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Getting started

Documentation

Joshua Wojnas

Neuro Cyber Prosthetics Documentation

Logo Design by evagirl6 at aol.com custom illustration for reasonable prices.[#__RefHeading__1_421517761 1. Disclaimer Neuro Cyber Prosthetics is an experimental design use at your own risk.1]

[#__RefHeading__3_421517761 2. Overview5]

[#__RefHeading__5_421517761 2.0. Components5]

[#__RefHeading__7_421517761 2.0.1. Sensor Module Overview5]

[#__RefHeading__9_421517761 1.0.1.1. Sensor Module Schematics6]

[#__RefHeading__19_421517761 2.0.1.9. Sensor Module Parts list7]

[#__RefHeading__21_421517761 2.0.1.10. Sensor Module Board Layout7]

[#__RefHeading__23_421517761 2.1. Source Modification Tools9]

[#__RefHeading__25_421517761 2.1.1. Kicad9]

[#__RefHeading__27_421517761 2.2. Freeroute autorouter 9]

[#__RefHeading__29_421517761 2.3. Quick KICAD Library Component Builder10]

[#__RefHeading__31_421517761 2.3.1. Open Office10]

[#__RefHeading__33_421517761 2.3.2. Leaflabs Development Environment10]

[#__RefHeading__35_421517761 2.3.3. Icarus Verilog 10]

[#__RefHeading__37_421517761 3. References11]

[#__RefHeading__39_421517761 3.0. Reference Designs11]

[#__RefHeading__41_421517761 3.0.1. Open EEG Modular EEG11]

[#__RefHeading__43_421517761 3.0.2. OpenEXG211]

[#__RefHeading__45_421517761 3.0.3. Monolith EEG11]

[#__RefHeading__47_421517761 3.1. Reference Books / Papers11]

[#__RefHeading__49_421517761 3.1.1. ADS1298 Data Sheet11]

[#__RefHeading__51_421517761 3.1.2. Scilab tutorial11]

[#__RefHeading__53_421517761 3.1.3. EMGLab.net11]

[#__RefHeading__55_421517761 3.1.4. Research papers11]= Disclaimer Neuro Cyber Prosthetics is an experimental design use at your own risk. = EEG DEVICE DISCLAIMER

---------------------


IEC601 is a standard that specifies tests and requirements that medical

devices must pass before they can be used on humans.


However, none of the devices built from these designs have been tested

according to these guidelines because of the costs involved.


Therefore, a device based on any of these designs may not be used for

medical purposes as no medical claims are made. Note that CONNECTING A

DEVICE VIA ELECTRODES TO HUMANS OR ANIMALS IS POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS AND

MAY RESULT IN ELECTRIC SHOCK AND/OR SEIZURE.


Finally, the authors do not guarantee that the information provided in

the design files is complete or appropriate for any particular

application.


IMPORTANT WARNING

-----------------


If you choose to use the NeuroCyberProsthetics project hardware and/or software to

do neurofeedback training or experimentation on yourself or others,

you do so ENTIRELY AT YOUR OWN RISK.


The software and hardware designs are distributed in the hope that

they will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the

implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR

PURPOSE.


Whilst our aim is to create a genuinely useful and safe set of tools

for neurofeedback training and experimentation, it is quite possible

that our software, hardware or its accompanying documentation contain

bugs or mistakes which its authors cannot be held responsible for.


Please bear in mind that we are a loosely knit group of experimenters

and enthusiasts from all over the world, and many of us have no formal

training or qualifications in the field of neurofeedback. It is up to

you to assess the risks you are taking by using our work.


EEG DEVICE RISKS

----------------


The most important aspect of device safety is to maintain an electrical

isolation barrier between a user connected to an EEG device, and the

device (typically a computer) to which the EEG device is connected.


All of the NeuroCyberProsthetics devices have been designed with the intention of

providing this electrical isolation barrier.


However, if there is an isolation failure in the EEG unit due to an

accident, or faulty design, or faulty parts, or faulty construction, and

the EEG subject touches a live mains voltage in their environment, the

mains voltage will take the shortest route to earth, which is through the

subject's body. This electric shock passing through the head is likely

to have severe consequences.


There are a number of objects in the environment which may carry a mains

voltage if faulty. If the isolation in your EEG device has failed, these

objects will deliver an incredibly dangerous shock through your brain if

they are carrying a mains voltage at the time they are touched. So, as a

precaution for your own safety, it is best to avoid touching these objects

even if you are sure that the isolation in your EEG device is good.


Potentially dangerous objects to touch while connected to an EEG device

include, but are not limited to:


- Your PC

- Appliances such as refrigerators or electric tea kettles.

- Other electronic devices such as TVs (TV antenna outlets included)

- Light switches, mains power points and adaptors, etc

- Objects connected to earth, such as radiators or kitchen sinks.


In short, consider anything connected to mains power and/or earth off

limits when you are wearing electrodes.


Electric shock can also be caused by the EEG device itself, if the

electrode connections somehow become connected to the internal power

rails. The voltages are low, but that is no guarantee for safety.


It is important to take care when building the EEG unit to make sure that

the isolation is not compromised, in order to protect from these

eventualities, however unlikely they may seem.


Finally, you should never use an EEG device during a lightning storm or

whenever the electrical power grid is unstable.


NEUROFEEDBACK RISKS

-------------------


Neurofeedback training in itself can also cause unpleasant side-effects for

a small number of people, or in certain unusual circumstances. In an attempt

to provide information to allow you to better judge the risks to yourself, we

are listing here the ones we are aware of.


As we are not experts, and you should research the subject yourself if

you want to be sure.


- Increased anxiety leading to tics, insomnia or even panic attacks.

- Stimulation of latent seizure activity to full (epileptic) seizure activity.

- Mood changes, such as depression or anger outbursts.


If you have any mental health problem, you must check with a clinician before

attempting neurofeedback on yourself. Neurofeedback can make your problems

worse.


Do not use it without the direction of someone qualified to give this

information.


If you are aware of any other unpleasant side-effects of using EEG

equipment or doing neurofeedback training, please let us know through

our mailing list, and we will update this WARNING file. See

http://NeuroCyberProsthetics.sf.net/ for details of our mailing list.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


A list member also provided the following warning that might be useful

to people in the USA who plan to use the NeuroCyberProsthetics hardware and/or

software with other people. This is not legal advice.


Working on one's self is one thing, but when a person uses it for

others, there may be state laws that you can run afoul of. For

example, in some states there are title laws, meaning one can

clinically practice anything one wants, but cannot call oneself a

title which is protected by law, e.g. psychologist.


Some states have practice laws which prohibit individuals from

actually doing the activity. Thus to the extent that NFB training

can change personality (and it can) one is practicing psychotherapy.


In the state I live in, that is statutory controlled activity,

irrespective of what one calls oneself. Probably if you and your

friends do it to each other, no one will bother you as long as no one

gets harmed and there is no basis for a lawsuit.


If however, you accept money for it, then it could be construed as

practice or even if no money is taken and you do things to structure

it so that there is a patient-doctor relationship, there could be

liability.


Again, someone would have to claim a harm. Or, even a practitioner

in the community, if he or she knows you are doing it for free, can

complain to the licensing board and have you shut down as engaging

in unauthorized practice.


In short, if you accept money for it and/or do it to or with someone

other than yourself, it is a thin line requiring the lens of an

expert.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Overview

Neuro Cyber Prosthetics (NCP) is a Open Source project that consists of the hardware, software, and documentation of a biopotential measurement and signal processing system and interface.


Components

Sensor Module Overview

The sensor module has a grid of silver coated pads that can be taped onto the body. The electronics have a contact check routine for good contact on all the pads & will notify the user if there is a connection problem.


The sensor module has 16 pads for 8 channels 8 sensor modules can be stacked for a 16x8 electrode array for 64 channels.


The microcontroler & or Field Programmable Gate Array board preprocesses the signals and can be reconfigured by the users. This can be on the top or bottom of the electrode array stack depending on the box design. The Right leg driver electrode comes out of the box to clip on the ear or ears for a reference point.


The system is electrically isolated from any computer or larger power supply by a USB Isolation Interface Module.

Sensor Module Schematics

[[Image:]]

This shows the Configuration of connections that go to right angle headers that will be silver coated (on left ) to the connectors that are right angle (on right) that connect to the processing board. The Right Leg Driver(RLD)(or DRL) circuit (Design Fallowing the ads1298 Data Sheet) is only populated on the main sensor board that creates the reference voltage and clock for the other sensor boards. The RLD circuit creates a feedback loop to lower noise signals found on all the electrodes(Common Mode Signal).


  1. This Schematic shows the details that can be found by right clicking on the symbol in the overview schematic in the kicad Electronic Design Automation(EDA) software.
  2. Everything in this design came from the ADS1298 Data sheet but some pins are tied to power or ground to lower the number of pins on the final module. The GPIO have resistors because they can not be left without some load unless their not used. This allows the user the option of using 1 set in their design when the boards are stacked. Do not connect all the GPIO Pins in the stack.
  3. The Reference voltage must be configured to be generated by the board that is chosen to be the main board and the other boards in the stack of boards use that use that reference.
  4. The Clock must be configured to be generated by the board that is chosen to be the main board and the copies of that board use that as the clock source.

Sensor Module Parts list

[[Image:]]

There is a long specific parts list and a shortened one. The manufacturers parts numbers can be loaded into mouser.com's bill of material loader. They were sorted and searched and picked by in stock & ROHOS compliant. Also the final sort was by price. All the parts excluding the connectors and the ads1298 shown to be about 20$ USD were about 33$ USD per board.


Sensor Module Board Layout

Free route autorouter was used without optimization to try to further the design.

Future work on this is needed do not try to build this yet.


Placement Aid:

[[Image:]]


Here is the layout

[[Image:]]


Here is the 3d board images...

[[Image:]]


Board Dimensions

[[Image:]]

Source Modification Tools

NCP uses Open Source tools to enables people who are interested to use Open Source tools so the components necessary to work with the design are accessible.


Kicad

Kicad has a graphical interface for electronic design and automation that has a open file format & integrates well with other tools.


Freeroute autorouter

Freeroute works very well with lots of optimization.

Settings will be put here when the board is routed.

http://www.freerouting.net/


Quick KICAD Library Component Builder

A online schematic symbol generator makes making custom schematic symbol connections quicker than making each symbol by itself.

http://kicad.rohrbacher.net/quicklib.php


Open Office

  1. Open Office Word does a nice job with documentation.
  2. OOo Calc is great for comma seperated value spread sheet text files kicad outputs or I save some of kicads output to make the Bill of material.
  3. OOo Draw is great for flowchart documents to show code.

Leaflabs Development Environment

The maple 32 bit Arm Cortex 3 is a nice processor that works with GCC C & they made a arduino enviroment for it.


In the future I will use that processor if it proves itself to cover the projects needs for signal processing and make the ARM cortex 3 a module to connect to the board stack.


Xilinx software for schematic entry of parallel logic circuits for massively parallel signal decomposition.

http://www.xilinx.com/


GadgetFactory.net for a open source FPGA board arduino compatible fast usb options & parallel signal processing with great customer support.

http://gadgetfactory.net/

Icarus Verilog

http://www.icarus.com/eda/verilog/

A open source compiler for Verilog code for Field programmable gate arrays.

2 pieces of hardware that look interesting for this projects signal processing needs but seem more complex and longer to design for than the maple are the butterfly & the Open Work Bench. Both can be found through the open source FPGA Logic analyzer on seedstudios website.

References

Reference Designs

Open EEG Modular EEG

OpenEXG2

Monolith EEG

Reference Books / Papers

ADS1298 Data Sheet

Scilab tutorial

EMGLab.net

“DECOMPOSITION OF HIGH-DENSITY SURFACE EMG: possibilities and limitations”

Research papers

“Multichannel Blind Source Separation Using

Convolution Kernel Compensation”

Project Logo

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