commit_hook() interface registers a callback
+** function to be invoked whenever a transaction is [COMMIT | committed].
+** ^Any callback set by a previous call to sqlite3_commit_hook()
+** for the same database connection is overridden.
+** ^The sqlite3_rollback_hook() interface registers a callback
+** function to be invoked whenever a transaction is [ROLLBACK | rolled back].
+** ^Any callback set by a previous call to sqlite3_rollback_hook()
+** for the same database connection is overridden.
+** ^The pArg argument is passed through to the callback.
+** ^If the callback on a commit hook function returns non-zero,
+** then the commit is converted into a rollback.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_commit_hook(D,C,P) and sqlite3_rollback_hook(D,C,P) functions
+** return the P argument from the previous call of the same function
+** on the same [database connection] D, or NULL for
+** the first call for each function on D.
+**
+** The callback implementation must not do anything that will modify
+** the database connection that invoked the callback.  Any actions
+** to modify the database connection must be deferred until after the
+** completion of the [sqlite3_step()] call that triggered the commit
+** or rollback hook in the first place.
+** Note that [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and [sqlite3_step()] both modify their
+** database connections for the meaning of "modify" in this paragraph.
+**
+** ^Registering a NULL function disables the callback.
+**
+** ^When the commit hook callback routine returns zero, the [COMMIT]
+** operation is allowed to continue normally.  ^If the commit hook
+** returns non-zero, then the [COMMIT] is converted into a [ROLLBACK].
+** ^The rollback hook is invoked on a rollback that results from a commit
+** hook returning non-zero, just as it would be with any other rollback.
+**
+** ^For the purposes of this API, a transaction is said to have been
+** rolled back if an explicit "ROLLBACK" statement is executed, or
+** an error or constraint causes an implicit rollback to occur.
+** ^The rollback callback is not invoked if a transaction is
+** automatically rolled back because the database connection is closed.
+**
+** See also the [sqlite3_update_hook()] interface.
+*/
+SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_commit_hook(sqlite3*, int(*)(void*), void*);
+SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_rollback_hook(sqlite3*, void(*)(void *), void*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Data Change Notification Callbacks
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_update_hook() interface registers a callback function
+** with the [database connection] identified by the first argument
+** to be invoked whenever a row is updated, inserted or deleted.
+** ^Any callback set by a previous call to this function
+** for the same database connection is overridden.
+**
+** ^The second argument is a pointer to the function to invoke when a
+** row is updated, inserted or deleted.
+** ^The first argument to the callback is a copy of the third argument
+** to sqlite3_update_hook().
+** ^The second callback argument is one of [SQLITE_INSERT], [SQLITE_DELETE],
+** or [SQLITE_UPDATE], depending on the operation that caused the callback
+** to be invoked.
+** ^The third and fourth arguments to the callback contain pointers to the
+** database and table name containing the affected row.
+** ^The final callback parameter is the [rowid] of the row.
+** ^In the case of an update, this is the [rowid] after the update takes place.
+**
+** ^(The update hook is not invoked when internal system tables are
+** modified (i.e. sqlite_master and sqlite_sequence).)^
+**
+** ^In the current implementation, the update hook
+** is not invoked when duplication rows are deleted because of an
+** [ON CONFLICT | ON CONFLICT REPLACE] clause.  ^Nor is the update hook
+** invoked when rows are deleted using the [truncate optimization].
+** The exceptions defined in this paragraph might change in a future
+** release of SQLite.
+**
+** The update hook implementation must not do anything that will modify
+** the database connection that invoked the update hook.  Any actions
+** to modify the database connection must be deferred until after the
+** completion of the [sqlite3_step()] call that triggered the update hook.
+** Note that [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and [sqlite3_step()] both modify their
+** database connections for the meaning of "modify" in this paragraph.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_update_hook(D,C,P) function
+** returns the P argument from the previous call
+** on the same [database connection] D, or NULL for
+** the first call on D.
+**
+** See also the [sqlite3_commit_hook()] and [sqlite3_rollback_hook()]
+** interfaces.
+*/
+SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_update_hook(
+  sqlite3*, 
+  void(*)(void *,int ,char const *,char const *,sqlite3_int64),
+  void*
+);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Shared Pager Cache
+** KEYWORDS: {shared cache}
+**
+** ^(This routine enables or disables the sharing of the database cache
+** and schema data structures between [database connection | connections]
+** to the same database. Sharing is enabled if the argument is true
+** and disabled if the argument is false.)^
+**
+** ^Cache sharing is enabled and disabled for an entire process.
+** This is a change as of SQLite version 3.5.0. In prior versions of SQLite,
+** sharing was enabled or disabled for each thread separately.
+**
+** ^(The cache sharing mode set by this interface effects all subsequent
+** calls to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open_v2()], and [sqlite3_open16()].
+** Existing database connections continue use the sharing mode
+** that was in effect at the time they were opened.)^
+**
+** ^(This routine returns [SQLITE_OK] if shared cache was enabled or disabled
+** successfully.  An [error code] is returned otherwise.)^
+**
+** ^Shared cache is disabled by default. But this might change in
+** future releases of SQLite.  Applications that care about shared
+** cache setting should set it explicitly.
+**
+** See Also:  [SQLite Shared-Cache Mode]
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_enable_shared_cache(int);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Attempt To Free Heap Memory
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_release_memory() interface attempts to free N bytes
+** of heap memory by deallocating non-essential memory allocations
+** held by the database library.   Memory used to cache database
+** pages to improve performance is an example of non-essential memory.
+** ^sqlite3_release_memory() returns the number of bytes actually freed,
+** which might be more or less than the amount requested.
+** ^The sqlite3_release_memory() routine is a no-op returning zero
+** if SQLite is not compiled with [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_release_memory(int);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Impose A Limit On Heap Size
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64() interface sets and/or queries the
+** soft limit on the amount of heap memory that may be allocated by SQLite.
+** ^SQLite strives to keep heap memory utilization below the soft heap
+** limit by reducing the number of pages held in the page cache
+** as heap memory usages approaches the limit.
+** ^The soft heap limit is "soft" because even though SQLite strives to stay
+** below the limit, it will exceed the limit rather than generate
+** an [SQLITE_NOMEM] error.  In other words, the soft heap limit 
+** is advisory only.
+**
+** ^The return value from sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64() is the size of
+** the soft heap limit prior to the call.  ^If the argument N is negative
+** then no change is made to the soft heap limit.  Hence, the current
+** size of the soft heap limit can be determined by invoking
+** sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64() with a negative argument.
+**
+** ^If the argument N is zero then the soft heap limit is disabled.
+**
+** ^(The soft heap limit is not enforced in the current implementation
+** if one or more of following conditions are true:
+**
+** <ul>
+** <li> The soft heap limit is set to zero.
+** <li> Memory accounting is disabled using a combination of the
+**      [sqlite3_config]([SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS],...) start-time option and
+**      the [SQLITE_DEFAULT_MEMSTATUS] compile-time option.
+** <li> An alternative page cache implementation is specified using
+**      [sqlite3_config]([SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE],...).
+** <li> The page cache allocates from its own memory pool supplied
+**      by [sqlite3_config]([SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE],...) rather than
+**      from the heap.
+** </ul>)^
+**
+** Beginning with SQLite version 3.7.3, the soft heap limit is enforced
+** regardless of whether or not the [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT]
+** compile-time option is invoked.  With [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT],
+** the soft heap limit is enforced on every memory allocation.  Without
+** [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT], the soft heap limit is only enforced
+** when memory is allocated by the page cache.  Testing suggests that because
+** the page cache is the predominate memory user in SQLite, most
+** applications will achieve adequate soft heap limit enforcement without
+** the use of [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT].
+**
+** The circumstances under which SQLite will enforce the soft heap limit may
+** changes in future releases of SQLite.
+*/
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64(sqlite3_int64 N);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Deprecated Soft Heap Limit Interface
+** DEPRECATED
+**
+** This is a deprecated version of the [sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64()]
+** interface.  This routine is provided for historical compatibility
+** only.  All new applications should use the
+** [sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64()] interface rather than this one.
+*/
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED void sqlite3_soft_heap_limit(int N);
+
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Extract Metadata About A Column Of A Table
+**
+** ^This routine returns metadata about a specific column of a specific
+** database table accessible using the [database connection] handle
+** passed as the first function argument.
+**
+** ^The column is identified by the second, third and fourth parameters to
+** this function. ^The second parameter is either the name of the database
+** (i.e. "main", "temp", or an attached database) containing the specified
+** table or NULL. ^If it is NULL, then all attached databases are searched
+** for the table using the same algorithm used by the database engine to
+** resolve unqualified table references.
+**
+** ^The third and fourth parameters to this function are the table and column
+** name of the desired column, respectively. Neither of these parameters
+** may be NULL.
+**
+** ^Metadata is returned by writing to the memory locations passed as the 5th
+** and subsequent parameters to this function. ^Any of these arguments may be
+** NULL, in which case the corresponding element of metadata is omitted.
+**
+** ^(<blockquote>
+** <table border="1">
+** <tr><th> Parameter <th> Output<br>Type <th>  Description
+**
+** <tr><td> 5th <td> const char* <td> Data type
+** <tr><td> 6th <td> const char* <td> Name of default collation sequence
+** <tr><td> 7th <td> int         <td> True if column has a NOT NULL constraint
+** <tr><td> 8th <td> int         <td> True if column is part of the PRIMARY KEY
+** <tr><td> 9th <td> int         <td> True if column is [AUTOINCREMENT]
+** </table>
+** </blockquote>)^
+**
+** ^The memory pointed to by the character pointers returned for the
+** declaration type and collation sequence is valid only until the next
+** call to any SQLite API function.
+**
+** ^If the specified table is actually a view, an [error code] is returned.
+**
+** ^If the specified column is "rowid", "oid" or "_rowid_" and an
+** [INTEGER PRIMARY KEY] column has been explicitly declared, then the output
+** parameters are set for the explicitly declared column. ^(If there is no
+** explicitly declared [INTEGER PRIMARY KEY] column, then the output
+** parameters are set as follows:
+**
+** <pre>
+**     data type: "INTEGER"
+**     collation sequence: "BINARY"
+**     not null: 0
+**     primary key: 1
+**     auto increment: 0
+** </pre>)^
+**
+** ^(This function may load one or more schemas from database files. If an
+** error occurs during this process, or if the requested table or column
+** cannot be found, an [error code] is returned and an error message left
+** in the [database connection] (to be retrieved using sqlite3_errmsg()).)^
+**
+** ^This API is only available if the library was compiled with the
+** [SQLITE_ENABLE_COLUMN_METADATA] C-preprocessor symbol defined.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_table_column_metadata(
+  sqlite3 *db,                /* Connection handle */
+  const char *zDbName,        /* Database name or NULL */
+  const char *zTableName,     /* Table name */
+  const char *zColumnName,    /* Column name */
+  char const **pzDataType,    /* OUTPUT: Declared data type */
+  char const **pzCollSeq,     /* OUTPUT: Collation sequence name */
+  int *pNotNull,              /* OUTPUT: True if NOT NULL constraint exists */
+  int *pPrimaryKey,           /* OUTPUT: True if column part of PK */
+  int *pAutoinc               /* OUTPUT: True if column is auto-increment */
+);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Load An Extension
+**
+** ^This interface loads an SQLite extension library from the named file.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_load_extension() interface attempts to load an
+** SQLite extension library contained in the file zFile.
+**
+** ^The entry point is zProc.
+** ^zProc may be 0, in which case the name of the entry point
+** defaults to "sqlite3_extension_init".
+** ^The sqlite3_load_extension() interface returns
+** [SQLITE_OK] on success and [SQLITE_ERROR] if something goes wrong.
+** ^If an error occurs and pzErrMsg is not 0, then the
+** [sqlite3_load_extension()] interface shall attempt to
+** fill *pzErrMsg with error message text stored in memory
+** obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()]. The calling function
+** should free this memory by calling [sqlite3_free()].
+**
+** ^Extension loading must be enabled using
+** [sqlite3_enable_load_extension()] prior to calling this API,
+** otherwise an error will be returned.
+**
+** See also the [load_extension() SQL function].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_load_extension(
+  sqlite3 *db,          /* Load the extension into this database connection */
+  const char *zFile,    /* Name of the shared library containing extension */
+  const char *zProc,    /* Entry point.  Derived from zFile if 0 */
+  char **pzErrMsg       /* Put error message here if not 0 */
+);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Extension Loading
+**
+** ^So as not to open security holes in older applications that are
+** unprepared to deal with extension loading, and as a means of disabling
+** extension loading while evaluating user-entered SQL, the following API
+** is provided to turn the [sqlite3_load_extension()] mechanism on and off.
+**
+** ^Extension loading is off by default. See ticket #1863.
+** ^Call the sqlite3_enable_load_extension() routine with onoff==1
+** to turn extension loading on and call it with onoff==0 to turn
+** it back off again.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_enable_load_extension(sqlite3 *db, int onoff);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Automatically Load Statically Linked Extensions
+**
+** ^This interface causes the xEntryPoint() function to be invoked for
+** each new [database connection] that is created.  The idea here is that
+** xEntryPoint() is the entry point for a statically linked SQLite extension
+** that is to be automatically loaded into all new database connections.
+**
+** ^(Even though the function prototype shows that xEntryPoint() takes
+** no arguments and returns void, SQLite invokes xEntryPoint() with three
+** arguments and expects and integer result as if the signature of the
+** entry point where as follows:
+**
+** <blockquote><pre>
+** &nbsp;  int xEntryPoint(
+** &nbsp;    sqlite3 *db,
+** &nbsp;    const char **pzErrMsg,
+** &nbsp;    const struct sqlite3_api_routines *pThunk
+** &nbsp;  );
+** </pre></blockquote>)^
+**
+** If the xEntryPoint routine encounters an error, it should make *pzErrMsg
+** point to an appropriate error message (obtained from [sqlite3_mprintf()])
+** and return an appropriate [error code].  ^SQLite ensures that *pzErrMsg
+** is NULL before calling the xEntryPoint().  ^SQLite will invoke
+** [sqlite3_free()] on *pzErrMsg after xEntryPoint() returns.  ^If any
+** xEntryPoint() returns an error, the [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()],
+** or [sqlite3_open_v2()] call that provoked the xEntryPoint() will fail.
+**
+** ^Calling sqlite3_auto_extension(X) with an entry point X that is already
+** on the list of automatic extensions is a harmless no-op. ^No entry point
+** will be called more than once for each database connection that is opened.
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_reset_auto_extension()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_auto_extension(void (*xEntryPoint)(void));
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Reset Automatic Extension Loading
+**
+** ^This interface disables all automatic extensions previously
+** registered using [sqlite3_auto_extension()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_reset_auto_extension(void);
+
+/*
+** The interface to the virtual-table mechanism is currently considered
+** to be experimental.  The interface might change in incompatible ways.
+** If this is a problem for you, do not use the interface at this time.
+**
+** When the virtual-table mechanism stabilizes, we will declare the
+** interface fixed, support it indefinitely, and remove this comment.
+*/
+
+/*
+** Structures used by the virtual table interface
+*/
+typedef struct sqlite3_vtab sqlite3_vtab;
+typedef struct sqlite3_index_info sqlite3_index_info;
+typedef struct sqlite3_vtab_cursor sqlite3_vtab_cursor;
+typedef struct sqlite3_module sqlite3_module;
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Object
+** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_module {virtual table module}
+**
+** This structure, sometimes called a "virtual table module", 
+** defines the implementation of a [virtual tables].  
+** This structure consists mostly of methods for the module.
+**
+** ^A virtual table module is created by filling in a persistent
+** instance of this structure and passing a pointer to that instance
+** to [sqlite3_create_module()] or [sqlite3_create_module_v2()].
+** ^The registration remains valid until it is replaced by a different
+** module or until the [database connection] closes.  The content
+** of this structure must not change while it is registered with
+** any database connection.
+*/
+struct sqlite3_module {
+  int iVersion;
+  int (*xCreate)(sqlite3*, void *pAux,
+               int argc, const char *const*argv,
+               sqlite3_vtab **ppVTab, char**);
+  int (*xConnect)(sqlite3*, void *pAux,
+               int argc, const char *const*argv,
+               sqlite3_vtab **ppVTab, char**);
+  int (*xBestIndex)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, sqlite3_index_info*);
+  int (*xDisconnect)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
+  int (*xDestroy)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
+  int (*xOpen)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, sqlite3_vtab_cursor **ppCursor);
+  int (*xClose)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*);
+  int (*xFilter)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*, int idxNum, const char *idxStr,
+                int argc, sqlite3_value **argv);
+  int (*xNext)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*);
+  int (*xEof)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*);
+  int (*xColumn)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*, sqlite3_context*, int);
+  int (*xRowid)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*, sqlite3_int64 *pRowid);
+  int (*xUpdate)(sqlite3_vtab *, int, sqlite3_value **, sqlite3_int64 *);
+  int (*xBegin)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
+  int (*xSync)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
+  int (*xCommit)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
+  int (*xRollback)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
+  int (*xFindFunction)(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab, int nArg, const char *zName,
+                       void (**pxFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
+                       void **ppArg);
+  int (*xRename)(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab, const char *zNew);
+  /* The methods above are in version 1 of the sqlite_module object. Those 
+  ** below are for version 2 and greater. */
+  int (*xSavepoint)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, int);
+  int (*xRelease)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, int);
+  int (*xRollbackTo)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, int);
+};
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Indexing Information
+** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_index_info
+**
+** The sqlite3_index_info structure and its substructures is used as part
+** of the [virtual table] interface to
+** pass information into and receive the reply from the [xBestIndex]
+** method of a [virtual table module].  The fields under **Inputs** are the
+** inputs to xBestIndex and are read-only.  xBestIndex inserts its
+** results into the **Outputs** fields.
+**
+** ^(The aConstraint[] array records WHERE clause constraints of the form:
+**
+** <blockquote>column OP expr</blockquote>
+**
+** where OP is =, &lt;, &lt;=, &gt;, or &gt;=.)^  ^(The particular operator is
+** stored in aConstraint[].op using one of the
+** [SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_EQ | SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_ values].)^
+** ^(The index of the column is stored in
+** aConstraint[].iColumn.)^  ^(aConstraint[].usable is TRUE if the
+** expr on the right-hand side can be evaluated (and thus the constraint
+** is usable) and false if it cannot.)^
+**
+** ^The optimizer automatically inverts terms of the form "expr OP column"
+** and makes other simplifications to the WHERE clause in an attempt to
+** get as many WHERE clause terms into the form shown above as possible.
+** ^The aConstraint[] array only reports WHERE clause terms that are
+** relevant to the particular virtual table being queried.
+**
+** ^Information about the ORDER BY clause is stored in aOrderBy[].
+** ^Each term of aOrderBy records a column of the ORDER BY clause.
+**
+** The [xBestIndex] method must fill aConstraintUsage[] with information
+** about what parameters to pass to xFilter.  ^If argvIndex>0 then
+** the right-hand side of the corresponding aConstraint[] is evaluated
+** and becomes the argvIndex-th entry in argv.  ^(If aConstraintUsage[].omit
+** is true, then the constraint is assumed to be fully handled by the
+** virtual table and is not checked again by SQLite.)^
+**
+** ^The idxNum and idxPtr values are recorded and passed into the
+** [xFilter] method.
+** ^[sqlite3_free()] is used to free idxPtr if and only if
+** needToFreeIdxPtr is true.
+**
+** ^The orderByConsumed means that output from [xFilter]/[xNext] will occur in
+** the correct order to satisfy the ORDER BY clause so that no separate
+** sorting step is required.
+**
+** ^The estimatedCost value is an estimate of the cost of doing the
+** particular lookup.  A full scan of a table with N entries should have
+** a cost of N.  A binary search of a table of N entries should have a
+** cost of approximately log(N).
+*/
+struct sqlite3_index_info {
+  /* Inputs */
+  int nConstraint;           /* Number of entries in aConstraint */
+  struct sqlite3_index_constraint {
+     int iColumn;              /* Column on left-hand side of constraint */
+     unsigned char op;         /* Constraint operator */
+     unsigned char usable;     /* True if this constraint is usable */
+     int iTermOffset;          /* Used internally - xBestIndex should ignore */
+  } *aConstraint;            /* Table of WHERE clause constraints */
+  int nOrderBy;              /* Number of terms in the ORDER BY clause */
+  struct sqlite3_index_orderby {
+     int iColumn;              /* Column number */
+     unsigned char desc;       /* True for DESC.  False for ASC. */
+  } *aOrderBy;               /* The ORDER BY clause */
+  /* Outputs */
+  struct sqlite3_index_constraint_usage {
+    int argvIndex;           /* if >0, constraint is part of argv to xFilter */
+    unsigned char omit;      /* Do not code a test for this constraint */
+  } *aConstraintUsage;
+  int idxNum;                /* Number used to identify the index */
+  char *idxStr;              /* String, possibly obtained from sqlite3_malloc */
+  int needToFreeIdxStr;      /* Free idxStr using sqlite3_free() if true */
+  int orderByConsumed;       /* True if output is already ordered */
+  double estimatedCost;      /* Estimated cost of using this index */
+};
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Constraint Operator Codes
+**
+** These macros defined the allowed values for the
+** [sqlite3_index_info].aConstraint[].op field.  Each value represents
+** an operator that is part of a constraint term in the wHERE clause of
+** a query that uses a [virtual table].
+*/
+#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_EQ    2
+#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_GT    4
+#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_LE    8
+#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_LT    16
+#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_GE    32
+#define SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_MATCH 64
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Register A Virtual Table Implementation
+**
+** ^These routines are used to register a new [virtual table module] name.
+** ^Module names must be registered before
+** creating a new [virtual table] using the module and before using a
+** preexisting [virtual table] for the module.
+**
+** ^The module name is registered on the [database connection] specified
+** by the first parameter.  ^The name of the module is given by the 
+** second parameter.  ^The third parameter is a pointer to
+** the implementation of the [virtual table module].   ^The fourth
+** parameter is an arbitrary client data pointer that is passed through
+** into the [xCreate] and [xConnect] methods of the virtual table module
+** when a new virtual table is be being created or reinitialized.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_create_module_v2() interface has a fifth parameter which
+** is a pointer to a destructor for the pClientData.  ^SQLite will
+** invoke the destructor function (if it is not NULL) when SQLite
+** no longer needs the pClientData pointer.  ^The destructor will also
+** be invoked if the call to sqlite3_create_module_v2() fails.
+** ^The sqlite3_create_module()
+** interface is equivalent to sqlite3_create_module_v2() with a NULL
+** destructor.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_module(
+  sqlite3 *db,               /* SQLite connection to register module with */
+  const char *zName,         /* Name of the module */
+  const sqlite3_module *p,   /* Methods for the module */
+  void *pClientData          /* Client data for xCreate/xConnect */
+);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_module_v2(
+  sqlite3 *db,               /* SQLite connection to register module with */
+  const char *zName,         /* Name of the module */
+  const sqlite3_module *p,   /* Methods for the module */
+  void *pClientData,         /* Client data for xCreate/xConnect */
+  void(*xDestroy)(void*)     /* Module destructor function */
+);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Instance Object
+** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_vtab
+**
+** Every [virtual table module] implementation uses a subclass
+** of this object to describe a particular instance
+** of the [virtual table].  Each subclass will
+** be tailored to the specific needs of the module implementation.
+** The purpose of this superclass is to define certain fields that are
+** common to all module implementations.
+**
+** ^Virtual tables methods can set an error message by assigning a
+** string obtained from [sqlite3_mprintf()] to zErrMsg.  The method should
+** take care that any prior string is freed by a call to [sqlite3_free()]
+** prior to assigning a new string to zErrMsg.  ^After the error message
+** is delivered up to the client application, the string will be automatically
+** freed by sqlite3_free() and the zErrMsg field will be zeroed.
+*/
+struct sqlite3_vtab {
+  const sqlite3_module *pModule;  /* The module for this virtual table */
+  int nRef;                       /* NO LONGER USED */
+  char *zErrMsg;                  /* Error message from sqlite3_mprintf() */
+  /* Virtual table implementations will typically add additional fields */
+};
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Cursor Object
+** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_vtab_cursor {virtual table cursor}
+**
+** Every [virtual table module] implementation uses a subclass of the
+** following structure to describe cursors that point into the
+** [virtual table] and are used
+** to loop through the virtual table.  Cursors are created using the
+** [sqlite3_module.xOpen | xOpen] method of the module and are destroyed
+** by the [sqlite3_module.xClose | xClose] method.  Cursors are used
+** by the [xFilter], [xNext], [xEof], [xColumn], and [xRowid] methods
+** of the module.  Each module implementation will define
+** the content of a cursor structure to suit its own needs.
+**
+** This superclass exists in order to define fields of the cursor that
+** are common to all implementations.
+*/
+struct sqlite3_vtab_cursor {
+  sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;      /* Virtual table of this cursor */
+  /* Virtual table implementations will typically add additional fields */
+};
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Declare The Schema Of A Virtual Table
+**
+** ^The [xCreate] and [xConnect] methods of a
+** [virtual table module] call this interface
+** to declare the format (the names and datatypes of the columns) of
+** the virtual tables they implement.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_declare_vtab(sqlite3*, const char *zSQL);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Overload A Function For A Virtual Table
+**
+** ^(Virtual tables can provide alternative implementations of functions
+** using the [xFindFunction] method of the [virtual table module].  
+** But global versions of those functions
+** must exist in order to be overloaded.)^
+**
+** ^(This API makes sure a global version of a function with a particular
+** name and number of parameters exists.  If no such function exists
+** before this API is called, a new function is created.)^  ^The implementation
+** of the new function always causes an exception to be thrown.  So
+** the new function is not good for anything by itself.  Its only
+** purpose is to be a placeholder function that can be overloaded
+** by a [virtual table].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_overload_function(sqlite3*, const char *zFuncName, int nArg);
+
+/*
+** The interface to the virtual-table mechanism defined above (back up
+** to a comment remarkably similar to this one) is currently considered
+** to be experimental.  The interface might change in incompatible ways.
+** If this is a problem for you, do not use the interface at this time.
+**
+** When the virtual-table mechanism stabilizes, we will declare the
+** interface fixed, support it indefinitely, and remove this comment.
+*/
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: A Handle To An Open BLOB
+** KEYWORDS: {BLOB handle} {BLOB handles}
+**
+** An instance of this object represents an open BLOB on which
+** [sqlite3_blob_open | incremental BLOB I/O] can be performed.
+** ^Objects of this type are created by [sqlite3_blob_open()]
+** and destroyed by [sqlite3_blob_close()].
+** ^The [sqlite3_blob_read()] and [sqlite3_blob_write()] interfaces
+** can be used to read or write small subsections of the BLOB.
+** ^The [sqlite3_blob_bytes()] interface returns the size of the BLOB in bytes.
+*/
+typedef struct sqlite3_blob sqlite3_blob;
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Open A BLOB For Incremental I/O
+**
+** ^(This interfaces opens a [BLOB handle | handle] to the BLOB located
+** in row iRow, column zColumn, table zTable in database zDb;
+** in other words, the same BLOB that would be selected by:
+**
+** <pre>
+**     SELECT zColumn FROM zDb.zTable WHERE [rowid] = iRow;
+** </pre>)^
+**
+** ^If the flags parameter is non-zero, then the BLOB is opened for read
+** and write access. ^If it is zero, the BLOB is opened for read access.
+** ^It is not possible to open a column that is part of an index or primary 
+** key for writing. ^If [foreign key constraints] are enabled, it is 
+** not possible to open a column that is part of a [child key] for writing.
+**
+** ^Note that the database name is not the filename that contains
+** the database but rather the symbolic name of the database that
+** appears after the AS keyword when the database is connected using [ATTACH].
+** ^For the main database file, the database name is "main".
+** ^For TEMP tables, the database name is "temp".
+**
+** ^(On success, [SQLITE_OK] is returned and the new [BLOB handle] is written
+** to *ppBlob. Otherwise an [error code] is returned and *ppBlob is set
+** to be a null pointer.)^
+** ^This function sets the [database connection] error code and message
+** accessible via [sqlite3_errcode()] and [sqlite3_errmsg()] and related
+** functions. ^Note that the *ppBlob variable is always initialized in a
+** way that makes it safe to invoke [sqlite3_blob_close()] on *ppBlob
+** regardless of the success or failure of this routine.
+**
+** ^(If the row that a BLOB handle points to is modified by an
+** [UPDATE], [DELETE], or by [ON CONFLICT] side-effects
+** then the BLOB handle is marked as "expired".
+** This is true if any column of the row is changed, even a column
+** other than the one the BLOB handle is open on.)^
+** ^Calls to [sqlite3_blob_read()] and [sqlite3_blob_write()] for
+** an expired BLOB handle fail with a return code of [SQLITE_ABORT].
+** ^(Changes written into a BLOB prior to the BLOB expiring are not
+** rolled back by the expiration of the BLOB.  Such changes will eventually
+** commit if the transaction continues to completion.)^
+**
+** ^Use the [sqlite3_blob_bytes()] interface to determine the size of
+** the opened blob.  ^The size of a blob may not be changed by this
+** interface.  Use the [UPDATE] SQL command to change the size of a
+** blob.
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_bind_zeroblob()] and [sqlite3_result_zeroblob()] interfaces
+** and the built-in [zeroblob] SQL function can be used, if desired,
+** to create an empty, zero-filled blob in which to read or write using
+** this interface.
+**
+** To avoid a resource leak, every open [BLOB handle] should eventually
+** be released by a call to [sqlite3_blob_close()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_open(
+  sqlite3*,
+  const char *zDb,
+  const char *zTable,
+  const char *zColumn,
+  sqlite3_int64 iRow,
+  int flags,
+  sqlite3_blob **ppBlob
+);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Move a BLOB Handle to a New Row
+**
+** ^This function is used to move an existing blob handle so that it points
+** to a different row of the same database table. ^The new row is identified
+** by the rowid value passed as the second argument. Only the row can be
+** changed. ^The database, table and column on which the blob handle is open
+** remain the same. Moving an existing blob handle to a new row can be
+** faster than closing the existing handle and opening a new one.
+**
+** ^(The new row must meet the same criteria as for [sqlite3_blob_open()] -
+** it must exist and there must be either a blob or text value stored in
+** the nominated column.)^ ^If the new row is not present in the table, or if
+** it does not contain a blob or text value, or if another error occurs, an
+** SQLite error code is returned and the blob handle is considered aborted.
+** ^All subsequent calls to [sqlite3_blob_read()], [sqlite3_blob_write()] or
+** [sqlite3_blob_reopen()] on an aborted blob handle immediately return
+** SQLITE_ABORT. ^Calling [sqlite3_blob_bytes()] on an aborted blob handle
+** always returns zero.
+**
+** ^This function sets the database handle error code and message.
+*/
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL int sqlite3_blob_reopen(sqlite3_blob *, sqlite3_int64);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Close A BLOB Handle
+**
+** ^Closes an open [BLOB handle].
+**
+** ^Closing a BLOB shall cause the current transaction to commit
+** if there are no other BLOBs, no pending prepared statements, and the
+** database connection is in [autocommit mode].
+** ^If any writes were made to the BLOB, they might be held in cache
+** until the close operation if they will fit.
+**
+** ^(Closing the BLOB often forces the changes
+** out to disk and so if any I/O errors occur, they will likely occur
+** at the time when the BLOB is closed.  Any errors that occur during
+** closing are reported as a non-zero return value.)^
+**
+** ^(The BLOB is closed unconditionally.  Even if this routine returns
+** an error code, the BLOB is still closed.)^
+**
+** ^Calling this routine with a null pointer (such as would be returned
+** by a failed call to [sqlite3_blob_open()]) is a harmless no-op.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_close(sqlite3_blob *);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Return The Size Of An Open BLOB
+**
+** ^Returns the size in bytes of the BLOB accessible via the 
+** successfully opened [BLOB handle] in its only argument.  ^The
+** incremental blob I/O routines can only read or overwriting existing
+** blob content; they cannot change the size of a blob.
+**
+** This routine only works on a [BLOB handle] which has been created
+** by a prior successful call to [sqlite3_blob_open()] and which has not
+** been closed by [sqlite3_blob_close()].  Passing any other pointer in
+** to this routine results in undefined and probably undesirable behavior.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_bytes(sqlite3_blob *);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Read Data From A BLOB Incrementally
+**
+** ^(This function is used to read data from an open [BLOB handle] into a
+** caller-supplied buffer. N bytes of data are copied into buffer Z
+** from the open BLOB, starting at offset iOffset.)^
+**
+** ^If offset iOffset is less than N bytes from the end of the BLOB,
+** [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is read.  ^If N or iOffset is
+** less than zero, [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is read.
+** ^The size of the blob (and hence the maximum value of N+iOffset)
+** can be determined using the [sqlite3_blob_bytes()] interface.
+**
+** ^An attempt to read from an expired [BLOB handle] fails with an
+** error code of [SQLITE_ABORT].
+**
+** ^(On success, sqlite3_blob_read() returns SQLITE_OK.
+** Otherwise, an [error code] or an [extended error code] is returned.)^
+**
+** This routine only works on a [BLOB handle] which has been created
+** by a prior successful call to [sqlite3_blob_open()] and which has not
+** been closed by [sqlite3_blob_close()].  Passing any other pointer in
+** to this routine results in undefined and probably undesirable behavior.
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_blob_write()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_read(sqlite3_blob *, void *Z, int N, int iOffset);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Write Data Into A BLOB Incrementally
+**
+** ^This function is used to write data into an open [BLOB handle] from a
+** caller-supplied buffer. ^N bytes of data are copied from the buffer Z
+** into the open BLOB, starting at offset iOffset.
+**
+** ^If the [BLOB handle] passed as the first argument was not opened for
+** writing (the flags parameter to [sqlite3_blob_open()] was zero),
+** this function returns [SQLITE_READONLY].
+**
+** ^This function may only modify the contents of the BLOB; it is
+** not possible to increase the size of a BLOB using this API.
+** ^If offset iOffset is less than N bytes from the end of the BLOB,
+** [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is written.  ^If N is
+** less than zero [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is written.
+** The size of the BLOB (and hence the maximum value of N+iOffset)
+** can be determined using the [sqlite3_blob_bytes()] interface.
+**
+** ^An attempt to write to an expired [BLOB handle] fails with an
+** error code of [SQLITE_ABORT].  ^Writes to the BLOB that occurred
+** before the [BLOB handle] expired are not rolled back by the
+** expiration of the handle, though of course those changes might
+** have been overwritten by the statement that expired the BLOB handle
+** or by other independent statements.
+**
+** ^(On success, sqlite3_blob_write() returns SQLITE_OK.
+** Otherwise, an  [error code] or an [extended error code] is returned.)^
+**
+** This routine only works on a [BLOB handle] which has been created
+** by a prior successful call to [sqlite3_blob_open()] and which has not
+** been closed by [sqlite3_blob_close()].  Passing any other pointer in
+** to this routine results in undefined and probably undesirable behavior.
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_blob_read()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_write(sqlite3_blob *, const void *z, int n, int iOffset);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual File System Objects
+**
+** A virtual filesystem (VFS) is an [sqlite3_vfs] object
+** that SQLite uses to interact
+** with the underlying operating system.  Most SQLite builds come with a
+** single default VFS that is appropriate for the host computer.
+** New VFSes can be registered and existing VFSes can be unregistered.
+** The following interfaces are provided.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_vfs_find() interface returns a pointer to a VFS given its name.
+** ^Names are case sensitive.
+** ^Names are zero-terminated UTF-8 strings.
+** ^If there is no match, a NULL pointer is returned.
+** ^If zVfsName is NULL then the default VFS is returned.
+**
+** ^New VFSes are registered with sqlite3_vfs_register().
+** ^Each new VFS becomes the default VFS if the makeDflt flag is set.
+** ^The same VFS can be registered multiple times without injury.
+** ^To make an existing VFS into the default VFS, register it again
+** with the makeDflt flag set.  If two different VFSes with the
+** same name are registered, the behavior is undefined.  If a
+** VFS is registered with a name that is NULL or an empty string,
+** then the behavior is undefined.
+**
+** ^Unregister a VFS with the sqlite3_vfs_unregister() interface.
+** ^(If the default VFS is unregistered, another VFS is chosen as
+** the default.  The choice for the new VFS is arbitrary.)^
+*/
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_vfs *sqlite3_vfs_find(const char *zVfsName);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vfs_register(sqlite3_vfs*, int makeDflt);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vfs_unregister(sqlite3_vfs*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Mutexes
+**
+** The SQLite core uses these routines for thread
+** synchronization. Though they are intended for internal
+** use by SQLite, code that links against SQLite is
+** permitted to use any of these routines.
+**
+** The SQLite source code contains multiple implementations
+** of these mutex routines.  An appropriate implementation
+** is selected automatically at compile-time.  ^(The following
+** implementations are available in the SQLite core:
+**
+** <ul>
+** <li>   SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2
+** <li>   SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREAD
+** <li>   SQLITE_MUTEX_W32
+** <li>   SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP
+** </ul>)^
+**
+** ^The SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP implementation is a set of routines
+** that does no real locking and is appropriate for use in
+** a single-threaded application.  ^The SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2,
+** SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREAD, and SQLITE_MUTEX_W32 implementations
+** are appropriate for use on OS/2, Unix, and Windows.
+**
+** ^(If SQLite is compiled with the SQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF preprocessor
+** macro defined (with "-DSQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF=1"), then no mutex
+** implementation is included with the library. In this case the
+** application must supply a custom mutex implementation using the
+** [SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX] option of the sqlite3_config() function
+** before calling sqlite3_initialize() or any other public sqlite3_
+** function that calls sqlite3_initialize().)^
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_mutex_alloc() routine allocates a new
+** mutex and returns a pointer to it. ^If it returns NULL
+** that means that a mutex could not be allocated.  ^SQLite
+** will unwind its stack and return an error.  ^(The argument
+** to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() is one of these integer constants:
+**
+** <ul>
+** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST
+** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE
+** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER
+** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM
+** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM2
+** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_PRNG
+** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_LRU
+** <li>  SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_LRU2
+** </ul>)^
+**
+** ^The first two constants (SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST and SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE)
+** cause sqlite3_mutex_alloc() to create
+** a new mutex.  ^The new mutex is recursive when SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE
+** is used but not necessarily so when SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST is used.
+** The mutex implementation does not need to make a distinction
+** between SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE and SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST if it does
+** not want to.  ^SQLite will only request a recursive mutex in
+** cases where it really needs one.  ^If a faster non-recursive mutex
+** implementation is available on the host platform, the mutex subsystem
+** might return such a mutex in response to SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST.
+**
+** ^The other allowed parameters to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() (anything other
+** than SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST and SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE) each return
+** a pointer to a static preexisting mutex.  ^Six static mutexes are
+** used by the current version of SQLite.  Future versions of SQLite
+** may add additional static mutexes.  Static mutexes are for internal
+** use by SQLite only.  Applications that use SQLite mutexes should
+** use only the dynamic mutexes returned by SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST or
+** SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE.
+**
+** ^Note that if one of the dynamic mutex parameters (SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST
+** or SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE) is used then sqlite3_mutex_alloc()
+** returns a different mutex on every call.  ^But for the static
+** mutex types, the same mutex is returned on every call that has
+** the same type number.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_mutex_free() routine deallocates a previously
+** allocated dynamic mutex.  ^SQLite is careful to deallocate every
+** dynamic mutex that it allocates.  The dynamic mutexes must not be in
+** use when they are deallocated.  Attempting to deallocate a static
+** mutex results in undefined behavior.  ^SQLite never deallocates
+** a static mutex.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_mutex_enter() and sqlite3_mutex_try() routines attempt
+** to enter a mutex.  ^If another thread is already within the mutex,
+** sqlite3_mutex_enter() will block and sqlite3_mutex_try() will return
+** SQLITE_BUSY.  ^The sqlite3_mutex_try() interface returns [SQLITE_OK]
+** upon successful entry.  ^(Mutexes created using
+** SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE can be entered multiple times by the same thread.
+** In such cases the,
+** mutex must be exited an equal number of times before another thread
+** can enter.)^  ^(If the same thread tries to enter any other
+** kind of mutex more than once, the behavior is undefined.
+** SQLite will never exhibit
+** such behavior in its own use of mutexes.)^
+**
+** ^(Some systems (for example, Windows 95) do not support the operation
+** implemented by sqlite3_mutex_try().  On those systems, sqlite3_mutex_try()
+** will always return SQLITE_BUSY.  The SQLite core only ever uses
+** sqlite3_mutex_try() as an optimization so this is acceptable behavior.)^
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_mutex_leave() routine exits a mutex that was
+** previously entered by the same thread.   ^(The behavior
+** is undefined if the mutex is not currently entered by the
+** calling thread or is not currently allocated.  SQLite will
+** never do either.)^
+**
+** ^If the argument to sqlite3_mutex_enter(), sqlite3_mutex_try(), or
+** sqlite3_mutex_leave() is a NULL pointer, then all three routines
+** behave as no-ops.
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_mutex_held()] and [sqlite3_mutex_notheld()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3_mutex_alloc(int);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_free(sqlite3_mutex*);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_enter(sqlite3_mutex*);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_try(sqlite3_mutex*);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_leave(sqlite3_mutex*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Mutex Methods Object
+**
+** An instance of this structure defines the low-level routines
+** used to allocate and use mutexes.
+**
+** Usually, the default mutex implementations provided by SQLite are
+** sufficient, however the user has the option of substituting a custom
+** implementation for specialized deployments or systems for which SQLite
+** does not provide a suitable implementation. In this case, the user
+** creates and populates an instance of this structure to pass
+** to sqlite3_config() along with the [SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX] option.
+** Additionally, an instance of this structure can be used as an
+** output variable when querying the system for the current mutex
+** implementation, using the [SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMUTEX] option.
+**
+** ^The xMutexInit method defined by this structure is invoked as
+** part of system initialization by the sqlite3_initialize() function.
+** ^The xMutexInit routine is called by SQLite exactly once for each
+** effective call to [sqlite3_initialize()].
+**
+** ^The xMutexEnd method defined by this structure is invoked as
+** part of system shutdown by the sqlite3_shutdown() function. The
+** implementation of this method is expected to release all outstanding
+** resources obtained by the mutex methods implementation, especially
+** those obtained by the xMutexInit method.  ^The xMutexEnd()
+** interface is invoked exactly once for each call to [sqlite3_shutdown()].
+**
+** ^(The remaining seven methods defined by this structure (xMutexAlloc,
+** xMutexFree, xMutexEnter, xMutexTry, xMutexLeave, xMutexHeld and
+** xMutexNotheld) implement the following interfaces (respectively):
+**
+** <ul>
+**   <li>  [sqlite3_mutex_alloc()] </li>
+**   <li>  [sqlite3_mutex_free()] </li>
+**   <li>  [sqlite3_mutex_enter()] </li>
+**   <li>  [sqlite3_mutex_try()] </li>
+**   <li>  [sqlite3_mutex_leave()] </li>
+**   <li>  [sqlite3_mutex_held()] </li>
+**   <li>  [sqlite3_mutex_notheld()] </li>
+** </ul>)^
+**
+** The only difference is that the public sqlite3_XXX functions enumerated
+** above silently ignore any invocations that pass a NULL pointer instead
+** of a valid mutex handle. The implementations of the methods defined
+** by this structure are not required to handle this case, the results
+** of passing a NULL pointer instead of a valid mutex handle are undefined
+** (i.e. it is acceptable to provide an implementation that segfaults if
+** it is passed a NULL pointer).
+**
+** The xMutexInit() method must be threadsafe.  ^It must be harmless to
+** invoke xMutexInit() multiple times within the same process and without
+** intervening calls to xMutexEnd().  Second and subsequent calls to
+** xMutexInit() must be no-ops.
+**
+** ^xMutexInit() must not use SQLite memory allocation ([sqlite3_malloc()]
+** and its associates).  ^Similarly, xMutexAlloc() must not use SQLite memory
+** allocation for a static mutex.  ^However xMutexAlloc() may use SQLite
+** memory allocation for a fast or recursive mutex.
+**
+** ^SQLite will invoke the xMutexEnd() method when [sqlite3_shutdown()] is
+** called, but only if the prior call to xMutexInit returned SQLITE_OK.
+** If xMutexInit fails in any way, it is expected to clean up after itself
+** prior to returning.
+*/
+typedef struct sqlite3_mutex_methods sqlite3_mutex_methods;
+struct sqlite3_mutex_methods {
+  int (*xMutexInit)(void);
+  int (*xMutexEnd)(void);
+  sqlite3_mutex *(*xMutexAlloc)(int);
+  void (*xMutexFree)(sqlite3_mutex *);
+  void (*xMutexEnter)(sqlite3_mutex *);
+  int (*xMutexTry)(sqlite3_mutex *);
+  void (*xMutexLeave)(sqlite3_mutex *);
+  int (*xMutexHeld)(sqlite3_mutex *);
+  int (*xMutexNotheld)(sqlite3_mutex *);
+};
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Mutex Verification Routines
+**
+** The sqlite3_mutex_held() and sqlite3_mutex_notheld() routines
+** are intended for use inside assert() statements.  ^The SQLite core
+** never uses these routines except inside an assert() and applications
+** are advised to follow the lead of the core.  ^The SQLite core only
+** provides implementations for these routines when it is compiled
+** with the SQLITE_DEBUG flag.  ^External mutex implementations
+** are only required to provide these routines if SQLITE_DEBUG is
+** defined and if NDEBUG is not defined.
+**
+** ^These routines should return true if the mutex in their argument
+** is held or not held, respectively, by the calling thread.
+**
+** ^The implementation is not required to provided versions of these
+** routines that actually work. If the implementation does not provide working
+** versions of these routines, it should at least provide stubs that always
+** return true so that one does not get spurious assertion failures.
+**
+** ^If the argument to sqlite3_mutex_held() is a NULL pointer then
+** the routine should return 1.   This seems counter-intuitive since
+** clearly the mutex cannot be held if it does not exist.  But
+** the reason the mutex does not exist is because the build is not
+** using mutexes.  And we do not want the assert() containing the
+** call to sqlite3_mutex_held() to fail, so a non-zero return is
+** the appropriate thing to do.  ^The sqlite3_mutex_notheld()
+** interface should also return 1 when given a NULL pointer.
+*/
+#ifndef NDEBUG
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_held(sqlite3_mutex*);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_notheld(sqlite3_mutex*);
+#endif
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Mutex Types
+**
+** The [sqlite3_mutex_alloc()] interface takes a single argument
+** which is one of these integer constants.
+**
+** The set of static mutexes may change from one SQLite release to the
+** next.  Applications that override the built-in mutex logic must be
+** prepared to accommodate additional static mutexes.
+*/
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST             0
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE        1
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER    2
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM       3  /* sqlite3_malloc() */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM2      4  /* NOT USED */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_OPEN      4  /* sqlite3BtreeOpen() */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_PRNG      5  /* sqlite3_random() */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_LRU       6  /* lru page list */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_LRU2      7  /* NOT USED */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_PMEM      7  /* sqlite3PageMalloc() */
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Retrieve the mutex for a database connection
+**
+** ^This interface returns a pointer the [sqlite3_mutex] object that 
+** serializes access to the [database connection] given in the argument
+** when the [threading mode] is Serialized.
+** ^If the [threading mode] is Single-thread or Multi-thread then this
+** routine returns a NULL pointer.
+*/
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3_db_mutex(sqlite3*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Low-Level Control Of Database Files
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_file_control()] interface makes a direct call to the
+** xFileControl method for the [sqlite3_io_methods] object associated
+** with a particular database identified by the second argument. ^The
+** name of the database is "main" for the main database or "temp" for the
+** TEMP database, or the name that appears after the AS keyword for
+** databases that are added using the [ATTACH] SQL command.
+** ^A NULL pointer can be used in place of "main" to refer to the
+** main database file.
+** ^The third and fourth parameters to this routine
+** are passed directly through to the second and third parameters of
+** the xFileControl method.  ^The return value of the xFileControl
+** method becomes the return value of this routine.
+**
+** ^The SQLITE_FCNTL_FILE_POINTER value for the op parameter causes
+** a pointer to the underlying [sqlite3_file] object to be written into
+** the space pointed to by the 4th parameter.  ^The SQLITE_FCNTL_FILE_POINTER
+** case is a short-circuit path which does not actually invoke the
+** underlying sqlite3_io_methods.xFileControl method.
+**
+** ^If the second parameter (zDbName) does not match the name of any
+** open database file, then SQLITE_ERROR is returned.  ^This error
+** code is not remembered and will not be recalled by [sqlite3_errcode()]
+** or [sqlite3_errmsg()].  The underlying xFileControl method might
+** also return SQLITE_ERROR.  There is no way to distinguish between
+** an incorrect zDbName and an SQLITE_ERROR return from the underlying
+** xFileControl method.
+**
+** See also: [SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE]
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_file_control(sqlite3*, const char *zDbName, int op, void*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Testing Interface
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_test_control() interface is used to read out internal
+** state of SQLite and to inject faults into SQLite for testing
+** purposes.  ^The first parameter is an operation code that determines
+** the number, meaning, and operation of all subsequent parameters.
+**
+** This interface is not for use by applications.  It exists solely
+** for verifying the correct operation of the SQLite library.  Depending
+** on how the SQLite library is compiled, this interface might not exist.
+**
+** The details of the operation codes, their meanings, the parameters
+** they take, and what they do are all subject to change without notice.
+** Unlike most of the SQLite API, this function is not guaranteed to
+** operate consistently from one release to the next.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_test_control(int op, ...);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Testing Interface Operation Codes
+**
+** These constants are the valid operation code parameters used
+** as the first argument to [sqlite3_test_control()].
+**
+** These parameters and their meanings are subject to change
+** without notice.  These values are for testing purposes only.
+** Applications should not use any of these parameters or the
+** [sqlite3_test_control()] interface.
+*/
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_FIRST                    5
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_SAVE                5
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_RESTORE             6
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_RESET               7
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_BITVEC_TEST              8
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_FAULT_INSTALL            9
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_BENIGN_MALLOC_HOOKS     10
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PENDING_BYTE            11
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_ASSERT                  12
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_ALWAYS                  13
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_RESERVE                 14
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_OPTIMIZATIONS           15
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_ISKEYWORD               16
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PGHDRSZ                 17
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_SCRATCHMALLOC           18
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_LOCALTIME_FAULT         19
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_LAST                    19
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: SQLite Runtime Status
+**
+** ^This interface is used to retrieve runtime status information
+** about the performance of SQLite, and optionally to reset various
+** highwater marks.  ^The first argument is an integer code for
+** the specific parameter to measure.  ^(Recognized integer codes
+** are of the form [status parameters | SQLITE_STATUS_...].)^
+** ^The current value of the parameter is returned into *pCurrent.
+** ^The highest recorded value is returned in *pHighwater.  ^If the
+** resetFlag is true, then the highest record value is reset after
+** *pHighwater is written.  ^(Some parameters do not record the highest
+** value.  For those parameters
+** nothing is written into *pHighwater and the resetFlag is ignored.)^
+** ^(Other parameters record only the highwater mark and not the current
+** value.  For these latter parameters nothing is written into *pCurrent.)^
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_status() routine returns SQLITE_OK on success and a
+** non-zero [error code] on failure.
+**
+** This routine is threadsafe but is not atomic.  This routine can be
+** called while other threads are running the same or different SQLite
+** interfaces.  However the values returned in *pCurrent and
+** *pHighwater reflect the status of SQLite at different points in time
+** and it is possible that another thread might change the parameter
+** in between the times when *pCurrent and *pHighwater are written.
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_db_status()]
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_status(int op, int *pCurrent, int *pHighwater, int resetFlag);
+
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Status Parameters
+** KEYWORDS: {status parameters}
+**
+** These integer constants designate various run-time status parameters
+** that can be returned by [sqlite3_status()].
+**
+** <dl>
+** [[SQLITE_STATUS_MEMORY_USED]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_STATUS_MEMORY_USED</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter is the current amount of memory checked out
+** using [sqlite3_malloc()], either directly or indirectly.  The
+** figure includes calls made to [sqlite3_malloc()] by the application
+** and internal memory usage by the SQLite library.  Scratch memory
+** controlled by [SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH] and auxiliary page-cache
+** memory controlled by [SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE] is not included in
+** this parameter.  The amount returned is the sum of the allocation
+** sizes as reported by the xSize method in [sqlite3_mem_methods].</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_STATUS_MALLOC_SIZE]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_STATUS_MALLOC_SIZE</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter records the largest memory allocation request
+** handed to [sqlite3_malloc()] or [sqlite3_realloc()] (or their
+** internal equivalents).  Only the value returned in the
+** *pHighwater parameter to [sqlite3_status()] is of interest.  
+** The value written into the *pCurrent parameter is undefined.</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_STATUS_MALLOC_COUNT]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_STATUS_MALLOC_COUNT</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter records the number of separate memory allocations
+** currently checked out.</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_USED]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_USED</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of pages used out of the
+** [pagecache memory allocator] that was configured using 
+** [SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE].  The
+** value returned is in pages, not in bytes.</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_OVERFLOW]] 
+** ^(<dt>SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_OVERFLOW</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of bytes of page cache
+** allocation which could not be satisfied by the [SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE]
+** buffer and where forced to overflow to [sqlite3_malloc()].  The
+** returned value includes allocations that overflowed because they
+** where too large (they were larger than the "sz" parameter to
+** [SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE]) and allocations that overflowed because
+** no space was left in the page cache.</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_SIZE]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_SIZE</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter records the largest memory allocation request
+** handed to [pagecache memory allocator].  Only the value returned in the
+** *pHighwater parameter to [sqlite3_status()] is of interest.  
+** The value written into the *pCurrent parameter is undefined.</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_STATUS_SCRATCH_USED]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_STATUS_SCRATCH_USED</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of allocations used out of the
+** [scratch memory allocator] configured using
+** [SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH].  The value returned is in allocations, not
+** in bytes.  Since a single thread may only have one scratch allocation
+** outstanding at time, this parameter also reports the number of threads
+** using scratch memory at the same time.</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_STATUS_SCRATCH_OVERFLOW]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_STATUS_SCRATCH_OVERFLOW</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of bytes of scratch memory
+** allocation which could not be satisfied by the [SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH]
+** buffer and where forced to overflow to [sqlite3_malloc()].  The values
+** returned include overflows because the requested allocation was too
+** larger (that is, because the requested allocation was larger than the
+** "sz" parameter to [SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH]) and because no scratch buffer
+** slots were available.
+** </dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_STATUS_SCRATCH_SIZE]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_STATUS_SCRATCH_SIZE</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter records the largest memory allocation request
+** handed to [scratch memory allocator].  Only the value returned in the
+** *pHighwater parameter to [sqlite3_status()] is of interest.  
+** The value written into the *pCurrent parameter is undefined.</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_STATUS_PARSER_STACK]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_STATUS_PARSER_STACK</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter records the deepest parser stack.  It is only
+** meaningful if SQLite is compiled with [YYTRACKMAXSTACKDEPTH].</dd>)^
+** </dl>
+**
+** New status parameters may be added from time to time.
+*/
+#define SQLITE_STATUS_MEMORY_USED          0
+#define SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_USED       1
+#define SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_OVERFLOW   2
+#define SQLITE_STATUS_SCRATCH_USED         3
+#define SQLITE_STATUS_SCRATCH_OVERFLOW     4
+#define SQLITE_STATUS_MALLOC_SIZE          5
+#define SQLITE_STATUS_PARSER_STACK         6
+#define SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_SIZE       7
+#define SQLITE_STATUS_SCRATCH_SIZE         8
+#define SQLITE_STATUS_MALLOC_COUNT         9
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Database Connection Status
+**
+** ^This interface is used to retrieve runtime status information 
+** about a single [database connection].  ^The first argument is the
+** database connection object to be interrogated.  ^The second argument
+** is an integer constant, taken from the set of
+** [SQLITE_DBSTATUS options], that
+** determines the parameter to interrogate.  The set of 
+** [SQLITE_DBSTATUS options] is likely
+** to grow in future releases of SQLite.
+**
+** ^The current value of the requested parameter is written into *pCur
+** and the highest instantaneous value is written into *pHiwtr.  ^If
+** the resetFlg is true, then the highest instantaneous value is
+** reset back down to the current value.
+**
+** ^The sqlite3_db_status() routine returns SQLITE_OK on success and a
+** non-zero [error code] on failure.
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_status()] and [sqlite3_stmt_status()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_db_status(sqlite3*, int op, int *pCur, int *pHiwtr, int resetFlg);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Status Parameters for database connections
+** KEYWORDS: {SQLITE_DBSTATUS options}
+**
+** These constants are the available integer "verbs" that can be passed as
+** the second argument to the [sqlite3_db_status()] interface.
+**
+** New verbs may be added in future releases of SQLite. Existing verbs
+** might be discontinued. Applications should check the return code from
+** [sqlite3_db_status()] to make sure that the call worked.
+** The [sqlite3_db_status()] interface will return a non-zero error code
+** if a discontinued or unsupported verb is invoked.
+**
+** <dl>
+** [[SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_USED]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_USED</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of lookaside memory slots currently
+** checked out.</dd>)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_HIT]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_HIT</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number malloc attempts that were 
+** satisfied using lookaside memory. Only the high-water value is meaningful;
+** the current value is always zero.)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_MISS_SIZE]]
+** ^(<dt>SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_MISS_SIZE</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number malloc attempts that might have
+** been satisfied using lookaside memory but failed due to the amount of
+** memory requested being larger than the lookaside slot size.
+** Only the high-water value is meaningful;
+** the current value is always zero.)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_MISS_FULL]]
+** ^(<dt>SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_MISS_FULL</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number malloc attempts that might have
+** been satisfied using lookaside memory but failed due to all lookaside
+** memory already being in use.
+** Only the high-water value is meaningful;
+** the current value is always zero.)^
+**
+** [[SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_USED]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_USED</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the approximate number of of bytes of heap
+** memory used by all pager caches associated with the database connection.)^
+** ^The highwater mark associated with SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_USED is always 0.
+**
+** [[SQLITE_DBSTATUS_SCHEMA_USED]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_DBSTATUS_SCHEMA_USED</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the approximate number of of bytes of heap
+** memory used to store the schema for all databases associated
+** with the connection - main, temp, and any [ATTACH]-ed databases.)^ 
+** ^The full amount of memory used by the schemas is reported, even if the
+** schema memory is shared with other database connections due to
+** [shared cache mode] being enabled.
+** ^The highwater mark associated with SQLITE_DBSTATUS_SCHEMA_USED is always 0.
+**
+** [[SQLITE_DBSTATUS_STMT_USED]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_DBSTATUS_STMT_USED</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the approximate number of of bytes of heap
+** and lookaside memory used by all prepared statements associated with
+** the database connection.)^
+** ^The highwater mark associated with SQLITE_DBSTATUS_STMT_USED is always 0.
+** </dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_HIT]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_HIT</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of pager cache hits that have
+** occurred.)^ ^The highwater mark associated with SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_HIT 
+** is always 0.
+** </dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_MISS]] ^(<dt>SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_MISS</dt>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of pager cache misses that have
+** occurred.)^ ^The highwater mark associated with SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_MISS 
+** is always 0.
+** </dd>
+** </dl>
+*/
+#define SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_USED       0
+#define SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_USED           1
+#define SQLITE_DBSTATUS_SCHEMA_USED          2
+#define SQLITE_DBSTATUS_STMT_USED            3
+#define SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_HIT        4
+#define SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_MISS_SIZE  5
+#define SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_MISS_FULL  6
+#define SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_HIT            7
+#define SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_MISS           8
+#define SQLITE_DBSTATUS_MAX                  8   /* Largest defined DBSTATUS */
+
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Prepared Statement Status
+**
+** ^(Each prepared statement maintains various
+** [SQLITE_STMTSTATUS counters] that measure the number
+** of times it has performed specific operations.)^  These counters can
+** be used to monitor the performance characteristics of the prepared
+** statements.  For example, if the number of table steps greatly exceeds
+** the number of table searches or result rows, that would tend to indicate
+** that the prepared statement is using a full table scan rather than
+** an index.  
+**
+** ^(This interface is used to retrieve and reset counter values from
+** a [prepared statement].  The first argument is the prepared statement
+** object to be interrogated.  The second argument
+** is an integer code for a specific [SQLITE_STMTSTATUS counter]
+** to be interrogated.)^
+** ^The current value of the requested counter is returned.
+** ^If the resetFlg is true, then the counter is reset to zero after this
+** interface call returns.
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_status()] and [sqlite3_db_status()].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_stmt_status(sqlite3_stmt*, int op,int resetFlg);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Status Parameters for prepared statements
+** KEYWORDS: {SQLITE_STMTSTATUS counter} {SQLITE_STMTSTATUS counters}
+**
+** These preprocessor macros define integer codes that name counter
+** values associated with the [sqlite3_stmt_status()] interface.
+** The meanings of the various counters are as follows:
+**
+** <dl>
+** [[SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_FULLSCAN_STEP]] <dt>SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_FULLSCAN_STEP</dt>
+** <dd>^This is the number of times that SQLite has stepped forward in
+** a table as part of a full table scan.  Large numbers for this counter
+** may indicate opportunities for performance improvement through 
+** careful use of indices.</dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_SORT]] <dt>SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_SORT</dt>
+** <dd>^This is the number of sort operations that have occurred.
+** A non-zero value in this counter may indicate an opportunity to
+** improvement performance through careful use of indices.</dd>
+**
+** [[SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_AUTOINDEX]] <dt>SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_AUTOINDEX</dt>
+** <dd>^This is the number of rows inserted into transient indices that
+** were created automatically in order to help joins run faster.
+** A non-zero value in this counter may indicate an opportunity to
+** improvement performance by adding permanent indices that do not
+** need to be reinitialized each time the statement is run.</dd>
+** </dl>
+*/
+#define SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_FULLSCAN_STEP     1
+#define SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_SORT              2
+#define SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_AUTOINDEX         3
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Custom Page Cache Object
+**
+** The sqlite3_pcache type is opaque.  It is implemented by
+** the pluggable module.  The SQLite core has no knowledge of
+** its size or internal structure and never deals with the
+** sqlite3_pcache object except by holding and passing pointers
+** to the object.
+**
+** See [sqlite3_pcache_methods] for additional information.
+*/
+typedef struct sqlite3_pcache sqlite3_pcache;
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Application Defined Page Cache.
+** KEYWORDS: {page cache}
+**
+** ^(The [sqlite3_config]([SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE], ...) interface can
+** register an alternative page cache implementation by passing in an 
+** instance of the sqlite3_pcache_methods structure.)^
+** In many applications, most of the heap memory allocated by 
+** SQLite is used for the page cache.
+** By implementing a 
+** custom page cache using this API, an application can better control
+** the amount of memory consumed by SQLite, the way in which 
+** that memory is allocated and released, and the policies used to 
+** determine exactly which parts of a database file are cached and for 
+** how long.
+**
+** The alternative page cache mechanism is an
+** extreme measure that is only needed by the most demanding applications.
+** The built-in page cache is recommended for most uses.
+**
+** ^(The contents of the sqlite3_pcache_methods structure are copied to an
+** internal buffer by SQLite within the call to [sqlite3_config].  Hence
+** the application may discard the parameter after the call to
+** [sqlite3_config()] returns.)^
+**
+** [[the xInit() page cache method]]
+** ^(The xInit() method is called once for each effective 
+** call to [sqlite3_initialize()])^
+** (usually only once during the lifetime of the process). ^(The xInit()
+** method is passed a copy of the sqlite3_pcache_methods.pArg value.)^
+** The intent of the xInit() method is to set up global data structures 
+** required by the custom page cache implementation. 
+** ^(If the xInit() method is NULL, then the 
+** built-in default page cache is used instead of the application defined
+** page cache.)^
+**
+** [[the xShutdown() page cache method]]
+** ^The xShutdown() method is called by [sqlite3_shutdown()].
+** It can be used to clean up 
+** any outstanding resources before process shutdown, if required.
+** ^The xShutdown() method may be NULL.
+**
+** ^SQLite automatically serializes calls to the xInit method,
+** so the xInit method need not be threadsafe.  ^The
+** xShutdown method is only called from [sqlite3_shutdown()] so it does
+** not need to be threadsafe either.  All other methods must be threadsafe
+** in multithreaded applications.
+**
+** ^SQLite will never invoke xInit() more than once without an intervening
+** call to xShutdown().
+**
+** [[the xCreate() page cache methods]]
+** ^SQLite invokes the xCreate() method to construct a new cache instance.
+** SQLite will typically create one cache instance for each open database file,
+** though this is not guaranteed. ^The
+** first parameter, szPage, is the size in bytes of the pages that must
+** be allocated by the cache.  ^szPage will not be a power of two.  ^szPage
+** will the page size of the database file that is to be cached plus an
+** increment (here called "R") of less than 250.  SQLite will use the
+** extra R bytes on each page to store metadata about the underlying
+** database page on disk.  The value of R depends
+** on the SQLite version, the target platform, and how SQLite was compiled.
+** ^(R is constant for a particular build of SQLite. Except, there are two
+** distinct values of R when SQLite is compiled with the proprietary
+** ZIPVFS extension.)^  ^The second argument to
+** xCreate(), bPurgeable, is true if the cache being created will
+** be used to cache database pages of a file stored on disk, or
+** false if it is used for an in-memory database. The cache implementation
+** does not have to do anything special based with the value of bPurgeable;
+** it is purely advisory.  ^On a cache where bPurgeable is false, SQLite will
+** never invoke xUnpin() except to deliberately delete a page.
+** ^In other words, calls to xUnpin() on a cache with bPurgeable set to
+** false will always have the "discard" flag set to true.  
+** ^Hence, a cache created with bPurgeable false will
+** never contain any unpinned pages.
+**
+** [[the xCachesize() page cache method]]
+** ^(The xCachesize() method may be called at any time by SQLite to set the
+** suggested maximum cache-size (number of pages stored by) the cache
+** instance passed as the first argument. This is the value configured using
+** the SQLite "[PRAGMA cache_size]" command.)^  As with the bPurgeable
+** parameter, the implementation is not required to do anything with this
+** value; it is advisory only.
+**
+** [[the xPagecount() page cache methods]]
+** The xPagecount() method must return the number of pages currently
+** stored in the cache, both pinned and unpinned.
+** 
+** [[the xFetch() page cache methods]]
+** The xFetch() method locates a page in the cache and returns a pointer to 
+** the page, or a NULL pointer.
+** A "page", in this context, means a buffer of szPage bytes aligned at an
+** 8-byte boundary. The page to be fetched is determined by the key. ^The
+** minimum key value is 1.  After it has been retrieved using xFetch, the page 
+** is considered to be "pinned".
+**
+** If the requested page is already in the page cache, then the page cache
+** implementation must return a pointer to the page buffer with its content
+** intact.  If the requested page is not already in the cache, then the
+** cache implementation should use the value of the createFlag
+** parameter to help it determined what action to take:
+**
+** <table border=1 width=85% align=center>
+** <tr><th> createFlag <th> Behaviour when page is not already in cache
+** <tr><td> 0 <td> Do not allocate a new page.  Return NULL.
+** <tr><td> 1 <td> Allocate a new page if it easy and convenient to do so.
+**                 Otherwise return NULL.
+** <tr><td> 2 <td> Make every effort to allocate a new page.  Only return
+**                 NULL if allocating a new page is effectively impossible.
+** </table>
+**
+** ^(SQLite will normally invoke xFetch() with a createFlag of 0 or 1.  SQLite
+** will only use a createFlag of 2 after a prior call with a createFlag of 1
+** failed.)^  In between the to xFetch() calls, SQLite may
+** attempt to unpin one or more cache pages by spilling the content of
+** pinned pages to disk and synching the operating system disk cache.
+**
+** [[the xUnpin() page cache method]]
+** ^xUnpin() is called by SQLite with a pointer to a currently pinned page
+** as its second argument.  If the third parameter, discard, is non-zero,
+** then the page must be evicted from the cache.
+** ^If the discard parameter is
+** zero, then the page may be discarded or retained at the discretion of
+** page cache implementation. ^The page cache implementation
+** may choose to evict unpinned pages at any time.
+**
+** The cache must not perform any reference counting. A single 
+** call to xUnpin() unpins the page regardless of the number of prior calls 
+** to xFetch().
+**
+** [[the xRekey() page cache methods]]
+** The xRekey() method is used to change the key value associated with the
+** page passed as the second argument. If the cache
+** previously contains an entry associated with newKey, it must be
+** discarded. ^Any prior cache entry associated with newKey is guaranteed not
+** to be pinned.
+**
+** When SQLite calls the xTruncate() method, the cache must discard all
+** existing cache entries with page numbers (keys) greater than or equal
+** to the value of the iLimit parameter passed to xTruncate(). If any
+** of these pages are pinned, they are implicitly unpinned, meaning that
+** they can be safely discarded.
+**
+** [[the xDestroy() page cache method]]
+** ^The xDestroy() method is used to delete a cache allocated by xCreate().
+** All resources associated with the specified cache should be freed. ^After
+** calling the xDestroy() method, SQLite considers the [sqlite3_pcache*]
+** handle invalid, and will not use it with any other sqlite3_pcache_methods
+** functions.
+*/
+typedef struct sqlite3_pcache_methods sqlite3_pcache_methods;
+struct sqlite3_pcache_methods {
+  void *pArg;
+  int (*xInit)(void*);
+  void (*xShutdown)(void*);
+  sqlite3_pcache *(*xCreate)(int szPage, int bPurgeable);
+  void (*xCachesize)(sqlite3_pcache*, int nCachesize);
+  int (*xPagecount)(sqlite3_pcache*);
+  void *(*xFetch)(sqlite3_pcache*, unsigned key, int createFlag);
+  void (*xUnpin)(sqlite3_pcache*, void*, int discard);
+  void (*xRekey)(sqlite3_pcache*, void*, unsigned oldKey, unsigned newKey);
+  void (*xTruncate)(sqlite3_pcache*, unsigned iLimit);
+  void (*xDestroy)(sqlite3_pcache*);
+};
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Online Backup Object
+**
+** The sqlite3_backup object records state information about an ongoing
+** online backup operation.  ^The sqlite3_backup object is created by
+** a call to [sqlite3_backup_init()] and is destroyed by a call to
+** [sqlite3_backup_finish()].
+**
+** See Also: [Using the SQLite Online Backup API]
+*/
+typedef struct sqlite3_backup sqlite3_backup;
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Online Backup API.
+**
+** The backup API copies the content of one database into another.
+** It is useful either for creating backups of databases or
+** for copying in-memory databases to or from persistent files. 
+**
+** See Also: [Using the SQLite Online Backup API]
+**
+** ^SQLite holds a write transaction open on the destination database file
+** for the duration of the backup operation.
+** ^The source database is read-locked only while it is being read;
+** it is not locked continuously for the entire backup operation.
+** ^Thus, the backup may be performed on a live source database without
+** preventing other database connections from
+** reading or writing to the source database while the backup is underway.
+** 
+** ^(To perform a backup operation: 
+**   <ol>
+**     <li><b>sqlite3_backup_init()</b> is called once to initialize the
+**         backup, 
+**     <li><b>sqlite3_backup_step()</b> is called one or more times to transfer 
+**         the data between the two databases, and finally
+**     <li><b>sqlite3_backup_finish()</b> is called to release all resources 
+**         associated with the backup operation. 
+**   </ol>)^
+** There should be exactly one call to sqlite3_backup_finish() for each
+** successful call to sqlite3_backup_init().
+**
+** [[sqlite3_backup_init()]] <b>sqlite3_backup_init()</b>
+**
+** ^The D and N arguments to sqlite3_backup_init(D,N,S,M) are the 
+** [database connection] associated with the destination database 
+** and the database name, respectively.
+** ^The database name is "main" for the main database, "temp" for the
+** temporary database, or the name specified after the AS keyword in
+** an [ATTACH] statement for an attached database.
+** ^The S and M arguments passed to 
+** sqlite3_backup_init(D,N,S,M) identify the [database connection]
+** and database name of the source database, respectively.
+** ^The source and destination [database connections] (parameters S and D)
+** must be different or else sqlite3_backup_init(D,N,S,M) will fail with
+** an error.
+**
+** ^If an error occurs within sqlite3_backup_init(D,N,S,M), then NULL is
+** returned and an error code and error message are stored in the
+** destination [database connection] D.
+** ^The error code and message for the failed call to sqlite3_backup_init()
+** can be retrieved using the [sqlite3_errcode()], [sqlite3_errmsg()], and/or
+** [sqlite3_errmsg16()] functions.
+** ^A successful call to sqlite3_backup_init() returns a pointer to an
+** [sqlite3_backup] object.
+** ^The [sqlite3_backup] object may be used with the sqlite3_backup_step() and
+** sqlite3_backup_finish() functions to perform the specified backup 
+** operation.
+**
+** [[sqlite3_backup_step()]] <b>sqlite3_backup_step()</b>
+**
+** ^Function sqlite3_backup_step(B,N) will copy up to N pages between 
+** the source and destination databases specified by [sqlite3_backup] object B.
+** ^If N is negative, all remaining source pages are copied. 
+** ^If sqlite3_backup_step(B,N) successfully copies N pages and there
+** are still more pages to be copied, then the function returns [SQLITE_OK].
+** ^If sqlite3_backup_step(B,N) successfully finishes copying all pages
+** from source to destination, then it returns [SQLITE_DONE].
+** ^If an error occurs while running sqlite3_backup_step(B,N),
+** then an [error code] is returned. ^As well as [SQLITE_OK] and
+** [SQLITE_DONE], a call to sqlite3_backup_step() may return [SQLITE_READONLY],
+** [SQLITE_NOMEM], [SQLITE_BUSY], [SQLITE_LOCKED], or an
+** [SQLITE_IOERR_ACCESS | SQLITE_IOERR_XXX] extended error code.
+**
+** ^(The sqlite3_backup_step() might return [SQLITE_READONLY] if
+** <ol>
+** <li> the destination database was opened read-only, or
+** <li> the destination database is using write-ahead-log journaling
+** and the destination and source page sizes differ, or
+** <li> the destination database is an in-memory database and the
+** destination and source page sizes differ.
+** </ol>)^
+**
+** ^If sqlite3_backup_step() cannot obtain a required file-system lock, then
+** the [sqlite3_busy_handler | busy-handler function]
+** is invoked (if one is specified). ^If the 
+** busy-handler returns non-zero before the lock is available, then 
+** [SQLITE_BUSY] is returned to the caller. ^In this case the call to
+** sqlite3_backup_step() can be retried later. ^If the source
+** [database connection]
+** is being used to write to the source database when sqlite3_backup_step()
+** is called, then [SQLITE_LOCKED] is returned immediately. ^Again, in this
+** case the call to sqlite3_backup_step() can be retried later on. ^(If
+** [SQLITE_IOERR_ACCESS | SQLITE_IOERR_XXX], [SQLITE_NOMEM], or
+** [SQLITE_READONLY] is returned, then 
+** there is no point in retrying the call to sqlite3_backup_step(). These 
+** errors are considered fatal.)^  The application must accept 
+** that the backup operation has failed and pass the backup operation handle 
+** to the sqlite3_backup_finish() to release associated resources.
+**
+** ^The first call to sqlite3_backup_step() obtains an exclusive lock
+** on the destination file. ^The exclusive lock is not released until either 
+** sqlite3_backup_finish() is called or the backup operation is complete 
+** and sqlite3_backup_step() returns [SQLITE_DONE].  ^Every call to
+** sqlite3_backup_step() obtains a [shared lock] on the source database that
+** lasts for the duration of the sqlite3_backup_step() call.
+** ^Because the source database is not locked between calls to
+** sqlite3_backup_step(), the source database may be modified mid-way
+** through the backup process.  ^If the source database is modified by an
+** external process or via a database connection other than the one being
+** used by the backup operation, then the backup will be automatically
+** restarted by the next call to sqlite3_backup_step(). ^If the source 
+** database is modified by the using the same database connection as is used
+** by the backup operation, then the backup database is automatically
+** updated at the same time.
+**
+** [[sqlite3_backup_finish()]] <b>sqlite3_backup_finish()</b>
+**
+** When sqlite3_backup_step() has returned [SQLITE_DONE], or when the 
+** application wishes to abandon the backup operation, the application
+** should destroy the [sqlite3_backup] by passing it to sqlite3_backup_finish().
+** ^The sqlite3_backup_finish() interfaces releases all
+** resources associated with the [sqlite3_backup] object. 
+** ^If sqlite3_backup_step() has not yet returned [SQLITE_DONE], then any
+** active write-transaction on the destination database is rolled back.
+** The [sqlite3_backup] object is invalid
+** and may not be used following a call to sqlite3_backup_finish().
+**
+** ^The value returned by sqlite3_backup_finish is [SQLITE_OK] if no
+** sqlite3_backup_step() errors occurred, regardless or whether or not
+** sqlite3_backup_step() completed.
+** ^If an out-of-memory condition or IO error occurred during any prior
+** sqlite3_backup_step() call on the same [sqlite3_backup] object, then
+** sqlite3_backup_finish() returns the corresponding [error code].
+**
+** ^A return of [SQLITE_BUSY] or [SQLITE_LOCKED] from sqlite3_backup_step()
+** is not a permanent error and does not affect the return value of
+** sqlite3_backup_finish().
+**
+** [[sqlite3_backup__remaining()]] [[sqlite3_backup_pagecount()]]
+** <b>sqlite3_backup_remaining() and sqlite3_backup_pagecount()</b>
+**
+** ^Each call to sqlite3_backup_step() sets two values inside
+** the [sqlite3_backup] object: the number of pages still to be backed
+** up and the total number of pages in the source database file.
+** The sqlite3_backup_remaining() and sqlite3_backup_pagecount() interfaces
+** retrieve these two values, respectively.
+**
+** ^The values returned by these functions are only updated by
+** sqlite3_backup_step(). ^If the source database is modified during a backup
+** operation, then the values are not updated to account for any extra
+** pages that need to be updated or the size of the source database file
+** changing.
+**
+** <b>Concurrent Usage of Database Handles</b>
+**
+** ^The source [database connection] may be used by the application for other
+** purposes while a backup operation is underway or being initialized.
+** ^If SQLite is compiled and configured to support threadsafe database
+** connections, then the source database connection may be used concurrently
+** from within other threads.
+**
+** However, the application must guarantee that the destination 
+** [database connection] is not passed to any other API (by any thread) after 
+** sqlite3_backup_init() is called and before the corresponding call to
+** sqlite3_backup_finish().  SQLite does not currently check to see
+** if the application incorrectly accesses the destination [database connection]
+** and so no error code is reported, but the operations may malfunction
+** nevertheless.  Use of the destination database connection while a
+** backup is in progress might also also cause a mutex deadlock.
+**
+** If running in [shared cache mode], the application must
+** guarantee that the shared cache used by the destination database
+** is not accessed while the backup is running. In practice this means
+** that the application must guarantee that the disk file being 
+** backed up to is not accessed by any connection within the process,
+** not just the specific connection that was passed to sqlite3_backup_init().
+**
+** The [sqlite3_backup] object itself is partially threadsafe. Multiple 
+** threads may safely make multiple concurrent calls to sqlite3_backup_step().
+** However, the sqlite3_backup_remaining() and sqlite3_backup_pagecount()
+** APIs are not strictly speaking threadsafe. If they are invoked at the
+** same time as another thread is invoking sqlite3_backup_step() it is
+** possible that they return invalid values.
+*/
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_backup *sqlite3_backup_init(
+  sqlite3 *pDest,                        /* Destination database handle */
+  const char *zDestName,                 /* Destination database name */
+  sqlite3 *pSource,                      /* Source database handle */
+  const char *zSourceName                /* Source database name */
+);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_backup_step(sqlite3_backup *p, int nPage);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_backup_finish(sqlite3_backup *p);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_backup_remaining(sqlite3_backup *p);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_backup_pagecount(sqlite3_backup *p);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Unlock Notification
+**
+** ^When running in shared-cache mode, a database operation may fail with
+** an [SQLITE_LOCKED] error if the required locks on the shared-cache or
+** individual tables within the shared-cache cannot be obtained. See
+** [SQLite Shared-Cache Mode] for a description of shared-cache locking. 
+** ^This API may be used to register a callback that SQLite will invoke 
+** when the connection currently holding the required lock relinquishes it.
+** ^This API is only available if the library was compiled with the
+** [SQLITE_ENABLE_UNLOCK_NOTIFY] C-preprocessor symbol defined.
+**
+** See Also: [Using the SQLite Unlock Notification Feature].
+**
+** ^Shared-cache locks are released when a database connection concludes
+** its current transaction, either by committing it or rolling it back. 
+**
+** ^When a connection (known as the blocked connection) fails to obtain a
+** shared-cache lock and SQLITE_LOCKED is returned to the caller, the
+** identity of the database connection (the blocking connection) that
+** has locked the required resource is stored internally. ^After an 
+** application receives an SQLITE_LOCKED error, it may call the
+** sqlite3_unlock_notify() method with the blocked connection handle as 
+** the first argument to register for a callback that will be invoked
+** when the blocking connections current transaction is concluded. ^The
+** callback is invoked from within the [sqlite3_step] or [sqlite3_close]
+** call that concludes the blocking connections transaction.
+**
+** ^(If sqlite3_unlock_notify() is called in a multi-threaded application,
+** there is a chance that the blocking connection will have already
+** concluded its transaction by the time sqlite3_unlock_notify() is invoked.
+** If this happens, then the specified callback is invoked immediately,
+** from within the call to sqlite3_unlock_notify().)^
+**
+** ^If the blocked connection is attempting to obtain a write-lock on a
+** shared-cache table, and more than one other connection currently holds
+** a read-lock on the same table, then SQLite arbitrarily selects one of 
+** the other connections to use as the blocking connection.
+**
+** ^(There may be at most one unlock-notify callback registered by a 
+** blocked connection. If sqlite3_unlock_notify() is called when the
+** blocked connection already has a registered unlock-notify callback,
+** then the new callback replaces the old.)^ ^If sqlite3_unlock_notify() is
+** called with a NULL pointer as its second argument, then any existing
+** unlock-notify callback is canceled. ^The blocked connections 
+** unlock-notify callback may also be canceled by closing the blocked
+** connection using [sqlite3_close()].
+**
+** The unlock-notify callback is not reentrant. If an application invokes
+** any sqlite3_xxx API functions from within an unlock-notify callback, a
+** crash or deadlock may be the result.
+**
+** ^Unless deadlock is detected (see below), sqlite3_unlock_notify() always
+** returns SQLITE_OK.
+**
+** <b>Callback Invocation Details</b>
+**
+** When an unlock-notify callback is registered, the application provides a 
+** single void* pointer that is passed to the callback when it is invoked.
+** However, the signature of the callback function allows SQLite to pass
+** it an array of void* context pointers. The first argument passed to
+** an unlock-notify callback is a pointer to an array of void* pointers,
+** and the second is the number of entries in the array.
+**
+** When a blocking connections transaction is concluded, there may be
+** more than one blocked connection that has registered for an unlock-notify
+** callback. ^If two or more such blocked connections have specified the
+** same callback function, then instead of invoking the callback function
+** multiple times, it is invoked once with the set of void* context pointers
+** specified by the blocked connections bundled together into an array.
+** This gives the application an opportunity to prioritize any actions 
+** related to the set of unblocked database connections.
+**
+** <b>Deadlock Detection</b>
+**
+** Assuming that after registering for an unlock-notify callback a 
+** database waits for the callback to be issued before taking any further
+** action (a reasonable assumption), then using this API may cause the
+** application to deadlock. For example, if connection X is waiting for
+** connection Y's transaction to be concluded, and similarly connection
+** Y is waiting on connection X's transaction, then neither connection
+** will proceed and the system may remain deadlocked indefinitely.
+**
+** To avoid this scenario, the sqlite3_unlock_notify() performs deadlock
+** detection. ^If a given call to sqlite3_unlock_notify() would put the
+** system in a deadlocked state, then SQLITE_LOCKED is returned and no
+** unlock-notify callback is registered. The system is said to be in
+** a deadlocked state if connection A has registered for an unlock-notify
+** callback on the conclusion of connection B's transaction, and connection
+** B has itself registered for an unlock-notify callback when connection
+** A's transaction is concluded. ^Indirect deadlock is also detected, so
+** the system is also considered to be deadlocked if connection B has
+** registered for an unlock-notify callback on the conclusion of connection
+** C's transaction, where connection C is waiting on connection A. ^Any
+** number of levels of indirection are allowed.
+**
+** <b>The "DROP TABLE" Exception</b>
+**
+** When a call to [sqlite3_step()] returns SQLITE_LOCKED, it is almost 
+** always appropriate to call sqlite3_unlock_notify(). There is however,
+** one exception. When executing a "DROP TABLE" or "DROP INDEX" statement,
+** SQLite checks if there are any currently executing SELECT statements
+** that belong to the same connection. If there are, SQLITE_LOCKED is
+** returned. In this case there is no "blocking connection", so invoking
+** sqlite3_unlock_notify() results in the unlock-notify callback being
+** invoked immediately. If the application then re-attempts the "DROP TABLE"
+** or "DROP INDEX" query, an infinite loop might be the result.
+**
+** One way around this problem is to check the extended error code returned
+** by an sqlite3_step() call. ^(If there is a blocking connection, then the
+** extended error code is set to SQLITE_LOCKED_SHAREDCACHE. Otherwise, in
+** the special "DROP TABLE/INDEX" case, the extended error code is just 
+** SQLITE_LOCKED.)^
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_unlock_notify(
+  sqlite3 *pBlocked,                          /* Waiting connection */
+  void (*xNotify)(void **apArg, int nArg),    /* Callback function to invoke */
+  void *pNotifyArg                            /* Argument to pass to xNotify */
+);
+
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: String Comparison
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_strnicmp()] API allows applications and extensions to
+** compare the contents of two buffers containing UTF-8 strings in a
+** case-independent fashion, using the same definition of case independence 
+** that SQLite uses internally when comparing identifiers.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_strnicmp(const char *, const char *, int);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Error Logging Interface
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_log()] interface writes a message into the error log
+** established by the [SQLITE_CONFIG_LOG] option to [sqlite3_config()].
+** ^If logging is enabled, the zFormat string and subsequent arguments are
+** used with [sqlite3_snprintf()] to generate the final output string.
+**
+** The sqlite3_log() interface is intended for use by extensions such as
+** virtual tables, collating functions, and SQL functions.  While there is
+** nothing to prevent an application from calling sqlite3_log(), doing so
+** is considered bad form.
+**
+** The zFormat string must not be NULL.
+**
+** To avoid deadlocks and other threading problems, the sqlite3_log() routine
+** will not use dynamically allocated memory.  The log message is stored in
+** a fixed-length buffer on the stack.  If the log message is longer than
+** a few hundred characters, it will be truncated to the length of the
+** buffer.
+*/
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_log(int iErrCode, const char *zFormat, ...);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Write-Ahead Log Commit Hook
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_wal_hook()] function is used to register a callback that
+** will be invoked each time a database connection commits data to a
+** [write-ahead log] (i.e. whenever a transaction is committed in
+** [journal_mode | journal_mode=WAL mode]). 
+**
+** ^The callback is invoked by SQLite after the commit has taken place and 
+** the associated write-lock on the database released, so the implementation 
+** may read, write or [checkpoint] the database as required.
+**
+** ^The first parameter passed to the callback function when it is invoked
+** is a copy of the third parameter passed to sqlite3_wal_hook() when
+** registering the callback. ^The second is a copy of the database handle.
+** ^The third parameter is the name of the database that was written to -
+** either "main" or the name of an [ATTACH]-ed database. ^The fourth parameter
+** is the number of pages currently in the write-ahead log file,
+** including those that were just committed.
+**
+** The callback function should normally return [SQLITE_OK].  ^If an error
+** code is returned, that error will propagate back up through the
+** SQLite code base to cause the statement that provoked the callback
+** to report an error, though the commit will have still occurred. If the
+** callback returns [SQLITE_ROW] or [SQLITE_DONE], or if it returns a value
+** that does not correspond to any valid SQLite error code, the results
+** are undefined.
+**
+** A single database handle may have at most a single write-ahead log callback 
+** registered at one time. ^Calling [sqlite3_wal_hook()] replaces any
+** previously registered write-ahead log callback. ^Note that the
+** [sqlite3_wal_autocheckpoint()] interface and the
+** [wal_autocheckpoint pragma] both invoke [sqlite3_wal_hook()] and will
+** those overwrite any prior [sqlite3_wal_hook()] settings.
+*/
+SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_wal_hook(
+  sqlite3*, 
+  int(*)(void *,sqlite3*,const char*,int),
+  void*
+);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Configure an auto-checkpoint
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_wal_autocheckpoint(D,N)] is a wrapper around
+** [sqlite3_wal_hook()] that causes any database on [database connection] D
+** to automatically [checkpoint]
+** after committing a transaction if there are N or
+** more frames in the [write-ahead log] file.  ^Passing zero or 
+** a negative value as the nFrame parameter disables automatic
+** checkpoints entirely.
+**
+** ^The callback registered by this function replaces any existing callback
+** registered using [sqlite3_wal_hook()].  ^Likewise, registering a callback
+** using [sqlite3_wal_hook()] disables the automatic checkpoint mechanism
+** configured by this function.
+**
+** ^The [wal_autocheckpoint pragma] can be used to invoke this interface
+** from SQL.
+**
+** ^Every new [database connection] defaults to having the auto-checkpoint
+** enabled with a threshold of 1000 or [SQLITE_DEFAULT_WAL_AUTOCHECKPOINT]
+** pages.  The use of this interface
+** is only necessary if the default setting is found to be suboptimal
+** for a particular application.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_wal_autocheckpoint(sqlite3 *db, int N);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Checkpoint a database
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_wal_checkpoint(D,X)] interface causes database named X
+** on [database connection] D to be [checkpointed].  ^If X is NULL or an
+** empty string, then a checkpoint is run on all databases of
+** connection D.  ^If the database connection D is not in
+** [WAL | write-ahead log mode] then this interface is a harmless no-op.
+**
+** ^The [wal_checkpoint pragma] can be used to invoke this interface
+** from SQL.  ^The [sqlite3_wal_autocheckpoint()] interface and the
+** [wal_autocheckpoint pragma] can be used to cause this interface to be
+** run whenever the WAL reaches a certain size threshold.
+**
+** See also: [sqlite3_wal_checkpoint_v2()]
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_wal_checkpoint(sqlite3 *db, const char *zDb);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Checkpoint a database
+**
+** Run a checkpoint operation on WAL database zDb attached to database 
+** handle db. The specific operation is determined by the value of the 
+** eMode parameter:
+**
+** <dl>
+** <dt>SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_PASSIVE<dd>
+**   Checkpoint as many frames as possible without waiting for any database 
+**   readers or writers to finish. Sync the db file if all frames in the log
+**   are checkpointed. This mode is the same as calling 
+**   sqlite3_wal_checkpoint(). The busy-handler callback is never invoked.
+**
+** <dt>SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_FULL<dd>
+**   This mode blocks (calls the busy-handler callback) until there is no
+**   database writer and all readers are reading from the most recent database
+**   snapshot. It then checkpoints all frames in the log file and syncs the
+**   database file. This call blocks database writers while it is running,
+**   but not database readers.
+**
+** <dt>SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_RESTART<dd>
+**   This mode works the same way as SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_FULL, except after 
+**   checkpointing the log file it blocks (calls the busy-handler callback)
+**   until all readers are reading from the database file only. This ensures 
+**   that the next client to write to the database file restarts the log file 
+**   from the beginning. This call blocks database writers while it is running,
+**   but not database readers.
+** </dl>
+**
+** If pnLog is not NULL, then *pnLog is set to the total number of frames in
+** the log file before returning. If pnCkpt is not NULL, then *pnCkpt is set to
+** the total number of checkpointed frames (including any that were already
+** checkpointed when this function is called). *pnLog and *pnCkpt may be
+** populated even if sqlite3_wal_checkpoint_v2() returns other than SQLITE_OK.
+** If no values are available because of an error, they are both set to -1
+** before returning to communicate this to the caller.
+**
+** All calls obtain an exclusive "checkpoint" lock on the database file. If
+** any other process is running a checkpoint operation at the same time, the 
+** lock cannot be obtained and SQLITE_BUSY is returned. Even if there is a 
+** busy-handler configured, it will not be invoked in this case.
+**
+** The SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_FULL and RESTART modes also obtain the exclusive 
+** "writer" lock on the database file. If the writer lock cannot be obtained
+** immediately, and a busy-handler is configured, it is invoked and the writer
+** lock retried until either the busy-handler returns 0 or the lock is
+** successfully obtained. The busy-handler is also invoked while waiting for
+** database readers as described above. If the busy-handler returns 0 before
+** the writer lock is obtained or while waiting for database readers, the
+** checkpoint operation proceeds from that point in the same way as 
+** SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_PASSIVE - checkpointing as many frames as possible 
+** without blocking any further. SQLITE_BUSY is returned in this case.
+**
+** If parameter zDb is NULL or points to a zero length string, then the
+** specified operation is attempted on all WAL databases. In this case the
+** values written to output parameters *pnLog and *pnCkpt are undefined. If 
+** an SQLITE_BUSY error is encountered when processing one or more of the 
+** attached WAL databases, the operation is still attempted on any remaining 
+** attached databases and SQLITE_BUSY is returned to the caller. If any other 
+** error occurs while processing an attached database, processing is abandoned 
+** and the error code returned to the caller immediately. If no error 
+** (SQLITE_BUSY or otherwise) is encountered while processing the attached 
+** databases, SQLITE_OK is returned.
+**
+** If database zDb is the name of an attached database that is not in WAL
+** mode, SQLITE_OK is returned and both *pnLog and *pnCkpt set to -1. If
+** zDb is not NULL (or a zero length string) and is not the name of any
+** attached database, SQLITE_ERROR is returned to the caller.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_wal_checkpoint_v2(
+  sqlite3 *db,                    /* Database handle */
+  const char *zDb,                /* Name of attached database (or NULL) */
+  int eMode,                      /* SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_* value */
+  int *pnLog,                     /* OUT: Size of WAL log in frames */
+  int *pnCkpt                     /* OUT: Total number of frames checkpointed */
+);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Checkpoint operation parameters
+**
+** These constants can be used as the 3rd parameter to
+** [sqlite3_wal_checkpoint_v2()].  See the [sqlite3_wal_checkpoint_v2()]
+** documentation for additional information about the meaning and use of
+** each of these values.
+*/
+#define SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_PASSIVE 0
+#define SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_FULL    1
+#define SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_RESTART 2
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Interface Configuration
+**
+** This function may be called by either the [xConnect] or [xCreate] method
+** of a [virtual table] implementation to configure
+** various facets of the virtual table interface.
+**
+** If this interface is invoked outside the context of an xConnect or
+** xCreate virtual table method then the behavior is undefined.
+**
+** At present, there is only one option that may be configured using
+** this function. (See [SQLITE_VTAB_CONSTRAINT_SUPPORT].)  Further options
+** may be added in the future.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vtab_config(sqlite3*, int op, ...);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Configuration Options
+**
+** These macros define the various options to the
+** [sqlite3_vtab_config()] interface that [virtual table] implementations
+** can use to customize and optimize their behavior.
+**
+** <dl>
+** <dt>SQLITE_VTAB_CONSTRAINT_SUPPORT
+** <dd>Calls of the form
+** [sqlite3_vtab_config](db,SQLITE_VTAB_CONSTRAINT_SUPPORT,X) are supported,
+** where X is an integer.  If X is zero, then the [virtual table] whose
+** [xCreate] or [xConnect] method invoked [sqlite3_vtab_config()] does not
+** support constraints.  In this configuration (which is the default) if
+** a call to the [xUpdate] method returns [SQLITE_CONSTRAINT], then the entire
+** statement is rolled back as if [ON CONFLICT | OR ABORT] had been
+** specified as part of the users SQL statement, regardless of the actual
+** ON CONFLICT mode specified.
+**
+** If X is non-zero, then the virtual table implementation guarantees
+** that if [xUpdate] returns [SQLITE_CONSTRAINT], it will do so before
+** any modifications to internal or persistent data structures have been made.
+** If the [ON CONFLICT] mode is ABORT, FAIL, IGNORE or ROLLBACK, SQLite 
+** is able to roll back a statement or database transaction, and abandon
+** or continue processing the current SQL statement as appropriate. 
+** If the ON CONFLICT mode is REPLACE and the [xUpdate] method returns
+** [SQLITE_CONSTRAINT], SQLite handles this as if the ON CONFLICT mode
+** had been ABORT.
+**
+** Virtual table implementations that are required to handle OR REPLACE
+** must do so within the [xUpdate] method. If a call to the 
+** [sqlite3_vtab_on_conflict()] function indicates that the current ON 
+** CONFLICT policy is REPLACE, the virtual table implementation should 
+** silently replace the appropriate rows within the xUpdate callback and
+** return SQLITE_OK. Or, if this is not possible, it may return
+** SQLITE_CONSTRAINT, in which case SQLite falls back to OR ABORT 
+** constraint handling.
+** </dl>
+*/
+#define SQLITE_VTAB_CONSTRAINT_SUPPORT 1
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Determine The Virtual Table Conflict Policy
+**
+** This function may only be called from within a call to the [xUpdate] method
+** of a [virtual table] implementation for an INSERT or UPDATE operation. ^The
+** value returned is one of [SQLITE_ROLLBACK], [SQLITE_IGNORE], [SQLITE_FAIL],
+** [SQLITE_ABORT], or [SQLITE_REPLACE], according to the [ON CONFLICT] mode
+** of the SQL statement that triggered the call to the [xUpdate] method of the
+** [virtual table].
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vtab_on_conflict(sqlite3 *);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Conflict resolution modes
+**
+** These constants are returned by [sqlite3_vtab_on_conflict()] to
+** inform a [virtual table] implementation what the [ON CONFLICT] mode
+** is for the SQL statement being evaluated.
+**
+** Note that the [SQLITE_IGNORE] constant is also used as a potential
+** return value from the [sqlite3_set_authorizer()] callback and that
+** [SQLITE_ABORT] is also a [result code].
+*/
+#define SQLITE_ROLLBACK 1
+/* #define SQLITE_IGNORE 2 // Also used by sqlite3_authorizer() callback */
+#define SQLITE_FAIL     3
+/* #define SQLITE_ABORT 4  // Also an error code */
+#define SQLITE_REPLACE  5
+
+
+
+/*
+** Undo the hack that converts floating point types to integer for
+** builds on processors without floating point support.
+*/
+#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
+# undef double
+#endif
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+}  /* End of the 'extern "C"' block */
+#endif
+#endif
+
+/*
+** 2010 August 30
+**
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+**
+**    May you do good and not evil.
+**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+**
+*************************************************************************
+*/
+
+#ifndef _SQLITE3RTREE_H_
+#define _SQLITE3RTREE_H_
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" {
+#endif
+
+typedef struct sqlite3_rtree_geometry sqlite3_rtree_geometry;
+
+/*
+** Register a geometry callback named zGeom that can be used as part of an
+** R-Tree geometry query as follows:
+**
+**   SELECT ... FROM <rtree> WHERE <rtree col> MATCH $zGeom(... params ...)
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_rtree_geometry_callback(
+  sqlite3 *db,
+  const char *zGeom,
+  int (*xGeom)(sqlite3_rtree_geometry *, int nCoord, double *aCoord, int *pRes),
+  void *pContext
+);
+
+
+/*
+** A pointer to a structure of the following type is passed as the first
+** argument to callbacks registered using rtree_geometry_callback().
+*/
+struct sqlite3_rtree_geometry {
+  void *pContext;                 /* Copy of pContext passed to s_r_g_c() */
+  int nParam;                     /* Size of array aParam[] */
+  double *aParam;                 /* Parameters passed to SQL geom function */
+  void *pUser;                    /* Callback implementation user data */
+  void (*xDelUser)(void *);       /* Called by SQLite to clean up pUser */
+};
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+}  /* end of the 'extern "C"' block */
+#endif
+
+#endif  /* ifndef _SQLITE3RTREE_H_ */
+